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COLUMBIAN PRINTING PRESS.
This printing press, which, so far hands of a good workman, it is as we can judge, is superior to any equally well adapted to all kinds of which bas yet been brought into work to a single octavo page, or use, was invented by Mr. George the smallest card, or the heaviest Clymer, formerly of Philadelphia, double royal sheets. Indeed, such now of London. After introducing is its power, that it has been found it into pretty general use through
for a boy of fifteen out the United States, the inventor to pull down. Besides want of came to Britain, for the
of power in the ordinary printing bringing it into notice in Europe. presses, another most obvious de The plate requires certainly little fect is an imperfect adjustment of or no' explanation, as it is suffici the platten and bed for the types, ently plain. It will be seen that causing an inequality of impression in this press the power is obtained which frequently baffles the skill of by a combination of levers, instead the pressman to remedy. In the of by the screw; and the power Columbian press, the surface of the thus obtained is, it seems, much iron platten and iron bed for the greater than that of any other print- types being perfectly level, an equal ing press. The difference between impression on every part of the the large Columbian and that of sheet is insured. Another of its the most improved and largest press advantages seems to be, that by its now in use, has not, we believe, use considerably less injury is done been as yet precisely ascertained; to the types than by the other but it is said that a much better presses in use.
From its great impression can be produced by it power, a sharp impression can be from double demy or double royal brought off without indenting or forms, with a pull much lighter than sinking the types into the paper, is agreeable to the pressman, than whereby much less injury will be can be produced from any other done to the types; because the press by applying both hands to deeper the impression is, the more the bar' handle, and exerting the severely the paper operates on the utmost stretch of manual strength. extremities of the sharp angles of This power, however, is susceptible the types, and, consequently, they of gradation to the smallest as well receive the quicker and more deas to the largest forms, and in the structive injury.
ON GRAFTING FRUIT TREES.
EXPERIMENTAL cultivators have the following implements are necesvaried the methods of grafting in
1st. A neat small band saw. various ways; but those of practi- 2d. A grafting or strong knife with cal use are whip grafting, cleft thick back. 3d. A grafting chisel grafting, crown grafting, root graft- and small mallet. 4th. A budding ing, and inauhing. For common or sharp pen knife. The following grafting trees, which are set in materials must also be provided. gardens that are kept for private Ist. Strings of hemp or woollen use, the standard or stock may be yarn, to tie the graft and stock tofrom three to four feet high, and to gether. 2d. A composition of good begin and complete the operation, binding clay, horse and cow dung,
straw cut small, and a little salt; may correspond exactly; cut also the salt is to prevent the composi at the bottom of the graft a slit tion from cracking in dry weather. (like that in the slope of the stock) To proceed to the different methods to receive the sharp end of the of grafting, I shall only at present stock. Then unite the graft to the mention the first, viz.
stock as evenly and completely as Whip Grafting,
possible. Let the graft be care
fully held in its due position, while This is the most expeditious way,
a bandage is applied. Carry the and in most general use.
The string of woollen yarn in a neat stock upon which it is to be per manner round the stock and graft formed must be slender and corre several times. Lastly, cover the spond with the thickness of the joint with the composition of clay ; graft. Having headed the stock (which should be well wrought and at some clear smooth part, slope kept damp;) coat from half an inch it on one side with a knife, in a below the bottom of the graft, to very acute angle; make a slit on an inch above the stock, and to the the lower side of the slope, to re thickness of half an inch all round; ceive the wedge or tongue of the finish it in an oblong globular form, graft. Secondly, have the grafts taking care to work it so close that prepared, cut into lengths ; take no wind, or wet, or sunshine may one which fits the stock in size, and
penetrate. slope the bottom of it so as to fit
C. D. the stock, that the graft and stock Woodside, 16th June, 1825.
OBSERVATIONS ON MOSAIC. Mosaic is a kind of painting by struct works in mosaic, the artist means of small bits of glass, stone, first forms a ground of flat stones, wood, enamel, and other substances bordered with bands of iron, and of different colours, cemented to surrounded with a solid rim of some surface by some sort of mastic, stone. This ground is covered and which may be executed in such with thick mastic, in which the perfection, that at a little distance a coloured pieces of glass, stone, &c. common eye would take it for real are implanted according to the depainting The common name mo sign traced out on the ground; and saic,comes from the Italian musaico, during his labour the artist has bederived from the Greek word mu fore him the painting he intends to sakion, used in the lower ages to copy. . This mastic acquires the' denote those kinds of works called hardness of stone, and when the in Latin musivum.
whole has sufficient consistence, Though this kind of painting was it is polished in the same manner very common among the ancients, as glass. As the splendour, howPliny speaks neither of works in ever, which mosaic then acquires, mosaic, nor of artists who exercised prevents the design from being acit. We cannot judge, therefore, of curately distinguished, large works the mechanism of the art but from intended to be viewed at a distance, the manner in which it is executed such as those placed in ceilings, by the moderns, and from the an cupolas, &c. are not polished. The cient monuments of this kind which art has been discovered of giving to bave been preserved. To con
the colour of the glass as many
different shades as are necessary
that of Sainte Genevieve, and the for executing paintings of every tomb of Fredegonda, to be ornakind. The artist in mosaic, while mented; and hence it became at work, has the pieces of glass, mar usual to cover surfaces with coloured ble, &c. ranged in cases, according to bodies, according as their figures their different shades, like a printer's permitted them to be joined, and types. The art of making mosaics to ornament buildings, pavements, in relief is said to have been in ceilings, &c. with stones of differvented several years ago by Pom
ent colours. It is probable that peo Savini, of Urbino. Årchen the Persians, Babylonians, and holz, in bis Picture of Italy, asserts, other people of the East, whose however, that no work of impor countries abounded with hard stones, tance was ever executed according were 'acquainted with this kind of to this method. Some have also embellishment. They displayed a tried to saw through mosaic works considerable degree of ingenuity in in a transversal direction, in order executing flowers, animals, &c. by to multiply them. According to the combination of pieces of stone of Bjornstahl, in the second volume of different colours : this was the extent his Travels, Pompeo Savini was of their art; but it was the Greeks the first person who tried this who introduced into this process method at Rome.
It appears that that taste and perfection which enpavements in coarse mosaic, exe title it to the appellation of an art. cuted among the ancients, were not These people, indeed, found means made at the same period as those to manage the shades with so much of more delicate workmanship. The dexterity, and to give to the figures place where it was necessary to and groups which they executed, implant the mosaics were in the such order and harmony, that at a former left more delicately termina distance they resembled paintings. ted. Thus, at Herculaneum, ac This art was conveyed from the cording to Winkleman, there was Greeks to the Romans. Sylla was found, in the middle of a coarse the first among the latter who caused mosaic pavement, a portion of mo to be executed, in the temple of saic of more delicate workmanship, Fortune at Præneste, at present which did not adhere to the rest, called Palæstrina, a mosaic, great and which only had a relation to it. part of which still exists. At first
It appears that the origin of mo the pavements of buildings only saic ought to be ascribed to the were ornamented in this manner, different compositions of hard stones but afterwards walls and arched employed by the orientals as orna ceilings. Portable floors for the ment, and of which we find a tents of princes and the commanders striking example in the ornaments of armies, in order to guard against of the high-priest among the Jews. moisture, were ornamented also in It is observed in general, that all the same manner. The invention nations among whom civilization of coloured glass gave to this art a has made little progress, are fond of greater degree of perfection. This splendid and variegated colours : material in particular was employed we find, therefore, that mosaic was in the time of Augustus. But in great esteem during the first pieces of glass or marble were still of centuries of the French monarchy, too large size to admit of the shades as is proved by the mosaics with being properly blended, and, conwhich Clovis caused the church of sequently, of giving the natural St. Peter and St. Paul, at present colour to the objects. Under Clau
dius, the Romans began to colour chi, Romanelli, and Pellegrini. He marble, and under Nero, to give it copied also the picture of the archspots by an artificial process. angel Michael, by Joseph Cesari;
In the fifth century, when the but he gave it too fine a polish, so arts were expelled from Italy, by that it has too much reflection. the invasions of the barbarians,
Afterwards various artists in momosaic painting and sculpture were saic endeavoured to give faithful preserved much longer among the copies of the finest paintings, such Greeks of Byzantium for ornament as that of the martyrdom of St. ing the altars and utensils of the Petronilla, by Guerchin, in the church. Mosaic, bowever, lost at church of St. Peter at Rome; the Constantinople, as the other arts death-bed communion of St. Jerdid, that character of elevation ome, by Domeniquin, formerly in which characterises the monuments the church of Santo Girolamo della of Grecian art; besides, works of Carita at Rome, but now in the this kind were executed with pearls Museum of the Arts at Paris. The and precious stones, whereas the person, however, who carried this ancient Greeks preferred marble art to its highest degree of perfecfor mosaic. Towards the end of tion, was Peter Paul de Cbristothe thirteenth century, an Italian phoris, who founded at Rome a named Andrew Tassi, learned the school of mosaic in the commenceart of mosaic from one Apolloni ment of the eighteenth century. ous, a Greek, who decorated with He formed several distinguished it the church of St. Mark at Venice, pupils, among whom were Brughio, where an excelļent pavement by Conti, Coccei, Fattori, Gossone, him is still to be seen. But in and Ottaviano. Alexis Matthioli general these works want design, found out, in 1730, the art of making are in a bad taste, and, besides, have glass of a bright red colour. In a bad colour. Since that period, modern times, mosaic has been disthis art has been carried to a high tinguished into two kinds: that of degree of perfection in Italy. Pope Rome, in which stones of a very Clement VIII. contributed greatly small size are employed, which to this improvement in the seven gives to works more delicacy and teenth century, by causing all the variety, and admits the execution interior part of the cupola of the of great historical paintings. In church of St. Peter to be orna this manner the most beautiful mented with mosaic. Among the paintings of Raphael have been artists employed for this purpose, copied, and Clement VIII. caused the most distinguished were Paul the cupola of the church of St. Rosetti and Francis Zucchi. These Peter to be decorated with mosaic ornaments were finished in 1603. of the same kind. His successors In the same century John Baptist continued to cause other paintings, Calandra, of Vercelli, in Piedmont, both in oil and in fresco, to be who was born in 1586, and died in copied. According to Bjornstahl, 1644, invented a new mastic, which the number of shades found in greatly contributed to bringing the these mosaics sometimes exceeds art to perfection. During fourteen 10,000. In the palace Borghese, years he executed mosaics for the at Rome, there are six beautiful church of St. Peter at Rome, and mosaics, one of which represents particularly the figures of the four Orpheus surrounded by animals : fathers of the church in the cupola, it is said to be composed of 9000 after paintings by Lanfranchi, Sac- pieces. The mosaic of Florence,