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1853.]

The Balkans Forced.

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The Russians passed the Balkan with only forty thousand men, of whom, in ten days afterwards, ten thousand were in the hospitals. If the Turks had shown front from place to place, the Russians must have retreated towards the sea for provisions.

Thus the famous Balkans, with the Great Gate of Constantinople, as we may fairly term Schumla, were effectually turned. The fall of Adrianople succeeded, and Turkey appeared for the first time prostrate under its conqueror. It is very doubtful how far this was really the

The Russians at Adrianople could not bring forty thousand men into the field. *Their line of communication was insecure, and their troops were dying off by thousands.

O six thousand sick at Adrianople, enty one died in three months. The total loss of the Russians in the two campaigns is calculated at the frightful number of one hundred and forty thousand men and fifty thousand horses.'*

It is quite clear from the above narrative that the Balkans ought not to have been forced, and that the success of this daxing passage of arms was due rather to the skill of the general than to the want of bravery or of ability in the defenders. It was an event which may or may not recur, but with strong chances against the repetition. The forces, moreover, very unequally matched, and yet the Turks lost but little ground in the first campaign, and, but for their misfortune at Pravadi, would probably have lost but a few fortresses in the second. The Russians again had the entire command of the sea, on which their left flank rested, with Varna as their base, and their fleet was of incalculable service in the siege and capture of

Sizepoli, a fortress on the coast commanding the harbour of Bourgas, in the early part of the campaign, which gave them a ready communication with the sea for provisions and ammunition after crossing the Balkan.

We have in the above accounts gone somewhat into detail, in order to bring before our readers the real state of the matter, as it has been

laid open by past wars. We confess, at the same time, to having another and more immediately important object, -to inspire a wholesome confidence in the public mind, not only in the justice of the cause on which this great country has (virtually) embarked, but also in its perfect ability to uphold the same, if necessary, by force of arms, as we now hope to show.

Out of the five campaigns above sketched, the Russians gained a decisive success in but one. It by no means appears that they would have gained this but for two circumstances—their command of the sea, which, with the possession of Varna and Sizepoli, ensured in some degree their communications and supplies, and, as we have before said, a very successful stroke of generalship, What, then, would have happened had there been forty thousand French and British troops covering Adrianople? What, if British and French fleets had maintained the line of the coast, and prevented any Russian squadrons or transports from accompanying or supplying their troops on the march? It is obvious the thing could not have been attempted at all. It is not, indeed, equally obvious that Varna would not have been captured; but it is not impossible that in Turkish hands, with the assistance of a friendly squadron, that most important place, with respect both to land and sea operations, would have proved a second Acre. Varna, as covering the right flank of the great positions on the Balkan, and as, conjointly, with Constantinople, a basis of naval operations against Odessa and Sebastopol, should be defended, it is clear, to the last, in any war of defence undertaken by the western nations on behalf of Turkey.

ADRIANOPLE, the second city in the empire, next claims our attention. Placed at the confluence of the Maritza, the Toundja and the Arda ; being the point to which the roads from the various passes of the Balkan converge, with exception alone of that from Aidos ; possessing water communication with the Levant for vessels of moderate tonnage,

were

* It is only proper to observe that 'the account given in The Portfolio, from which the parts above quoted are drawn, appears essentially Turkish. rely, however, on the general facts here stated.

We may

by the Maritza and the Gulf of Enos; thus at once covering the approaches on Constantinople and sup. porting the positions of the Balkanseems marked out by its position as the last bulwark of the empire. Marshal Marmont, who in the earlier part of his career had made Turkey his special study (having been ordered by Napoleon, after the treaty of Tilsit, to send officers into the country on various pretexts, to examine and report upon its military capabilities), and who in the latter part of his life, when an exile, revi. sited the scene of his former labours, has left us an instructive chapter on the relations of that empire to the various European Powers, and on the strategical advantages of Adrianople in particular. The picture, indeed, which he draws is the exact reverse of what is now the case—he presumes the Russians to have entered Turkey, and, with the consent of the Turks, to be holding it against Austria, France, and England. After providing for the security of the Dardanelles and of Constantinople, he proposes to place the 'remainder of the army, that is to say, forty thousand men at Adrianople, and to form there an entrenched camp, similar to the fortifications around Lintz, consisting of an extended system of towers, and with due advantage taken of the rivers which there flow into the Maritza. Eighteen or twenty towers would render that post unassailable; an army of thirty to forty thousand men could not be shut up within it, while it would hold one of eighty thousand in check, who could not venture to leave it in their rear.'* The accomplished author subsequently considers the opposite case, of the western nations becoming the defenders of Turkey, and candidly admits that the brilliant advantages he had depicted as accruing to the Russians from a presumed defensive position taken in Turkey with the consent of the Turks, belong in truth to the first occupant. The sentence which follows is so curiously illustrative of (in part at least) the present situation, that we cannot resist trangcribing it verbatim, merely premising that the work was published in 1837:

En effet, si une flotte française et as glaise, passe le détroit des Dardanelles, et arrive à Constantinople ; si en même temps un corps de cinquante mille hommes de l'alliance, autrichien ou français, vient prendre position à Andrinople, et y établir le camp retranché dont j'ai parlé, alors les Russes ont d'immenses difficultés à vaincre pour enlever ces positions à leurs ennemis ; dès ce moment leur escadre rentre à Sébastopol, et n'en sort plus, &c. &c. +

Put ‘British' for 'Austrian,' in the category of troops which should be opposed, if the worst come to the worst, to Russian aggression, and the picture would seem not unlikely to be realized.

We have purposely abstained from touching on the grave question, • What is to be done with Turkey?' It is, indeed, a question the responsibilities of which may well nake statesmen tremble. But we fail to perceive that the course of Providence has yet put it to us. What we do know is our present plain path of duty. No verbal sophisms, no diplomatic niceties, no risk even to our own beloved land, must keep us from that. A nation, like an indi. vidual, has an end for which to live. Better to cease to live than give up that end for which it came into being. • Death before dishonour.' Right is at this moment invaded by unjust power, and the strong arm of the brave must come if needs be to the rescue. A 'wilful king' aims at interference with the manifest course of Providential government, to turn its righteous decrees to his own account. He invades under the name of peace. To justify his violence he pleads facts that never had being, and principles that have no place save in the mind that blinds itself to the real truth of things. Let the wise take warning. What will be the end we know not yet. But our hope is in Him who giveth not the race to the swift, nor the battle to the strong. And with truth and justice, and that sympathy which was not withheld even from the outcast Samaritan-all these for us, we may surely quote against the northern invader his own biblical motto for the war, if to war we at last be driven-DOMINE IN TE SPERAVI, NE CONFUNDAR IN ÆTERNUM.

* Voyage du Maréchal Duc de Raguse, ii. 121.

+ Ibid. p. 126.

INDEX

TO

VOLUME XLVIII.

Adams's Spring at the Canterbury

Settlement, 257
Adrianople, 728
Alexander Smith and Alexander Pope,

452
Alose-Fish Papers, 479
American Diplomacy, 299
American, North, Fisheries, 587
American Prisoners at Dartmoor, 585
Anatomy in Long Clothes, 539
Anchovy-Fish Papers, 481
Andrews, C., The Prisoner's Memoirs;

or, Dartmoor Prison, 577
Applicability of Steam to Ships of War,

209
Arès Moi, 363
Ashley's, Mrs., Evidence against Queen

Elizabeth, 378
Australian Woods, 507
Autobiography of R. B. Haydon, 307

Cyprinus Auratus, 75; Cyprinus
Barbatus, 76; Cyprinus Gobio, 77; Cy.
prinus Tinca, 78; Cyprinus Abamis,

79; Cyprinus Cobites, 79
Cayley's Las Alforjas, 18
Catel, L., La Prison de Dartmoor, 577
Clupeas-Fish Papers, 476
Chimney Pots, by a Grumbler, 95
China, Insurrection in, 597
Chinese Execution, a, 601
Cingalese, Translations from the, 349
Clairon, Madlle., 353
Cochin Fowls, 651
Cods, 689
Constantinople, 712
Continental Education, the Means and

End of, 92
Corbelet, Madlle., Memoirs of, 429
Corfe Castle, the Story of, 551
Credulity of the Nineteenth Century,

23
Courts of the House of Brunswick,

Sketches of, 445
Crystal Palace at Sydenham, 607; Com-

mencement of the Works, 609; As-
syrian and Egyptian Courts, 611;
Greek and Roman Courts, 612; By-
zantine and Mediæval Courts, 613;
Pompeian House, 615; the Bazaar,
615; the Nave, 616'; Ethnological
Collections, 617; View from the Bal-
cony, 618, the Gardens and Geolo-
gical Wonders, 619; the Water Works,
620; Means of Conveyance, 621;
Opening on Sunday, 622.

Part II.,

Babæuf's Memoirs, 429
Bankes’s, Right Hon. G., Story of Corfe

Castle, 551
Barbel—Carpiana, 76
Barras, Vicomte de, Mémoires of, 428
Bartleman, James, Memoir of, 164
Beetleton Brown and his American

Tour, 197
Belgium-Leopold and the Duke of

Brabant, 116
Belgium, a few Words from, 482
Belloy's, the Marquis of, Malaria, 264
Benoni, Lorenzo, 43
Belone-Fish Papers, 470
Bertha's Love. -- Part I., 45.

173
Besika Bay, a Scene in, 208
Bleak--Leucisci, 81
Bones found in a Vault beneath Roth-

well Church, Northamptonshire, 31
Bowring, Dr., Translations from the

Cingalese, 349
Brabant, the Duke of, 125; his Mar-

riage, 483
Bream-Carpiana, 79
Brewster's Natural Magic, 38
Brunswick, Sketches of the Courts of

the House of, 445
Burton's History of Scotland, 127
By Land and Sea, 249
Byron, Thoughts on Shelley and, 568
Callery and Yvan, History of the Insur-

rection in China, 597
Carpiana, 71; Cyprinus Carpio, 71;

Darien Company, the, 133
Dartmoor Prison, as it was, and is, 577
Daru's, M., Evidence respecting the

Navy of France, 15
Demon Chain, the, 170
Derbyite Party, the Break-up of, 365
Devonshire, the Naturalist in, 388
Diplomacy, American, 299
Donaldson's, Dr., New Cratylus, 625

Varronianus, 628
Dorking Fowls, 653
Dufaure's, M., Opinions on the Navy

of France, 13
Dramatic Register for 1852, 342
Dubois, Secrets et Correspondance inédite

du Cardinal, 418
Dupetit, Thomas, Admiral, Evidence

respecting the Navy of France, 11
Dupin's, M., Opinions on the Navy of

France, 14

Glencoe, the Massacre of, 128
Goethe, Mahomet's Song, 114
Gold, Social Effects of Discovery in

Australia, 511; a Commissioners
Camp, 636; Decrease in the Supply,

657
Gosse's Naturalist's Rambles OR the

Devonshire Coast, 388
Greek and Roman Philology, 623
Gudgeon-Carpiana, 77
Grumbler, 2, on Chimney Pots, 95

Part V.,

Eccentricities of Genius, 575
Education in Italy, 91
Elizabeth, Queen, Morals of, First

Paper, 371; Second Paper, 489
Emily Orford. Part I., 98; Part II.,
220; Part III., 326; Part IV., 401;

659
Enquête Parlementaire sur la situation

et l'Organization des Services de la
Marine Militaire, 1; Second Paper,

205
Erskine's, Captain, Journal of a Cruise

among the Islands of the Western

Pacific, 259
Esox, or Pike-Fish Papers, 467
Extracts from the Journal of a Visit to

New South Wales in 1853, 507; Want
of Labour in, 508; Social Effects of
the Gold Discovery, 511; New Gold
Regulations, 513; Value of Land in
and near the Towns, 515; Part II.,
634; Picture of the Gold Commis-
sioners' Camp, 636; Decrease in the
Produce of Gold, 637; Supply of La-
bour, 639; Visit of the Messrs. Mac-
arthur, 641; Athletic Feats of the
Natives, 643 ; Manners and Customs
of the Natives, 644; Prices of Provi-
sions at Sydney, 645; Education, 646

Hake, 697
Hardbargain, Captain, his First Night

in the Jungle, 186
Harvest Home, by Frederick Tennyson,

632
Hatton, Sir Christopher, Charges

against, 497
Haydon, R. B., Autobiography of, 307
History of the Insurrection in China,

597
History of the Prussian Court and

Aristocracy, and of Prussian Diplo-
History of the War of the Sicilian Ves-
History of Scotland from the Revolution

to the Extinction of the last Jacobite
Insurrection, 127
Holland and Belgium, Relations of, 117
Hooper's Ten Months among the Tents

of the Tuski, 256
Horne, R. H., Nero—a Picture, 219
Hogue's, Admiral, Evidence respecting

the Navy of France, 8

macy, 59

pers, 679

Feria, MS. Journal of the Duchess of,

385
Few Words from Belgium, 482
Fins, the Last of the, 689
First of September, a German, 277
Fish Papers--Carpiana, 71; Leucisci,

or White Fish, 80; Pike, Salmon,
Silurus, Herring, and Company, 467;
the Last of the Fins, Cod, 689; Hake,

697
Fisheries, the North American, 587
Flat Fish, 699
Flounders, 700
Forsyth’s History of the Captivity of

Napoleon at St. Helena, 143
Fowls, varieties of, 649
France, the Navy of, First Paper, 1;

Second Paper, 205
Franklin, Sir John, the Search for, 254
Franklin, Benjamin, 303; Unpublished

Letter from, 305
Frederick William, Great, Elector of

Prussia, 63
Frederick William I. of Prussia, 67
French Memoirs, Modern, 418
French Prisoners at Dartmoor, 579

Images and Conceits, difference be-

tween, 463
Indian Question, what is the ? 234
Influence of Poets, 465
Internal Resources of Turkey, 670
Italian, Passages from the Life of an,

88

Gadus, 689
Game Fowl, 652
George the First, 446
Georgel's Mémoires

pour servir à
l'histoire de la fin du 18eme siècle, 421
German First of September, a, 277
Gisborne's Isthmus of Darien in 1852,

250
Gladstone's, Mr., Financial Measures,

366

Jacobite Insurrection, 139
Joinville's, Prince de, Essais sur la

Marine Française, 2
Journal of a Visit to New South Wales

in 1853, 507; Part II., 634

Kennedy's Narrative of the Second

Voyage in Search of Sir J. Franklin,

254
Keys, how they are Turned, 29
Konigsmark, Count Philip of, 448

Labrador Fisheries, 591
Lasusse's, Admiral, Evidence respecting

the Navy of France, 11
Latouche Treville, Admiral, 7
Las Alforjas, 18
Last words of a traveller lost in the

snow, 677
Leicester, Earl of, Charges against, 489
Leopold, King of the Belgians, 119
Leucisci, or White Fish, 80

729

Parlementaire, 3; Analysis of the
Evidence, 6; Conclusion, 17. Se-
cond Paper, 208; English and
French Fleets in Union, 205; Evi-
dence as to the Disposition of the
Fleet, 207; Application of Steam to
Ships of War, 209; 'on the desirable
amount of Steam Power, 211; Marine
Infantry, 213; Maritime Inscriptions,

215
Nero, a Picture. By R. H. Horne,

219
Newfoundland Fisheries, 590
New Cratylus, by Dr. Donaldson, 625
New Crystal Palace at Sydenham, the,

607
New South Wales, Journal of a Visit

to, 506; Part II., 654
North American Fisheries, 587
North-West Passage, Discovery of,

535

Index to Vol. XLVIII.

O'Meara's Voice from St. Helena, 143
Orford, Emily. Part I., 98; Part II.,

220; Part III., 326; Part IV., 401

Part V., 659
Ouvrard's Memoirs, 433

Legend of the Swedish Counts of Piper,

170
Lichtenau, Madame de, 69
Lingard's, Dr., Charges against Queen

Elizabeth, 376
Louch-Carpiana, 79
Lorenzo Benoni, 43
Louis XVIII., Relation d'un Voyage

Bruxelles et à Coblentz, 422
Lowe, Sir Hudson-Napoleon Buona

parte and Dr. O'Meara, 143
MacCann's Two Thousand Miles' Ride

through the Argentine Provinces, 249
Mackau's, Admiral, Evidence respecting

the French Navy, 6
Macarthur, Visit to the Messrs., in New

South Wales, 641
McClure's, Captain, Discovery of the

North-West Passage, 536
Madonna Pia, a Tragedy in One Act,

264
Mahomet's Song, from Goethe, 114
Malaria, by the Marquis de Belloy, 264
Marcillac, Marquis de, Mémoires et

Souvenirs de l'Emigration, 423
Marine Infantry in France, 213
Maritime Inscription in France, 215
Mary, Queen of Scots, Letter from to

Queen Elizabeth, 387
Mechanical Explanation of Table-

Turning, 27
Melville's, James, Statement about the

Earl of Leicester, 493
Memoir of James Bartleman, 164
Ministry, the, and the Session, 364
Modern Ponds, 710
Modern French Memoirs, 418
Modern Historians: their Skill in De-

preciation, 372
Mr. Beetleton Brown and his American

Tour, 197
Morals of Queen Elizabeth. First

Paper, 371; Skill of Modern His-
torians in Depreciation, 372; Sources
of the Calumnies against the Queen,
375; Dr. Lingard's Charges, 376;
Mrs. Ashley's Evidence, 378; MS.
Life of the Duchess of Feria, 383;
Letter from Mary Queen of Scots,
387. Second Paper-Charges against
the Earl of Leicester, 489; State-
ment of James Melville, 493; What is
the Value of the Evidence, 495;
Case of Sir Christopher Hatton, 497;
his Letters to the Queen, 499; Con-
temporary Testimony, 501; Conclu-

sion, 505
My First Night in the Jungle. By

Captain Hardbargain, 156
Napoleon at St. Helena, 143
Naturalist in Devonshire, 388
Navy of France, 1; the Prince de

Joinville's Pamphlets, 2; Import-
ance to England of Definite Know-
ledge on the Subject, 3; Enquete

Paley's Propertius, 518
Passages from the Life of an Italian,

88
Peel's, Captain, Ride through the Nubian

Desert, 257
Pike, Salmon, Silurus, Herring, and

Company, 467
Piper, Legend of the Swedish Counts

of, 170
Pleuronects, or Flat Fish, 699
Plays and their Providers, 342
Poetry, present state of, 466
Poetry: Mahomet's Song, from Goethe,

114 ; The Demon Chain, 707 ; Nero,
a Picture, by Robert Horne, 219;
Translations from the Cingalese, by
Dr. Bowring, 349; Après Moi, 363;
Who is She? 416; Rollo, 451; Har-
vest Home, by Frederick Tennyson,

632
Poets of the Augustan Period, 519
Pope, Alexander, and Alexander Smith,

452
Profitable Poultry, 647; Varieties of

Fowls, 647; Cochins, 651; Game
Fowl, 652; Dorkings, 683; Feeding,

655; Breeding, 657
Prisons in Italy, 89
Propertius and his English Editor, 518
Prussia, History of the Court and Aris-

tocracy of, 59
Puisaye, Count de, Memoirs of, 425

Queen Elizabeth, Morals of. First

Paper, 371; Second Paper, 489
Quevedo, Who is She? 416

Raikes's Notes on the North-West Pro-

vinces of India, 262

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