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other countries, annually entering Turkish ports, explains the altered condition of Turkish industry far better than any theories of race, or hypotheses of inevitable decay. The Turkish Government has long been alive to the danger, and has made convulsive and expensive but fruitless efforts to arrest the progress of this competition. How? By imposing prohibitory import duties? No; that barbarism it has left to the Christian nations of the north and west. How, then? By the very expedients adopted by some of those Christian nations themselves within the last few years, in order to stimulate their subjects to a struggle with England in the modern modes of manufacture. The Sultan and his advisers attempted themselves to establish factories and founderies, but they discovered that the European manufacturer could deliver the article in Constantinople at a lower price than the Government could manufacture it at on the spot. Still, as the movement is in its infancy, it is impossible to say what may not be done in time, should extraneous causes permanently raise the price of labour in the Western States, and should tranquillity enable the Turkish Government to develop its new plans for the reintegration and re-organization of the finances of the country. The contemporaneous stimulus to agriculture, should it succeed, will bring about a solution of present difficulties more in accordance with the laws of political economy, inasmuch as it will enable the Turks to exchange their natural productions for the manufactures of the West. As it is, we would only caution the reader against the assumption that the decline of Turkish manufacturing industry is any more conclusive proof of a decay of race, than is afforded by the reduced condition of those classes of the popu. lation in western countries, whose subsistence was derived from manufacture in the strict sense of the term, and who have been to a considerable extent 'starved out by the rapid progress of machinery. The English hand-loom weaver, and the Flemish tisserand, are not cited as examples of decay in either country, yet they are in a con

siderably worse position than the manufacturer of Bagdad or Aleppo, or any other of those numerous cities which once swarmed with the industrious artificers of the East.

The commerce of Turkey is in a better condition than its industry. Taking the imports and the exports together, it may be estimated at somewhat under twenty millions sterling per annum, exclusive of about one million for the commerce with the European tributary provinces, and of about five millions and a quarter, the commerce of Egypt, as shown in the exports and imports of Alexandria, those to and from Turkish ports not being included in the calculation. The trade between Turkey and England has increased to an extraordinary extent, from about half a million (of imports) in 1827, to upwards of four millions in 1852. It should be observed, however, that not much more than half these English imports are consumed in Turkey, the remainder passing by way of Trebizond to Persia. Turkey receives chiefly our cotton manufactures, linen manufactures, hardware, iron, coal, and colonial produce. Our chief imports from Turkey are flax, raw silk, grain of various kinds, opium, &c. France is not in so favourable a position as regards her commerce with Turkey ; the gross total of imports into Turkey from France being about a million, while the exports of Turkey to France exceed two millions. The total commerce of Turkey with Russia (exports and imports) is somewhat more than a million and a half sterling, the balance of exports and imports being slightly in favour of Russia; with Austria, nearly three millions sterling; with Holland and Belgium about 360,0001.; with Persia about one million; with Switzerland, the United States, and other countries, about a million and a half. These are all more or less on the increase, and do not include the commerce of Egypt by way of Alexandria. The navigation of Turkey, which is chiefly carried on by foreigners, is on the increase; but the most remarkable evidence of progress is to be found in the rapid and vast extension of steam navigation for

mercantile purposes. Between 1841 machinery with the methods adopted and 1849 the number of these in the west, appears by comparison steamers entering Constantinople to be in a barbarous state. On a had increased from 274 to 486. closer examination, we find a direct There is, as our readers are aware, resemblance in the items of taxation a direct and constant communica and revenue ; but a rude fiscal systion by first-class steamers between tem is combined with what in this Southampton and Constantinople, country would be described as and recently there has been es liberal legislation. Our details are tablished a similar line from Liver. taken from the budget of_1850, pool. The communication between as commented upon by a French the capital and the main parts of the traveller who published the reempire, in the Levant, the Archi sults of his observations, together pelago, and the Black Sea, is singu with some interesting statements larly well-organized and regular. on Turkey, in one of the Paris news. As we are not writing a full de papers, during and subsequent to scription of the Ottoman Empire, his sojourn in the country. The but only putting forth a few facts as total State expenditure of Turkey is materials for forming a correct 733,400,000 piastres, the total reopinion as to its resources, it is not venue 731,000,000. The latter is necessary here to enter into details composed of tenths, 220,000,000 of the internal organization of the piastres; virgu, or income-tas, Turkish administration; but we may 200,000,000; taxes on non-Mussul. touch the subject with this general man subjects, 40,000,000; customs remark, that the great majority of duties, 86,000,000; indirect taxes, recent representations are one-sided, 150,000,000. The expenditure comand do not sufficiently consider the prises the ordinary items of army, counteracting argument derived navy, civil service, and civil list, from the essential Orientalism of with the amounts of which we need

not trouble the reader; and also an of the military resources of item of 12,500,000 for the mainteTurkey it is the less necessary to nance of what is called the adminis. speak in detail, because they tration of Vakoufs.' It is in this of late been the subject of so much direction, as well as in the reform explanation and discussion. The of the coinage, that the regeneraordinary active force of the empire tion or restoration of the Turkish is about 140,000 men; the reserve financial system may be expected. of equal number. These, with the The administration of the vakoufs is irregular force of 61,500, and the the holder of three-fourths of the contingents of 110,000, make up a landed property of Turkey, which total force of nearly 500,000 men. at a period when the laws were These numbers, however, were es powerless for protection, was contimated in the year 1850, and they signed by the owners to its care, as inadequately represent the forces being sacred. Under its managewhich have been brought into the ment, this property yields but field by Turkey, to resist Russian 20,000,000 piastres per annum; yet aggression. All the troops in the the State pays the 12,500,000 service of Turkey are, according above-mentioned for the mainteto report, well fed, well paid, and nance of mosques and charitable in an effective condition. As to the institutions. A partial parallel to navy, opinions are less unanimous. this evil may be found in the mal. In 1850, the Turkish

navy

numbered administration of church and 74 ships of all sizes, with 4000 guns, cathedral property in this country. and manned by 25,000 men. Since The vakouf pays a rent to the that date, this branch of the Turkish owner, but that rent is calculated force has been much increased ; and, on the nominal coin, as it stood in as in the case of the army, the men former days, not at its present value. are said to be well cared for and well The scheme of the new statesmen of paid, according to Oriental notions. Turkey is to take this property out

The financial system of Turkey, of the hands of the administration of from being brought more directly in

vakoufs, and render it more procontact than any other part of the ductive, at the same time paying

the people.

an

1853.] Last Words of a Traveller Lost in the Snow. 677 a large additional sum for the main her own people, and exports to tenance of the mosques and cha no inconsiderable extent; in inritable institutions. It is hoped to dustry she but shares the fate of realize additional 60,000,000 other communities, unable to compiastres; while the owners of pro- petewith the gigantic manufacturing perty will receive new titles direct power of England; in commerce she from the Sultan. The finances of is respectable, to say the least ; in Turkey have suffered severely from her military resources she has fairly the depreciation of the coinage, and surprised the world; and her finances the sacrifices which have to be made are being gradually placed on a sound in order to meet the engagements basis, with a fair prospect of indefiof the country in the undepreciated nite improvement. While the Eucoin of other states. Much has been

ropean states with which we have written against Turkey on the ground compared her are concentrating of this depreciated coinage, and the their whole strength in the consolideficit (though small) in the dation of a worse than barbarous finances. The detractors of Turkey despotism, she is gradually emerging have but to turn to Austria, a Chris from the crudest forms of Oriental tian state, where the currency is tyranny, into European civilization; a drug, and where the deficit of one and, more than all, while, in a state year would go far to eat into the like Austria, the Government cannot whole annual revenue of Turkey, afford to divert its attention from

Our limits have permitted only a the fatal duty of repressing chronic cursory view of the subject; but disaffection, Turkey has passed enough has been elicited to show, through the crisis of a social revoluthat whatever may be the positive tion, rendered all the more dandeficiencies of Turkey in those gerous by its close connexion with elements of strength which are religious prejudices, and finds hernecessary to complete the ideal of a self, even while yet in the transition great state, yet relatively, and by period, free to devote her whole micomparison, she occupies at least a litary and financial strength to the respectable position. In agricul task of defending herself against a ture, notwithstanding her short- · foreign invader. comings, she supplies the wants of

LAST WORDS OF A TRAVELLER LOST IN THE SNOW.

(SUGGESTED BY THE FATE OF A YOUNG ENGLISHMAN WHO WAS LOST IN CROSSING

MOUNT WASHINGTON, OCTOBER, 1849.]

OP
H! tis as though a century had past,

Since on the vale beneath I looked my last;
And yet, 'twas but this morning, glad of heart,
I left its shades, nor feared from friends to part:
Friends ! coldly falls that word upon my ear,
Where are they now? My voice they cannot hear.
Though all is silent round, the muffled air
To them no words of mine will downwards bear.
Alas! Alas ! how quickly wanes the day,
No longer can I trace my

onward

way;
The stream, my only guide, has ceased to flow,
And frozen dead, lies buried 'neath the snow.
Uncertain shapes, that fill my soul with dread,
Loom through the mists like visions of the dead;
And high in air, sharp crag and icy peak,
Look frowning down, as they could vengeance wreak
On man's presumption, daring thus to tread
A realm whence every living thing hath fled.

Thick, heavy fogs obscure the sky; no star,
To guide the wanderer's step shines from afar,
And 'neath, seen dimly through the dusky air,
Are sights and forms of horror everywhere :
Rivers, whilst raging, struck to sudden rest,
Their towering waves in rigid heaps comprest;
Steep Alps that shelve to deep ravines below,
Where noiseless sinks the ever falling snow.
Dread wastes whence soon my dying groans shall rise,
And break the silence of these gloomy skies.
Far easier 'twere on battle-field to die,
Than midst this stillness, 'neath this leaden sky.
But sure ! this cannot be the gentle earth,
That loves her children, even from their birth;
No mother ever thus forsook her child,
With whom in grief she wept, in joy she smiled ;
Then why, where'er I look, beneath, above,
Does Nature give no sign of tender love,
But, deaf and pitiless, shuts out my prayer,
And leaves me to the madness of despair.
Oh, it is terrible, with sobs of pain
To

gasp for air, then heave it forth again,
And while each moment fiercer grows the cold,
To feel its iron grasp my limbs enfold.
Alas! I know not if 'tis cold or heat,
Which makes the ground thus scorch my aching feet ;
The snow, in flakes of fire, falls on my head,
And withers up my brain-would I were dead.
What! is it thus I must for sin atone,
Pass through the travail of my soul alone ?
What! shall the tortured body rob the soul
Of all its strength its sufferings to control?
When will these struggles end, and I be free?
Would, without dying, I could come to thee.
Oh God, my God. Ah! have I not till now
Upon thee called, strength of the lonely, Thou,
Dear father, look on me with pitying eye,
If thou art near, in calmness I shall die,
Though chilling glaciers raise their heads around,
And corpse-like lakes my dying form surround.
Yet fear hath gone, for all Thou dost is right,
By darkness Thou preparest us for light;
And blest, thrice blest, Almighty God, are those
With Christ who travail ere they taste repose.
On Calvaries of suffering thus to sigh
The soul away, is better than to die
In sheltered vales, where mists too oft arise,
And from them hide the sun and azure skies.

The dreadful past is fading from my view,
I know and feel that Thou, Lord God, art true,
And now thy guardian angels waiting by,
To calm my struggles, catch my latest sigh.
With softest touch, they close my weary eyes,
And on their wings my spirit homeward flies.

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HISTORY OF THE WAR OF THE SICILIAN VESPERS.* WE

E are never weary of historical shackled by obligations to truth, in

restorations. The 'myth' has a half-educated age it carried the day. in so many forms, and for so long a We must assume, for the present, time, obscured our records, that no that our readers are acquainted with effort to efface it comes unwelcome. the ordinary version of the Sicilian But when the security is endorsed revolution, and shall only now draw with the name of Ellesmere we can. their attention to one feature in the not refuse to do what in us lies to story, which we think contains a negotiate.

no slight evidence of the animus with Every reader of history has heard, which it is written-we mean the and, for want of good reason to the peculiar way in which the names of contrary, has hitherto believed, that the chief actors in the drama-Peter the revolution of the Sicilian Ves. of Aragon and John of Procida—are pers' in 1282, and the overthrow of respectively treated. The former, the French rule in the island, were because he was throughout the conthe results of a conspiracy as com; test the uncompromising and sucplete in design and minute in detail cessful opponent of the Angevin facas the massacre of St. Bartholomew, tion, is branded as a traitor, a con. or the Popish Plot of Guido Fawkes. spirator, and a perjured peaceIt seemed to be a not improbable ac breaker. The latter, though accord. count of an event which annihilated ing to the admission of the historians the armaments, and rent the king themselves he had been the Ulysses doms of the mightiest of the as well as the Sinon of the plot, yet then European sovereigns, while because he afterwards deserted from it changed the dynasty of Sicily, the side of Aragon, is exalted from that it was the result of a mighty the very beginning as a pure patriot plot,' in which kings and na and hero. tions were accomplices, while fo We are unconscious of any special reign gold and foreign intrigue admiration for the character of Peter contributed to its denouement. In of Aragon, nor shall we incur the the thirteenth and fourteenth cen. charge of favouritism if we remark turies, when the destinies of men upon the evidence by which the were matters of market, and the crime of conspiracy is supposed to rights of the commons yet undistin have been conclusively

proved against guishable from the clamourings of him. As we shall have to go through half starved villains, such a cause the details of his part in the story obtained credit as being propor. hereafter, we will, to avoid repetition, tionate to the effects produced, the illustrate his behaviour by putting' only alternative being a revolution (as the lawyer says) what appears, originating in the mere motion of with a slight allowance for allegory, the people. No one stopped to dis to be an analogous case. Our James cover the inconsistencies of the tale, the Second shall be Charles of Anjou, or to consider the source of the evi. and William of Orange Peter of dence upon which it was founded. Aragon, whose position, by his marEven the Sicilians, it would appear, riage with the heiress presumptive were, and were content to be, in ig of the legitimate Neapolitan house, norance of the true history of their may not unfairly be represented by great revolution. They, like the that of the Dutch prince. Then suprest of the world, were deceived by pose an English exile Shaftesbury what we can hardly doubt from the for instance, had he been still alive case before us to have been a deli. employing his time at the Hague, berate attempt on the part of the like a spirit of mischief, in whisperAngevins to revenge their defeat in ing in the ear of William the reports the field by a misrepresentation of of English discontent, to have gone the motives of their conquerors. It so far as to promise on behalf of his was a Guelph and Ghibelline war of friends at home that a Dutch invaliterature with fact; and, as must be sion should be supported; that Wil. the case, where the former is not liam, partly from cautious fears for

* History of the War of the Sicilian Vespers, by Michele Amari. Edited by Lord Ellesmere. London: Bentley.

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