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nate in her geographical position; Benjamin Franklin had influence sufficient to procure aid from France.

4. Teach pupils to select those words in the lesson that are especially hard to spell and to put their effort upon them.

5. Use any means that will impress the correct form of the word, such as the “flash method ”; quick, light concert recitation; copying carefully on paper or blackboard ; emphasizing the catch syllable by underlining ; seeing a rat in separate ; memorizing “ T-e double n, e, double s, double e, Tennessee"; grouping the words that are from the same stem, as medicine, medicinal ; learning by contrast, judgment, management; learning by association, eligible for a position, an illegible signature ; attending strictly to correct syllabication (the pronunciation first of the word and then of the syllables r-e, re, a-l, al, l-y, ly, really is strongly recommended); careful enunciation (poor enunciation is a prolific source of bad spelling); the oldfashioned spelling match.

6. Test your pupils on sounding words. One reason for poor spelling, even in the grammar grades, is the frequent inability of pupils to connect the most elementary sounds with the letters, as å with a, etc.

7. Help pupils to syllabicate words for themselves, by such questions as: How many syllables are there in study, in studiou8 ? What is the first syllable in each ? What is the second syllable in studious ? Syllabicate such type words as : gladden, trifle, triple, sponging, acquaintance, intention, adhesion.

8. Lead the pupils to formulate a few spelling rules inductively, by having them observe the spelling of a number of words entirely familiar to them. Before spelling rules are taught, the difference between vowels and consonants should be made clear and pupils should be required to memorize the vowels. Teach words to illustrate each rule : for example, hop, hope, hopped, hoped. Seldom give exceptions to rules.

9. Interest pupils in their dictionaries; see especially pages 127, 171, and 181.

10. Teach all words commonly misspelled in the written work of the pupils. Occasionally dictate from the reading lesson words that are desirable for the pupils to add to their vocabularies.

11. On the day following the study of the words as indicated before, dictate them for careful writing. Have each child keep a note-book for further study of the words he misspells.

THE WRITING OF WORDS IN DICTATED SENTENCES Use each of the selections first as a reading lesson, calling attention to the author and giving the setting. In the primary grades have the pupils copy the sentences, both with letter cards and in script, from the teacher's copy on the board. Drill upon the spelling of the difficult words and upon the marks of punctuation. Do not require children to learn the spelling of any unusual words such as Avdyeitch, page 123, but write it upon the board for them to copy.

Selections too long to be written at one period should be divided into logical parts and written on consecutive days. Occasionally, it may be desirable to dictate only part of a selection in sentence form ; and to choose from the remaining sentences, for writing in columns, such words as may be difficult to spell. For instance, the paragraph on page 140 may be dictated as follows:

In utter amazement, Silas fell on his knees and bent his head to examine the marvel: it was a sleeping child — a round, fair thing, with soft yellow rings all over its head. toward vision gaze

familiar hearth blurred agitated

resisting stooping brought violently

stretched together appeared mysteriously


These exercises afford a constant review of those short words that are often misspelled, such as which and their. The more difficult words in the selections will be found repeated in new associations in the columns on the succeeding pages. Much of the poetry should be memorized. Children enjoy elliptical exercises, and the teacher can readily make additional ones from classic fables and proverbs.


These exercises are particularly valuable as a means of enlarging the child's vocabulary. Professor George H. Palmer in his “ Self-Cultivation in English " says: " Let any one who wants to see himself grow, resolve to adopt two new words each week. It will not be long before the endless and enchanting variety of the world will begin to reflect itself in his speech, and in his mind as well. I know that when we use a word for the first time we are startled, as if a fire-cracker went off in our neighborhood. We look about hastily to see if any one has noticed. But finding that no one has, we may be emboldened. A word used three times slips off the tongue with entire naturalness. Then it is ours forever, and with it some phase of life which had been lacking hitherto." These exercises should be correlated with the other work of the school and may be given in connection with the work in composition. The words in each exercise should be studied one by one during a preliminary talk about the subject so that spelling and thought may be definitely associated. The ability to use a particular group of words in a really interesting way is no mean accomplishment; and if, while doing so, the child spells correctly, he has proved his power to spell. Letter writing should be a frequent exercise, particularly the writing of business letters and short personal notes. Short interesting exercises should be demanded.



I. The plural of nouns is regularly formed by adding s to the singular: see page 51.

Exceptions :
(a) Nouns ending in f, change f to v, and add es :


page 51.

(6) Nouns ending in 8, sh, ch, and x add es: see page

53. (C) Nouns ending in y, preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es: see page 53.

(d) Some nouns ending in o, preceded by a consonant, add es: see page 53.

II. Final e is omitted when a termination beginning with a vowel is added to the word: see page 61.


(a) Final e is retained when it is necessary to preserve the identity of the word, as in dyeing, singeing : see page 132.

(6) Final e is retained when preceded by c or g, as in peaceable, courageous :

see page

132. III. Final y when preceded by a consonant is generally changed to i when a letter or suffix is added; as dry, dried : see page 87. Words ending in ie change ie to y when adding a suffix; as die, dying : see page 132.

IV. All monosyllables, or polysyllables accented on the last syllable, and ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant before a suffix beginning with

a vowel; as thin, thinner, control, controlled : see pages 62, 85, 148, and 168.

V. The word full, when it forms the ending of another word, is written with one l; as tuneful, handful.

VI. The possessive case of a noun in the singular number is formed by adding an apostrophe and 8; as, “ The bird's wing," “ The man's hat," " James's book.” When the noun in the plural ends in 8, the possessive is shown by adding an apostrophe only: as “ Birds' wings," Boys' games”; when the noun does not end in s, an apostrophe and s are added : as Men's gloves,

" Children's books." Note that ours, yours, hers, its, and theirs have no apostrophe.

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