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was, not in refusing to tolerate pose, to the temptations of worldli. what they thought wrong, but in ness and comfort, like the Establishthe narrow theory which they had ment, or like the poor Cameronian formed of it. Narrow they were. regiment, which lapsed into the They had fallen among hard times, uniform modified licentiousness of and had lost the broader and more other military bodies.' And that genial sympathies of the early Scotch would have been matter for con. reformers ; they believed that the gratulation. Divine grace was confined under • Advancing civilization,' protheir hard and straitened for gress of humanity,' and such like, mulæ ; and they could not conceive may serve to make the world run that it could be present in any hu smooth and easy, and may form man soul under other conditions. the tempers, here and there, of a But that, believing themselves to be few moderate and thoughtful men right, they refused to tolerate and like Mr. Burton; but they are compromise with error, only shows principles too vague to exercise a that their belief was real—that it subduing influence over the passions, was not a perhaps, like that of as they exist in the masses of manmost men, but an iron conviction. kind; and those forms of human All good men are intolerant-in nature which have hitherto been tolerant of evil. If they love good, considered to be the highest and they hate evil.
It is the first con the noblest, are attainable only dition of a sound heart. Only let through convictions of that iron kind the sound understanding go along which all powerful nations and all with it, to determine rightly what strongly organized bodies have alike is evil. Mr. Burtop would not wish exhibited in the eras of their greatus to tolerate lies, or sin, or folly. ness, and in virtue of which they They are to be fought against, are alone great. trampled out, exorcised by all means, But we will leave this. Perhaps and with all energy of heart and we have said too much about it. It soul. Not indifference of heart, would be a poor compliment to Mr. but a wiser spirit of discrimination, Burton to identify him with thinkers is the thing to be desired; the who, like the false mother in Solo. Cameronian temper with a wiser mon's judgment that was ready to creed. And yet if it is in the heart, divide the child, cut up the truth rather than in the understanding, into opinions, and leave us all to that the issues lie of good and evil, choose for ourselves as our inclina. those poor Cameronians, in all their tions guide us. If occasionally the narrowness, had a wiser and more language of such men has escaped real sense of the meaning of their from him, the scope and tone of his being in this world than has been own mind, as will have been seen by found yet attainable on any theory the extracts which we have given of progress of the species. In his from him, are set at a far loftier tenderness for them, Mr. Burton pitch. He has written what, in all believes, “that, at all events, they essentials, is a calm, wise, and exwould have yielded to the softening cellent book, and with these warm influence of advancing civilization.' epithets we take our leave of it They would have yielded, we sup. and of its author.
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, SIR HUDSON LOWE, AND
DR. O'MEARA.* THERE is no one now living, and raised himself, whether in civil or
we doubt whether a man ever in military life, was self-carved lived, about whom so much has been and self-created; and there written as of Napoleon Bonaparte. is no instance in history of such In our own country there are more unique success and such wonderful histories of his life-more accounts reverses, our love of the wonderful, of his campaigns than there are and our desire for startling excitehistories and records of Marlborough, ment and strange contrasts, induces of Wellington, or of Nelson.
us to resort to the biography of this Germany, comprising the smaller and marvellous man as a species of the larger States, Napoleon's history strong intellectual dram. We can is more familiar to the general find in ancient, mediæval, and mopublic than the history of the Great dern story the lives of men wiser, Frederick, of Prince Eugene, of the and more truly great and glorious ; Archduke Charles-nay, even than but in what pages other than in the story of the life of old Blucher Napoleon's own biography shall we himself. In far-off Russia the mili. find the life of a man so renowned as tary man who reads at all reads soldier, statesman, lawgiver, Chief more of Napoleon than of Peter Consul, Emperor. Our own illustri. the Great, of Potemkin, or of Su. ous Duke was more distinguished by warroff. In Spain, among the most sagacity, by fortitude, by an imvain-glorious race under the sun, perious sense of duty-was more rethe name of the overrated victor markable for his conscientious disat Baylen-Castaños—is now less charge of every obligation imposed known than that of the French on him, than the French general and Emperor; and in Italy, producing emperor; butit is for this very reason in the middle ages great captains, that the history, of his life wants Bonaparte is regarded as a soldier the variety which as drama, melospringing from their own soil-a drama, farce, and tragedy, is presoil always fertile in great creations. sented in the life of Napoleon. Men, Even among the Americans, a peo whether gentle or simple—whether ple as proud and exclusive as the educated or uneducated, love the Spaniards-and with a million of strange and the marvellous rather better reasons for being so--the than the simple and homely; and name of Napoleon is as well known, this is the reason why the lives of if not so much revered, as that of Washington and Wellington are Washington; and his history and less read than that of the lieutenant life are more talked of than are of artillery transmuted into conpublic or private details concerning
queror and captive - into First George Washington or Andrew Consul, Consul for life, and ImJackson. There is some reason
perial Cæsar. for this world-wide renown. Na The books which have been poleon was more than a great ge written about Bonaparte may be neral and consummate captain. He numbered by hundreds, not by was also a great administrator, a
Amidst such a multitude great ruler, and a great law-giver there are many bad, many indifa man who, by his genius, his energy,
ferent, a few good, and a very great and his art of fascinating and domi number interesting. One of the nating his countrymen, not merely oldest books on the subject is the rose to the highest command of her Voice from St. Helena, written by armies, but who also won by his O'Meara, his surgeon, that volume victories the way to supreme civil having been published more than power. The position to which he thirty years ago. Appearing soon
History of the Captivity of Napoleon at St. Helena, from the letters and journals of the late Lieut.-General Sir Hudson Lowe, and official documents not before made public. By William Forsyth, M.A., author of Hortensius, and History of Trial by Jury, and late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 3 vols. London: Jolin Murray. 1853.
after the death of Bonaparte, it was was accepted by many as unadulteeagerly read, not merely in England, rated truth. But time, the great but all over the world. Containing reformer, winnows and sifts all a vast deal of personal detail, un things, and reduces all things to doubtedly true and authentic, in their proper proportions. Time has reference to the Emperor and his operated to disclose the true chahousehold, recounted in a style clear racter of O'Meara, the object of his and unpretending, it is yet, in other volumes, and, as a consequence, to respects, a mendacious and most ma dull the edge of his calumnies. It lignant book, and more particularly is a great pity that the late Sir so in reference to the late Sir Hudson Lowe did not publish some, Hudson Lowe. The office to which if not all, of his materials eight-andthat gentleman was appointed, twenty years ago, when the Napothough most onerous and respon leon fever was at its height. Then sible, was a most invidious and un he might have counteracted the impleasant one, requiring the greatest pression produced on men of Napodelicacy, firmness, temper, and tact. leon's
age, and of a generation a few Held by the most indulgent, con years younger ; but having delayed ciliating, and amiable man in the his vindication for considerably more world, it was an office that never than a quarter of a century, the could have been discharged, in re tomb has closed over nearly all his ference to the captive and his suite, contemporaries, and the men of without incurring angry and hostile mature age, who formed their opifeelings on their part. This must be
ex parte evidence thirty borne in mind in considering the years ago, are not likely to be as question of Napoleon and Sir Hud anxious to set themselves right as son Lowe, in order to come to a just they would have been when the judgment in regard to the com question was the one topic of the day. plaints of the one and the conduct Why Sir Hudson Lowe so long of the other. Sir Hudson Lowe delayed his vindication is not satiswas a man of firmness, discretion, factorily accounted for. He tells us and temper, adhering to the letter himself there are few, if any, public of his instructions, and performing administrations of which the records strictly and conscientiously his duty. are so complete as those of his goBut had he been more than this vernment at St. Helena. There is had he been suave and benignant not only a detailed correspondence, as an angel, he never could have addressed to his Majesty's Governbeen otherwise than disagreeable to ment during the five years that Nathe long spoiled child of fortune poleon remained under Sir Hudson's and of victory of whom he had custody, but the greater part of the been made, by the force of an conversations held with Bonaparte English Act of Parliament, the himself was at the time immediately legal custodier.
noted down with an ability and exTo return, however, to the book actness which reflect the greatest of O'Meara. If that book had never credit on the Governor's military been written-had nerer obtained secretary, Major Gorrequer. This the vogue which it confessedly did gentleman was not only a perfect attain—it is probable that these master of the French language, but letters and journals of Sir Hudson possessed a memory remarkable for would not have seen the light. It its accuracy and tenacity, and was is from the book of O'Meara that therefore eminently qualified to rehe appeals to posterity; and we port the conversations at which he must say that he appeals not in was himself present, and to detect vain. It has been said that there is any error to which a misapprehena vitality almost approaching to im sion of the meaning of foreigners mortality in calumny. The observa. might lead other persons who retion is not without a good deal of peated what passed at interviews truth. For eight or ten years after with Bonaparte and his followers. it was published, the Voice from St. Why, then, were not these reports Helena had a great run, and not of conversations and occurrences, by withstanding the able criticisms and Major Gorrequer, given to the world refutations of the Quarterly Review, long ago ? Many erroneous im.
145 pressions and misstatements of of Sir H. Nicolas, who had renO'Meara and others might have dered the materials more managebeen by these means corrected. able, and who also carefully collated The Lowe papers, it appears, were them; and he also acknowledges placed some years ago (the exact his obligations to Lieut.-Colonel period is not stated) in the hands of Jackson, now professor at the East the late Sir Harris Nicolas, with a India College, Addiscombe, who was view to edit them. But he was pro at St. Helena during the captivity bably bewildered by the magnitude of Bonaparte. This is all candid, of the materials. Thirty folio vo proper, and gentlemanlike. But we lumes are filled with copies of cor may, in passing, remark, that not. respondence and other writings, withstanding the copiousness of macarefully made under the direction terials through which he had to of Sir H. Lowe, who seems to have wade, Mr. Forsyth might have vintreasured a memorial of almost every dicated the memory of those long incident, however trivial, connected calumniated, and have proved that with that important period of his neither the British Government nor life. In addition to these, there Sir H. Lowe were in fault, in & were several large boxes of MSS. relating to the same events, all of Albeit the work before us is a which have been examined for the third too long, we must say, that purpose of the present work. There we believe it to be emphatically a were also two sets of copies of true narrative. O'Meara, Las Casas, O'Meara's letters to Mr. Finlaison, Montholon, and Antomarchi, who of the Admiralty, together with a were the immediate attendants of vast number of despatches of Earl the exile at Longwood, and in Bathurst, who was Secretary of whose statements the opinion of the State for the Colonies while Napo British public mainly rests, had leon was at St. Helena. Sir H. each a separate cause of quarrel Nicolas underwent the heavy labour with Sir Hudson Lowe; and their of arranging these documents; and object was not to make known the before his death, had proceeded so truth, but to exalt the character far as to bave a voluminous mass of of Bonaparte, and to depreciate documents set up in type, down to that of Sir Hudson Lowe. O'Meara the date of September, 1817. The attributed to Sir Hudson his plan of Sir Harris, Mr. Forsyth tells removal from the post of physius, was to print almost every letter cian and his dismissal from the and other MS. at full length, in navy for conduct, not merely at chronological order, connecting them variance with his duty as an officer, with a slender thread of explanatory but utterly unworthy of a gentleremark. The work thus meditated
This, as Mr. Forsyth truly must have consisted of eight or nine observes, rankled in his heart; and closely printed octavo volumes; and his book bears in every page the who, in this busy and work-a-day mark of implacable hatred against world, could read eight or nine those who were the authors of his volumes, even supposing the price disgrace. We do not agree with to render them accessible ? Patience Mr. Forsyth in thinking that the becomes exhausted and attention Voice from St. Helena is a voice bewildered when minute details are wholly unworthy of belief. On thus spun out. Mr. Forsyth, the the contrary, there is a great present editor, adopted a different deal of truth in it on matters not plan. After full consideration, he having reference to Sir Hudson resolved to re-write the work. He Lowe; but in all that bears rehas made use of the letters and do ference to the conduct of that euments as materials for a narrative; officer, O'Meara so distorts, perbut though he has abridged and cur verts, and misstates facts-mixing tailed possibly to the extent of a up a little truth with a great third, yet the work, even as it now deal of misrepresentation, that stands in three volumes, is far too his statements not to be voluminous. Mr. Forsyth fairly believed. Las Casas, in his journal, acknowledges that his task has been has perverted, we will not say with lightened by the previous labours Mr. Forsyth, almost every fact
which he records, but a great many says, one honourable exception. Lafacts and circumstances of the martine has done homage to truth, greatest moment to the reputation and, so far as he had the means of of Sir H. Lowe and the British forming a just judgment, has taken Government, which he represented. pains to arrive at it. That GoverLas Casas, though a Royalist and nor, says Lamartine, whom the myran emigrant, who served in the midons of Napoleon, and Napoleon army of Condé-though a zealous himself, attacked with groundless ultra, who followed the Count and passionate charges, had neither d'Artois to Quiberon (none of which criminal intent against his captive particulars are given by Mr. Forsyth) in his thoughts, nor insults towards --profited in later life of the am the unfortunate in his heart. But, nesty which followed the 18 Bru crushed under the load of responmaire, and re-entered France. He sibility which weighed on him, lest remained for six years in tran he might suffer to escape the disquillity, during which time he oc turber whom Europe had given him cupied himself in the preparation of to guard, narrow in his ideas, jealous the Atlas Historique of Le Sage. in his regulations, nervously tenaThe reputation of this work, as well cious of forms, deficient in tact, and as his offering himself as a volunteer odious to his captives from the very for the defence of Flushing, brought nature of his functions, he wearied him under the notice of Bonaparte, Napoleon with restrictions, superinwho made him one of his cham tendence, orders, visits, and even berlains. Ultimately, the Emperor marks of respect. became the god of his idolatry, and This portrait, though not for a it is not wonderful that he came into Frenchman harshly drawn, is, nevercollision, at St. Helena, with the theless, incorrect. Instead of Sir officer to whose keeping his master Hudson Lowe wearying Napoleon was committed. The dismission with visits, we learn from the jourfrom St. Helena, to which we have nals before us, that during the whole before referred, created in his mind of the six years of the captivity the an irritation which never subsided. Governor had only five interviews Montholon, as an authority, and as with his prisoner; and that Napoa man, was less credible than Las leon rudely and discourteously reCasas ; while as to Antomarchi, it fused, after insulting him to his face may be remarked that his self-love with the grossest language of abuse, had been wounded by his having to see or have intercourse with him been subjected to the same regula- again. tions as the French residents, and It is difficult for the present also by the earnestness with which generation, many of whom were not Sir Hudson Lowe pressed upon the born at the period of the battle of attendants of Napoleon the neces Waterloo, and who cannot from sity of having recourse to additional reading form an adequate concepmedical advice when his illness be tion of the immense struggle in came serious.
which we were engaged, to conceive These four individuals—we can. the importance of the question which not call them authorities-have long presented itself to the consideration had their sway. Their books have of the British Ministry, in 1815, been too long read unquestioned; when Napoleon surrendered himself. and the period has at length arrived. It was a case without precedent. though late, when there are fuller Sir Wm. Grant, Sir W. Scott, Lord materials for judgment, and when Ellenborough, and Lord Eldon were an impartial verdict may be given. consulted, and gave conflicting opi: It is not wonderful that nearly all nions. Lord Chancellor Eldon said French writers should take but one the case was not provided for in view of the question of Napoleon's Grotius or Vattel, but that the law captivity. They deal, with scarcely of self-preservation would justify an exception, in nothing but pane the keeping of Napoleon under regyrics on Napoleon and in invec straint in some distant region, where tives against Sir Hudson_Lowe. he should be treated with all indul. There is, however, as Mr. Forsyth gence compatible with a due regard