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THE

BOOK OF THE INDIANS;

OR,

BIOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

OF THE

INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA,

FROM ITS FIRST DISCOVERY

TO THE YEAR 1841.

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History maketh a young man to be old, without either wrinkles or gray hairs; privilledging him
with the experience of age, without either the infirmities or inconveniencies thereof.

FULLER's Holy War.
They waste us ; ay, like April snow

In the warm noon, we shrink away;
And fast they follow as we go

Towards the setting day,
Till they shall fill the land, and we
Are driven into the western sea. - BRYANT.

Gridner 2
BY SAMUEL G. DRAKE,

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES, AT COPENHAGEN, HONORARI

MEMBER OF THE NEW HAMPSHIRE AND NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETIES.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1841,

BY THE AUTHOR,

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

PREFACE.

The study of American History in general, and of Indian History in particular, has long been the favorite employment of many of my hours ; cannot say " leisure hours," for such are unknown to me; but time amidsi a variety of cares and business, and before and after “ business hours.” My first publication upon the subject of the Indians was an edition of Church's History of Philip’s War, a duodecimo, with notes and an appendix. This was in the summer of '1825; and, in 1827, it was considerably enlarged, and issued in a second edition, the copyrighi of which, not long after, passed out of my hands, and the number of editious since issued is unknown to me; but, about two years since, one of the proprietors told me they amounted to some thirty or forty'; yet “second edition” is continued in the titlepage to this day: In this republication I intimated my design of a work upon Indian Bı. OGRAPHY, and in 1832, a small duodecimo of 348 pages, bearing that title, was published. In that edition, the chiefs and others noticed were arranged alphabetically. In 1833, a second edition was issued, with The Book of THE INDIANS superadded to the title. The volume now contained three times as much as before, and yet my materials were scarcely half exhausted. It was in octavo, and under an entirely new arrangement, namely, in books and chapters; each BOOK being paged by itself, for the purpose of adding new matter at some future time. This arrangement was continued through all the editions to the present. A third edition,* also considerably enlarged, was published in 1834, which extended 10 548 pages, 108 more than the second. The same year produced a fourth, with a few corrections, but without altering the number of the edition in the title-page. A fifth, which stands num bered as the fourth, appeared in 1835, with the addition of a catalogue of all the principal Indian tribes, arranged alphabetically. This was drawn, at great expense of time, from an incredible number of sources. The second edition had been stereotyped, to the original cost of which great expense had been added in corrections and additions, considerably exceeding the profits which had accrued, and I was now beginning to console myself that very little, if any thing, more would be required by way of additions or corrections, and that I should soon begin to derive some small advantage from it, as it had been tolerably well received; but I found I had “reckoned without my bost;" for, on the night of the 30th of September, 1835, the whole was consumed by fire. This was quite discouraging. However, I soon determined 10 stereotype it anew. Thus taking advantage of what I had considered a great misfortune, I began to revise the whole throughout. Parts were rewritten, and additions made in almost every page, and the page itself was enlarged, although one of the pages of the former editions contained as much reading as two octavo pages in the common type. Besides this enlargement of the pages, their number was extended to six hundred. Such were the preparations for the sixth (though printed as the fifth) edition, an impression of which was issued in 1836. The next year produced a seventh. This was the same as the preceding, excepting a few important corrections. I come now to the eighth and present edition, which has received very important enlargements in the three last books, amounting to more than one hundred pages; and it may be proper to note, that all after pages 143 of Book III., 96 of Book IV., 168 of Book V., are additions to what has been before published. And the catalogue of the TRIBES has been enlarged to more than twice its original amount. It is now submitted with all its imperfections; and, although I hope to multiply the number of editions, I have no intention of further enlarging the work.

This edition has been delayed many months in consequence of a hope I had entertained of living to be assured that the Florida war was at an end. That time may now be considered to have arrived. On the events of that war, as will be seen, I have been full and particular; and, if events of importance have escaped me, it was not because I had not used great exertions to possess myself of them. If, however, a doubt should be raised upon this head, I would refer the skeptical reader to a document published by order of the U. S. Senate in 1840, purporting to be a report of the secretary of war, showing the massacres committed and the property destroyed by the hostile Indians in Florida” since 1835, where a comparison may be made between what I have published, and the amount of information in the possession of the war department.

The history of the wrongs and sufferings of the Cherokees has been an important addition to this edition ; and, whatever judgments may be pronounced upon it by the present generation, I shall remain silent, under the consciousness ihat I have done no injustice to the parties concerned. I have been an observer through the whole course of it, and registered events as they passed. I have not used a dirk in the dark, but the broadsword in open day, with fair warning to the adversary. “Let those who undertake prepare to undergo."

As the word edition in the title-page of a book now-a-days may mean any thing or nothing, when a number stands before it, I will just observe that my first edition consisted of 1,500 copies, the second of 2,000, the third of 500, the fourth, fifth, and sixth of 1,000 each, and the seventh of 500.

AN

ALPHABETICAL ENUMERATION

OF

THE INDIAN TRIBES AND NATIONS.

An attempt is made, in the following Table, to locate the various bands

of Aborigines, ancient and modern, and to convey the best ivformation respecting their numbers our multifarious sources will warrant. Modern writers have been, for several years, endeavoring to divide North America into certain districts, each of which should include all the Indians speaking the same, or dialects of the same, language; but whoever has paid any attention to the subject, must undoubtedly have been convinced that it can never be done with any degree of accuracy. This has been undertaken in reference to an approximation of the great question of the origin of this people, from a comparison of the various languages used among them. An unwritten language is easily varied, and there can be no barrier to innovation. A continual intermixing of tribes has gone on from the period of their origin to the present time, judging from what we have daily seen; and when any two tribes unite, speaking different languages, or dialects of the same, a new dialect is produced by such amalgamation. Hence the accumulation of vocabularies would be Jike the pursuit of an infinite series in mathematics; with this difference, however – in the one we recede from the object in pursuit, while in the other we approach it. But I would not be understood to speak disparagingly of this attempt at classification; for, if it be unimportant in the main design, it will be of considerable service to the student in Indian history on other accounts. Thus, the Uchees are said to speak a primitive language, and they were districted in a small territory south of the Chero. kees; but, some 200 years ago, - if they then existed as a tribe, and their tradition be true, they were bounded on the north by one of the great lakes. And they are said to be descended from the Shawanees by some of themselves. We know an important community of them is still in existence in Florida. Have they created a new language in the course of their wanderings ? or have those from whom they separated done so ? Such are the difficulties we meet with at every step of a classification,

But a dissertation upon these matters cannot now be attempted. In the following analysis, the names of the tribes have been generally given

in the singular number, for the sake of brevity; and the word Indians, after such names, is omitted from the same cause. Few abbreviations have been used: - W. R., west of the Rocky Mountains ; m., miles ; raj river ; l., lake ; and perhaps a few others. In some instances, reference is made to the body of the work, where a more extended account of a tribe is to be found. Such references are to the Book and Page, the same as in the Index.

ABEKAS, probably Muskogees, under the French at Tombeckbee in 1750.
ABEN AKIES, over Maine till 1754, then went to Canada ; 200 in 1689; 150 in 1780.
ABSOROKA, (Minetare,) S. branch Yellowstone; lat. 46o, lon. 1050; 45,000 in 1834.
ACCOKESAW, W. side Colorado, about 200 m. S. W. Nacogdoches.
ACOMAK, one of the six tribes in Virginia when settled by the English in 1607.
ADAIZE, 4 m. from Nachitoches, on Lake Macdon ; 40 men in 1875.
ADIRONDAKS, (Algonkin,) along the N. shore St. Lawrence; 100 in 1786.

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