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1853.] Feeding.

655 houses are so built as to require any poultry care is now much better distinct contrivance for ventilation; in understood than it once was, but cases, however, where the doors and

still there are many who, when windows are air-tight, means should be

spoken to on the subject, reply in afforded for a proper supply of fresh air; there should be an opening near the bot

homely phrase, 'a bellyful is a tom, and another at the top, these should

bellyful,” ignorant that the food be covered with pieces of perforated zinc,

taken into the system has many to prevent any direct draught of cold air, purposes to effect; and hence the which is very injurious. Cleanliness is

difference of opinion among keepers also a consideration of the highest import of poultry, who have, too many of ance in a fowl-house; if ashes or sand be them, never considered the bearing used, and the dung removed daily, this of particular kinds of food on the is readily secured; and in order to pre constitution of the animal. There vent, as far as possible, the annoyance of is no doubt that some food when vermin, the houses should be lime

Bwallowed and digested is directed washed once or twice a year, and the

towards the keeping up the natural birds also be provided with a box full of dry dust or ashes to bathe in.

warmth of the animal, that another

portion has to increase the growth They should also be furnished

of the body, sustain the strength, or with a heap of dry lime-rubbish,* in other words replace the expendiwith a view to keeping them in ture and waste that occurs daily ; health, and the hens especially in

nay more, that there are particular good laying order, and with a good kinds of food adapted to the differsand, ash, or dust bath out of doors

ent duties, so to speak, to be peras well as in. They are most deter formed by the meal. It, therefore, mined pulveratrices, and love to becomes of importance to distinguish perform this operation in the sun warmth-giving food, such as rice and shine and open air. If afforded the

potatoes, or other substances of means of gratifying themselves with which starch forms the great bulk, this dry bathing they will shuffle from flesh-forming food, which is the dust or sand so effectually over present largely in wheat, oats and themselves, raising their feathers by oatmeal, peas, beans, middlings and means of the cuticular muscle at the

sharps, and also in a less degree in same time, that it penetrates to the barley and maize. Nor is it of less root of every feather, and dislodges importance to know that bonethe parasites of which they are so making food exists in larger proporanxious to rid themselves. If not tion in the husk, or outer part of supplied with the proper materials grain, than in its interior or kernel ; they will in dry weather sink holes and that fat-forming food, derived, in the ground, and so form dusting as might be expected, from oily subplaces. But to return to the fowl.

stances, occurs largely in the yellow

variety of maize, middlings, and The difference between the health of bran. fowls thus cleanly and warmly housed, Those who would go deeply into and that of those compelled to roost in the subject should consult the works a dark, damp, dirty habitation, is very

of Liebig, Johnston, and others. great, these latter never becoming in

Suffice it here to state that experigood condition. So injurious is damp

ments tend to the conclusion that and cold that I have known instances in

none of these kinds of food can serve which all the inhabitants of a poultryhouse have been attacked with roup

the purposes of the others; in other from an east window having been left

words, that neither warmth-giving open on a cold wet night, and it has fat-forming substances been found by experiment that scrofula capable of effectually adding to the may always be produced in chickens by flesh of a growing animal, nor can confining them in damp, cold, and dark true flesh-forming food increase the habitations.

house :

nor

are

quantity of fat. FEEDING.

Barley, the poultry-keeper's staple, This most essential branch of is preferred by fowls to oats, and

* Burnt oyster-shells are very good, but they are not always to be had. Dry lime-rubbish, which only requires the trouble of depositing it, will answer every purpose.

has been ascertained to contain from curd or fat it may be given with twelve to fifteen pounds of flesh- advantage as a change, occasionally, forming substance, sixty of starchy, to fatting fowls which have been and two or three of oily substances well kept previous to cooping, and in every hundred.

is said to add to the whiteness of Oats are not relished in the grain the flesh. by fowls, probably on account of the Bran, pollard, middlings, and large proportion of husk present in sharps our author regards, not withthem; but in the form of grits or out reason, as most valuable addi. oatmeal are picked up with the tions to the food of poultry :greatest avidity, and in this state In the first place they are economical, contain from fourteen to nineteen and they contain a very high proportion of flesh-forming, sixty of starchy, (nineteen per cent.) of flesh-forining suband five to eight pounds of fatty stances, and a very considerable quansubstances in

every
hundred.

tity of oil (three to five per cent.). An

other circumstance which adapts them No grain (says Mr. Tegetmeier) con to the use of chickens is the large protains a larger proportion of flesh-forming portion of bone-making materials they substances than oatmeal; it is, there contain. fore, the best adapted to growing ani

Cooked food is desirable because mals, and I have found that chickens make much more rapid progress when it

it gives the stomach less work to do. forms the chief portion of their food

Mr. Tegetmeier strongly recomthan when fed on any other substances.

mends the following cooked food as Cochin and Spanish chickens show its supplying all the substances requi. good effects by the rapidity with which site to support a healthy and vigo. they feather when fed with it.

rous existence :Wheat is extensively used by some

One peck of fine middlings and half a amateurs and breeders of choice

peck of barley-meal, placed in a coarse

red ware pan, and baked for about an races; by those especially to whom

hour in a side oven, or until the mixture the cost of the material used for food

is thoroughly heated throughout ; boilis of little or no moment; but it is ing water is then poured in, and the not more nutritious than oatmeal, whole stirred together until it becomes though it would be rather difficult a crumbly mass ; if too much water is to persuade the masses of the people added the mixture becomes cloggy, a who are the most interested in the defect which is easily remedied by stirquestion of cheap and nutritious food

ring in a little dry meal. The advanthat such is the fact. Wheat con.

tage of this method is that the food is tains from ten to nineteen pounds of prepared with scarcely any trouble

, and

there is no fear of its being burnt as in flesh-forming nutriment, fifty-five of

boiling. starchy, and from two to four of oil

Sometimes the barley-meal is omitted, in every hundred.

and the baked middlings mixed with From five to nine pounds of oil rice which has been previously boiled. in every hundred is contained in the This mixture forms the stock of my old yellow varieties of Indian corn or fowls, a liberal supply of grain being maize; but it does not put on flesh given during the day. quite so well as barley, containing There is nothing new under the only twelve per cent. of flesh-forming sun. We remember something very food, and seventy of starchy sub like this in the days of our youth, stance. Cochins take it with avidity. when we prided ourselves on Dorkings and Spaniards turn away matchless white Dorkings; but the from it where they have the choice baking is a great improvement to of other grain.

the parching before the fire which Rice should never be given to was then practised. No better or growing chickens; it is the least more heartening food can be given. nutritious of all grains. Almost Potatocs, beans, peas, and lentils entirely composed of starch, it yields have their admirers. The tuber is only seven per cent. of flesh-forming a good variety where starch is refood, but is a useful variety in quired; but the pulse, though con. poultry diet, and much relished. taining a larger amount of fleshThe proportion of fat-forming food forming food - peas proverbially in rice is almost null; nevertheless stick to the ribs is too stimulating when boiled and mixed with a little to be wholesome, and many diseases

our

or

1853.] Breeding

657 may be traced to the continued use their supply is pure or impure, so of it. Hemp-seed wonderfully in will be their state of health or creases the production of the eggs, disease. but it is a dangerous practice to give

BREEDING. it, and burns the candle at both Those who delight in artificial ends, largely injuring the constitu hatching, whether in hot-beds, ovens, tion of the birds. Cooked parsnips, eccaleobions, or hydro-incubators, carrots, and turnips are much re and rejoice in_artificial mothers, lished-parsnips for choice

and are should consult Raumur, Bucknell, useful and wholesome as a variation Moubray, and Young, and go to of diet. Fresh green vegetables are Leicester-square. Those who would indispensable.

follow nature, cannot do better than The most advantageous animal food attend to Dixon,* and the plain for fowls, and on which they make the practical teaching of Tegetmeier. most rapid and healthy progress, con

I am

aware (says the latter) that sists in the worms, snails, and insects

these recommendations to leave natural that they obtain naturally when uncon

operations to nature are contrary to fined ; and I do not think that there is

what are frequently found in books; but any other kind of food which conduces

I am merely writing the results of my so much to their healthy condition; where it cannot be obtained a small

own experience, and I have always

found the more the hatching hens are quantity of fresh meat (either raw

meddled with the worse the result. It cooked) may be chopped small and given

is a notorious fact, that when a hen to them ; it is, however, but a poor sub

steals a nest in some copse or place stitute for the natural insect food.

where she can remain unmolested, she Poor indeed. As for the practice almost invariably brings forth a more of hanging up meat to putrefy for numerous and stronger brood than the sake of the maggots, we hold it when she sits in a hen-house. in abhorrence. But a wasp's nest But, in the hen-house, the nearer in the season of pupa affords a glo we approach to the principles manirious and wholesome treat.

fested by the dear goddess the Greaves from the tallow-chandlers better. We, therefore, with our we hold to be abomination, though author, set our faces against consome pertinaciously give it to in tiguous rows of 'pigeon-holes, as crease the quantity of eggs, the he calls them, as encouragers of flavour of which, we believe, suffers vermin, in consequence of close accordingly. This half putrid filth, crowding, and the difficulty of for it is little better, is used in some thorough cleansing in such cases. piggeries as food, and pretty pork Separate shallow baskets or boxes, it must make, only to be surpassed covered if you will, as a hen hates in quality by that fed on horseflesh. nothing more than to be disturbed

All the fatting in the world will in the least degree when laying, not relieve the animal fibre of stock, should be provided. In these some of any description, from the de well-sifted coal ashes or drift sand terioration of early foul or bad feed should be placed, so as partially to ing before the fatting process com. fill the basket or box, and over it a mences. “Education, sir, education,' little short wheaten or rye straw. -as we once heard an enthusiastic Hay, which is excellent for packing pig-master exclaim, pointing to his eggs when sent to a distance, should well and wholesomely filled troughs be carefully avoided forthenest, as too and comely grunters, which were heating. The seeds, besides, are apt regularly washed with soap and to ferment; and instances have been water education, sir, is every known of the loss of the entire thing. Two-thirds of the hard, clutch, in consequence of the hen dry-fibred pork--so fat and fair to having been placed, as it were, on a look on when beheld by an inexpe bed of hay-seeds. The chicks were rienced eye—is due to the abominable glued to the shell, and so destroyed. early feeding, which no fatting pen The natural position of the nests of can correct.

gallinaceous birds is on the ground; Water, above all, is of the utmost and where there is no fear of rats, consequence to poultry; and as stoats, et id genus omne, they may

* A most valuable and amusing book.

be so placed in the house, if it be of the yolk which is, in fact, the kept perfectly dry and clean. At all chick's first food. Mr. Tegetmeier events the nest should be low enough recommends two-thirds sweet coarse to be reached without effort; and the oatmeal, and one-thrid barley meal, basket or box should be sufficiently mixed into a crumbly paste with filled so as to permit the hen to water: this is very much relished, leave without having to spring up and the chicks make surprising profrom the eggs, and to return with. gress on it. He sometimes gives out jumping down upon them at the them a little cold oatmeal porridge, risk of breaking them. There is no or a few scalded grits, dusted over objection to having a less number with barley meal. In cold, raw, or of nests than hens, which will be wet weather, we have found a little seldom all sitting together; for hens of the green of onions or chives, have no repugnance to laying in a with curd, a very comforting and common receptacle; on the contrary, fortifying addition. the sight of eggs seems to stimulate As in all other stock, breeding them to lay, whence the practice of between relations is to be avoided; placing a nest egg, which should be and though, to preserve special artificial, and made of some light markings and peculiarities-take wood-for if a nest egg breaks the the Sebright bantams, for example, nest becomes terribly fouled. Chalk, you must breed in and in, great or an oval ball of whiting is not delicacy of constitution is the result. 80 good; for we have heard that We would advise none to keep the hens pick up occasionally bits fowls for the purpose of rearing that fall off, or even peck the ball chickens in situations where they itself, and so learn to eat eggs. The cannot resort to the fields, and most secluded and darkest nests are where their natural habits are inter. preferred by the hens, which should fered with. be disturbed as little as possible, The remark is often made, that and not at all on the twentieth and chickens reared in the country by twenty-first days, when they are

cottagers are more vigorous and healthy hatching.* The meddling at such

than those bred in the most expensive times, and taking away the chicks

poultry houses : this I believe to be enfrom the mother, whose equable

tirely owing to the more natural circumwarmth it is so difficult to imitate,

stances under which they are bronght

up. Fresh air, fresh grass, and fresh and keeping them by the fire in

ground for the hens to scratch in, far flannel till the hatch is complete, is

more than counterbalance the advantage mischievous. If any interference is of expensive diet and superior lodging, permitted, the empty shells may be if these latter are unaccompanied with removed; for it sometimes happens the more necessary circumstances just that the unhatched eggs slip into described. them, and the unfortunate chick, The subject is far, very far from which is endowed with the power of being exhausted ; but, popular as it chipping one shell, has not strength now is, there are other things in the enough for breaking through a world besides poultry ; nor must we double prison wall. The addled trespass farther upon pages that eggs may also be taken away. The may be better occupied : we, thereabsurd and barbarous plan of cram fore, for the present, refer our ming the new-hatched nestlings with readers to Mr. Tegetmier's book.t peppercorns is absolutely dele There is more good sense and practerious. A chick requires neither tical knowledge in that modest food nor drink on the day on which shilling's worth than in many a more it is hatched; on the contrary, both voluminous treatise; and it is only are then injurious, and interfere necessary to say, that the illustrawith the absorption into the system tions are from the pencil of Harrison

* A hen, when undisturbed, seldom leaves her nest on the twenty-first day. On the twenty-second, the chickens are generally strong enough to follow her, and forth she sallies, in all the pride and fuss of clucking maternity.

+ Though we cannot enter more largely into the subject at present, it may be expected that we should give our humble opinion as to which are the best and most profitable breeds. For eggs we would choose Spanish, Hamburghs, and Cochins. For

1853.]
Emily Orford.

659 Weir, to give a notion of their cha from which the cock picked the racteristic truth.

grains. If there was any hitch, as One suggestion we would venture will sometimes be the case in the to make, as the poultry mania is best regulated similar ceremonies, now prevalent. The fashionable grains of corn were laid on the world has supped fullof hat-spinning, letters a second time, and the protable-turning, and spirit-rapping; cess was repeated. why not revive the'Αλεκτρυομαντεία of We beg to recommend this mysthe Greeks, as a rational amusement ticism to Mrs. Hayden, and other for the next season ?

mediums, by way of a change. But what was the’Alertpropavreía? Variety is proverbially, charming. The 'Alertpvouavreia, madam, was Even turning tables, and talking to effected thus. The letters of the them, must share the fate of all subalphabet were written in a circle. lunary things, nor will rapping spirits Upon each letter a grain of wheat interest our drawing rooms for ever; or barley was laid, and a consecrated and this cockular divination would cock was placed within the circle. be quite as incomprehensible, and The required information was ob- equally satisfactory. tained by collocating those letters

EMILY ORFORD.

There was a constable who was CHAPTER XXX.

under great obligations to Mr. FLOWERmarried Susan Briarley, Brade, and he fancied that Roberts the police-oflice. He took a public He therefore brought to the notice house; and Emily painted his sign of the Bench, that this convict, board in oils—à portrait of his assigned to his wife, was seldom at famous horse. The house was called home with his mistress,' and that he • The Sheriff's Arms.' Flower also was in the habit of staying out all became the proprietor of a livery night.' The Bench regarded this as stable, and took to boat-building; extremely improper, and the con. and in all these ventures he was re stable was ordered to apprehend markably successful. Abrahams, Roberts on the next occasion that the Jew, used to advance him any he found him in the streets, or in a sums of money he required at a mo public house at a late hour. Soon derate rate of interest, for Abrahams after this, Roberts and the Enwas under very peculiar obligations chantress were drinking together, to Flower, and would not have and playing cards at about two offended him on any account. In o'clock in the morning; and on the short, George Flower was now one constable breaking in upon them, of the most prosperous men in the the Enchantress assaulted the conColony of New South Wales ; Mr. stable; and he, therefore, not only Brade was dismissed from the ma took Roberts into custody, but the gistracy for improper conduct, which woman also, and both were locked Flower brought to light, and was up in the cells. walking about the streets of Sydney, The next day, Emily was sumalmost bare-footed, and without a

moned to appear.

She came, in shilling in his pocket; and sure fear and trembling, and beheld her enough, Mr. Brade did receive husband in the dock-and beside money from George Flower's hand him the Enchantress, who nodded --not half-a-crown, but a five pound familiarly to Emily, and then told note. And Flower paid his passage * Reginald' to cheer up. When to England, after reluctantly for- Emily heard the deposition sworn giving him the offence of which he to by the constable, and observed had been guilty

that her husband was silent when flesh, generally, Game-fowls, Cochins, Brahmas, and, above all, Dorkings. For a roast, the Black Normans, and a cross between the Cochins and game-fowls—the latter for those who like a pheasanty flavour. But, if restricted to only one race, we would choose the Dorkings for their excellent qualities; and of all the varieties, give us the white.

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