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all are in need of aid, are the most capable of supporting education. After the rankings were made, the quartile divisions were assigned. To arrive at some ranking of the States on the basis of their quartile positions for the various factors, these quartile positions were weighted as follows: three for a first quartile position, two for a second, one for a third, and none for a fourth. For instance, if a State was in the fourth quartile for one of the factors, in the third for two others, and in the first for the fourth factor, its combined score would be five. This scoring, of course, assumes that each factor has an equal value with the others, which may be debatable.
Of the 17 Southern States ranked by this method, Missouri seems best able to support education. The States fall in the following order:
The general positions of the States are rather clearly outlined, and in general, coincide with similar positions assigned to Southern States by Odum. Missouri, Maryland, and Texas are most capable of supporting education. Least capable are Alabama, Arkansas, South Carolina, and Mississippi.
10. ADEQUACY OF EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURE IN THE SOUTHERN STATES
Two measures of the adequacy of a public-school system are the amount of money expended per year for every pupil enrolled and the value of school property at any given time per pupil enrolled at that time. Some indication of the adequcy of the southern schools may be given by table 16, which attempts to rank the Southern States among the 48 States and among themselves.
Table 16.—Adequacy of educational expenditures in the Southern States
Source: National Education Association, Research Division. Financing Public Education. Research Bulletin 15: -; January 1937.
With the exceptions of the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, and possibly Missouri and Texas the Southern States are almost uniformly in the fourth quartile for the Nation for both school expenditures and value of school (columns 4 and 5). Mississippi is last among all the States for both; Arkansas and Georgia are both near the last.
When the Southern States are ranked among themselves, the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, and Missouri are highest. (These are the States which Odum found not to be Southern States in cultural, economic, and industrial indexes.), Arkansas, Georgia, South Carolina, and Mississippi are the poorest of the Southern States in adequacy of school system. It is significant to note that these are the States which Odum found to be the typical Southern States according to most of his indexes.
11. PUPIL-TEACHER RATIO FOR NEGRO SCHOOLS IN 18 SOUTHERN STATES
Although it is the common plea that the Negro pupil suffers from the fact that the Negro teacher is overburdened, there is encouragement in the trend of pupil-teacher ratio in Negro schools. In 1917–18 there were 63 Negro pupils in elementary schools for every teaching position in the elementary schools. Table 17 indicates that this ratio has constantly been decreased until in 1933–34 there TABLE 17.—Pupil-teacher ratio for Negro schools in 18 Southern States, 1917–18
were only 43 pupils per teaching position. Besides the teachers counted in this ratio, there were, of course, supervisors, purincipals, and superintendents. However, it is true that this ratio is still higher than the pupil-teacher ratio of white students, and for children of the entire country, which in 1931-32 was 30.4.
But if it is realized at the start that white education surpasses Negro education, then the psychological pattern is set to see significance in trends. In the trends of pupil-teacher ratio since 1917–18, there is certainly some significance.
Raised by Negroes.
Number of churches.
600 $60,000 $700,000 $80,000
800 2, 288, 000
56, 000 $50,000,000 $61, 700, 000 $3,500,000
42,000 5, 200, 000
36,000 2, 150,000 $200,000,000
785 2, 188,000
55, 400 $49, 940,000 $61,000,000 $3, 420,000
35,000 2,100,000 $198, 500,000
1 Includes public high schools.
TABLE. 19-Summary table of certain important statistics on Negro education in
17 Southern States and the District of Columbia, for the years 1917–34, showing the progress in all factors
An inquiry sent to State departments of education in the Southern States brought letters and copies of school laws.
From a letter by R. L. Johns, division of administration and finance:
“I am sending you under separate cover a marked copy of a bulletin containing the recent school laws of the State of Alabama. I am also enclosing a copy of the rules and regulations of the State board of education pertaining to the administration of the minimum program or equalization fund.
“Permit me to state that approximately 54 percent of all the revenue receipts of the public elementary and high schools in the State of Alabama is now being furnished by the State. State funds which approximate $10,000,000 annually are now distributed by techniques which recognize the equalization principle throughout.
“Under the regulations of the State board of education pertaining to the administration of the minimum-program fund, State funds sent to local units for Negro teachers' salaries must be expended upon Negro teachers' salaries. Funds for teachers' salaries are apportioned upon the basis of a State minimum-salary schedule. Funds for negro teachers are allotted on the basis of three-fourths of the amount to which white teachers of the same training and experience would be entitled. This particular provision might seem reactionary to you. However, before the enactment of recent legislation, Negro teachers received only about onethird per teacher of the amount paid white teachers. Furthermore, under present legislation, Negro schools must be operated for a minimum term of 7 months if local school units receive full State aid. Furthermore, Negro schools have been commonly operated for only 3 and 4 months' terms in many of the so-called Black Belt counties of the State.
“It is interesting to note that the public has reacted rather favorably toward all legislation requiring more equitable educational facilities for Negro children. Many people were afraid that the new legislation would arouse a storm of protest. However, such protest has not arisen at the present time.”
See also folder of school laws, pages 58 and 163 of Alabama laws, Bulletin 1936, No. 9.
Arkansas From a letter by G. C. Floyd, director of School Law and Finance: “You will note that the Negro children of Arkansas are given the same consideration in the administration of the equalizing fund as the white children are given."
See also Arkansas School Laws and Regulations for the Administration of the Equalization Fund (memorandum).
“We make no specific allocations to any except the 15 school units into which our State is divided; namely, the city of Wilmington, the 13 special districts, and all the remaining 161 schools constituting the State board unit.
“To these 161 schools no definite allocation is made except for certain items which are described in the handbook sent you under separate cover. lations apply to colored and white schools alike, as also does our salary schedule.”
See also school budget for 1937–38, State of Delaware.
Florida From a letter by Edgar L. Morphet, director, Administration and Finance:
“The apportionment of funds in Florida is governed by chapter 14829, acts of 1931, and by chapter 17247, acts of 1935. Section 1 of the 1935 act provides 'that it shall be the duty of the boards of public instruction of the several counties in this State to provide a minimum of 8 months' free school, both elementary and high school, each year.' Section 4A of the 1931 act reads as follows: 'Provided, That the annual amount to be apportioned for an instruction unit or for instruction units in a given school shall not exceed the total amount of salary or salariés to be paid by the county board of public instruction to the teacher or teachers of that school for the school year, plus an additional 3373 percent of the said total salary or salaries. Taken together, these two sections mean that the full value of an instruction unit ($800) cannot be apportioned for any school unless that school is operated for a term of 8 months and unless each teacher receives a salary of at least $600 for the year. This, of course, applies to both white and Negro schools.
“This apportionment is based on the annual report on attendance, filed at the end of the year, and also upon a report on salaries to be paid teachers, which is filed by each county superintendent during August of each year. In general, salaries do not vary much from this report in the average county, although there is no provision in the law for requiring verification of salaries proposed.
“About 40 percent of the total cost of common schools (elementary and high school) is paid from the State treasury on a pupil census per capita, not on enrollment basis. This per capita apportionment goes to each district board of education on the basis of number of children between 6 and 18 years of age in their district. There is no equalization fund otherwise. When the State appropriation goes to a district it is for the schools of that district without indication as to the amount to be expended for the white schools and the amount to be expended for the colored schools. A measure of the quality as between white and colored is provided for under general laws requiring that the elementary-school service shall be maintained within walking distance of the pupils or transportation be provided. It provides that the high-school service shall be maintained in the county or transportation provided. It requires that the school service shall be approved by the State board of education and that it be a 12-grade service.
In some of our districts the white schools receive in actual administration more than their proportionate part of total revenues expended when you consider the number of pupils served. In other districts the Negro schools receive more than their proportionate part. When this occurs it is generally due to the fact that there is a meager or sparse Negro population making the cost of service higher per pupil.
“Our salary schedule law calls for a unified schedule without racial discrimination. That law has not yet been brought into complete operation in every district, but since the salary schedules must have the approval of the State board of education the means is at hand for bringing it at least gradually into full operation.”
"In response to your letter of February 16, this State has not passed legislation designed to provide for an equitable expenditure or distribution of money in the parishes between white and Negro schools. It is true, however, that in the administration of the State equalization fund the Negro schools must meet certain minimum standards with reference to term, number of teachers employed, salaries, and other items. There is no law on the subject, but it is taken care of upon an administrative basis under the control of the State superintendent and the State board of education."
Maryland From a letter by Bessie C. Stern, statistician, State department of education:
“There has been no legislation in Maryland of the character you describe regarding apportionment of funds to schools on a uniform basis.
"In Maryland the only differences in distribution of funds between white and colored schools are due to length of school term and salaries of teachers. Chapter 552 of the laws of 1937 provides that as of September 1, 1929, colored schools shall be kept open not less than 180 days which is the present requirement for white schools. A number of counties have kept their schools open the same length of time for both white and colored children. (See italic figures in table 20 which follows.) In addition to Baltimore City, 10 counties keep the high schools and 6 the elementary schools open approximately the same length of time.
“The question salaries is now under consideration in a number of counties."