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This character represents the sound of o heard in not.

Pronounce—hot, pot, pod, wad, what, was, swan, squadron, yacht, yonder, swamp, quash, grovel.


This character represents the sound of u heard in pull.

Pronounce_put, push, full, good, hood, would, could, book, cushion, cuckoo, butcher, pulley.

NOTE.-By reference to the Phonic Chart, it will be noticed that the foregoing fifteen simple vowel sounds are divided into long vowels and short vowels. A little examination will discover the singular fact that these sounds, as they stand opposite oach other, are cognates.

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A very similar peculiarity exists in many of the consonant sounds, as will be noticed and pointed out hereafter,


A diphthong is the union of two vowel sounds in the same syllable. There are but four of these generally recognized, viz., I as heard in ice, OI as heard in oil, OU as heard in out, and U as heard in mule.


This character represents the closely united sounds äē.
Pronouncemile, right, my, buy, pie, guide, aisle.




This diphthong is represented by ôl.
Pronounce-voice, noise, broil, toil, coin, boy, toy,
Care must be taken not to substitute 1 for this sound.
Do not say il for oil, bril for brôll.



This diphthong is represented by ä o. ou

Pronounce-out, loud, trout, stout, hound, cow, prow, plow, how, now, mow, vowel. č or û is often substituted for ä in this diphthong. This is vulgar, and

should be avoided. Do not say kép nor kâo, but cäofull, open.---Much practice should be had on this sound.



This character represents the closely united sounds u 1o.

Pronounce—mule, tune, muto, new, dupe, student,

tutor, music, mutual. Care must be taken clearly to give the Y sound in this diphthong. Tune is not ton, but tion. When r or sh (sound) precedes the u in such words as rule, ruin, sure, the is dropped and only o heard. Rule is rol. Some are in the habit of giving the sound of u heard in use, which is yio for Yo. These say vyro for view, myìct for mute.

This should be avoided as much as the other extreme, viz., vg for view, or fo for few.


VOWEL CONSONANT. Pronounceme, prolonging the ē, and while doing so compress both cheeks against the teeth.

This will convert the ē sound into the sound of y. If the word do is used in place of me the result will be the sound of 2 instead of a sound of 0.


The consonant sounds should be discovered and uttered, and the words containing them pronounced and written, as directed for the vowels. (See ē and ā; and for further directions, see

· Phonic Analysis," in Analytical Fifth Reader.)

b-Bin, buy, bat, beet, bold, brag, cab, hob, rob, mob, tub.
d-Day, did, debt, doubt, mad, should, pad, shad.
j-Jet, jump, jam, jew, page, ridge, bridge, gem.
8-Get, give, gauge, grab, wag, tug, big, wig, jig.
V–Van, vace, vile, victim, victory, have, lave, live.

th-That, this, though, these, they, with, bathe, breathe. 2-Zone, zeal, was, bays, prays, says, zealot, zounds. zh-Azure, leisure, vision, fusion, adhesion, glazier. 1-Life, lay, lad, lame, lobe, laugh, ball, pill, rail, pile. m-Me, may, my, mow, aim, lame, team, time, roam. n-Not, new, neigh, notice, notion, an, main, bean, green, wan. r-Red, rip, rob, rag, read, ripe, robe, rage, round, rasp. ng-Sing, song, rung, long, an-ger, lin.ger, fin-ger, sing-er, bring-er. 2-Pay, pa, paw, pat, pass, pair, rip, ripe, mop, loop, purpose, pup. t–Toe, tea, tie, tune, tun, let, debt, caught, laced, harped, heaped. ch-Chin, chip, change, charge, chance, beach, burch, church. k-King, kite, cart, cat, kitten, ache, anchor, architect, quick. f-Fan, fund, enough, off, proof, prophet, fifth, fry, fritters. th--Thin, thistle, thought, oath, breath, pith, truth, loth. 8-Say, see, sew, sigh, sunset, cent, cipher, sixpence, schism. sh-Sheep, shear, sure, sugar, nation, ocean, charade, machine. h-He, hue, hart, hast, hare, hoop, hen, hill, hale, him. wh-Why, when, whip, what, where, which, while, whim.

NOTE.—The peculiarity referred to in note on page 11, with regard to the vowel sounds, is more strongly marked in some of the consonants. Pronounce pay, bay, to, do, and notice the difference and the similarity of the first sounds. Such sounds are called cognate or correlative. They should be carefully studied.

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ARTICULATION is putting together elementary sounds so as to form syllables and words, and is correct or incorrect as each sound is uttered with accuracy and distinctness, or the reverse.

PRONUNCIATION is, usually, a result of articulation, and belongs to words. It is correct or incorrect according to its conformity or nonconformity to established usage, which is determined by referring to standard dictionaries.

ACCENT is a stress of voice laid on a syllable of a word, and is an essential element in correct pronunciation. The first syllable in du'ty and the last in remove' are accented.

EMPHASIS is generally said to be a stress of voice laid on one or more words of a sentence; but a short suspension of the voice after a word, whether the word be spoken with more or less force than the other words of the sentence, often marks the emphasis.

INFLECTION is the rising or falling of the voice, or a union of the two, on words or parts of sentences. The rising inflection is a bend of the voice upwards; the falling inflection is a bend of the voice downwards. When the two are united they produce a circumflex inflection.

Pauses are used to assist in giving proper vocal expression. Some of them are represented in print by punctuation marks, while others have no signs to mark them, and can be determined only by carefully studying the meaning of the subject. As a rule, a pause should be made after the word expressing the important thought; and in poetry a short pause should be made at the end of each line, whether indicated by a mark or not.

While articulation, pronunciation, accent, emphasis, inflection, and pauses are essential, something more is necessary in order to read well. These are, so to speak, but tools, which the good reader skillfully

The thoughts of the Lesson must become the child's thoughts before he can properly convey them through vocal expression to others.

To enable the child to become thus possessed of the thought, a system of analysis, by means of questions, is introduced.

THE PRINCIPLES OF QUESTIONING are simple. First, consider the prominent objects mentioned: Second, the prominent facts mentioned concerning these objects : Third, picture to the mind a combination of these facts and objects, so that the child shall realize the scene as though it were in reality before him.

Then the literal or technical meaning of words and phrases used should be considered—their pronunciation, emphasis, &c.

In addition to all this the living teacher's voice must aid in securing the proper reading of the Lessons in their several parts.

to For further hints, see the questions following the Analyzed Lessons, and also the Fourth, Fifth, or Sixth Reader.


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GOD GIVES EVERY THING. 1. “Have you nothing to thank God for ?" asked Mrs. Jones of her little girl.

2. “No, mother,” said Anna. "You and father give me every thing.”

3. “Does not God give you your home?”

4. “No; this is father's house ; he lets me live in it with him, because I am his little girl.”

5. “How did your father get this house ?” 6. “He made it." 7. “ Did he make the lumber that is in it?' 8. “No; he bought that of the merchant. 9. “And where did the merchant get it?” 10. “He got it of the man who made it.”

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