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so, sith the ending of all such miracle-mongers dooth (for the most part) plainlie decipher the vertue and power that they worke, by hir shall ye be advertised what at last became of hir: cast your opinions as ye have cause. Of hir lovers (the Frenchmen) reporteth one, how in Campeigne thus besieged, Guillaume de Flavie the capteine having sold hir aforehand to the Lord of Lutzenburgh, under colour of hasting hir with a band out of the town towards their king, for him with speed to come and leavie the siege there, so gotten hir forth he shut the gates after hir; when anon by the Burgognians set upon and overmatcht in the conflict, she was taken : marie yet (all things accounted) to no small marvell how it could come so to passe, had she beene of any devotion or of true beleefe, and no false miscreant, but all holie as she made it. For earlie that morning she gat hir to St. Jameses church, confessed hir, and received her maker (as the booke terms it) and after setting hirself to a piller, manie of the townsmen that with a five or six score of their children stood about there to see hir, unto them quod she 'Good children and my dear friends, I tell you plaine one hath sold me. I am betraied and shortlie shall be delivered to death; I beseech you praie to God for me, for I shall never have more power to doo service either to the king or to the realm of France again.'"—Chroniques de Bretagne, p. 130.

"Saitb another booke, Le Rosier, she was intrapt by a Picard enpteine of Soissons, who sold that citie to the Duke of Burgognie,and he then put it over into the hands of the Lord of Lutzenburgh, so by that means the Burgognians approached and besieged Campeigne; for succor whereof as damsell Jone with hir capteins from Laignie was thither come, and dailie to the English gave manie a hot skirmish, so happened it one a daie in an outsallie that she made by a Picard of the Lord of Lutzenburghs band, in the fiercest of hir fight she was taken, and by him by and by to his Lord presented, who

sold hir over again to the English, who for witchcraft and sorcerie burnt hir at Rone. Tillet telleth it thus, that she was caught at Campeigne by one of the Earl of Lignei's soldiers, from him had to Beaurevoir Castle, where kept a three months, she was after for 10,000 pounds in monie and 300 pounds in rent (all Turnois) sold into the English hands."—In La Vie du Charles VII.

Sentence of the Maid.

In which for hir pranks so uncouth and suspicious, the Lord Regent by Peter Chauchon Bishop of Beauvois (in whose diocesse she was taken) caused her life and beleefe, after order of law, to be inquired upon and examined. Wherein found though a virgin, yet first shamefullie-rejecting hir sex abominablie in acts and apparell to have counterfeited mankind, and then all damnablie faithlesse, to be a pernicious instrument to hostilitie and bloudshed in divelish witchcraft and sorcerie, sentence accordingliewas pronounced against hir. Howbeit upon humble confession of hir iniquities, with a counterfeit contrition pretending a careful sorrowe for the same, execution spared and all mollified into this, that from thenceforth she should cast off hir unnatural wearing of man's abilliments, and keepe hir to garments of hir owne kind, abjure her pernicious practises of sorcerie and witcherie, and have life and leasure in perpetuall prison to bewaile hir misdeeds, which to performe (according to the manner of abjuration) a solemne oath verie gladlie she took.

"But herein (God helpe us) she fullie afore possest of the feend, not able to hold hir in anie towardness of grace, falling streightwaie into hir former abominations, (and yet seeking to catch out life as long as she might) stake not (tho the shift were shamefull), to confesse hirself a strumpet, and (unmarried as she was) to be with child. For triall, the Lord Regent's lenitie gave her nine months staie, at the end whereof, she, found herein as fulse as wicked in the rest, an eight daies after, upon a farther definitive sentence declared against hir to be relapse and a renouncerof hir oath and repentance, was she thereupon delivered over to secular power, and so executed by eonsumption of fire in the old market place of Rone, in the selfe same steede where now St. Michael's Church stands; hir ashes afterward without the towne wals shaken into the wind."Holinshed, p. 604.

Perfumed Room in Alkambra.

Is the cabinet (of the Alhambra) where the Queen used to dress and say her prayers, and which is still an enchanting sight, there is a slab of marble full of small holes, through which perfumes exhaled, that were kept constantly burning beneath. The doors and windows are disposed so as to afford the most agreeable prospects, and to throw a soft yet lively light upon the eyes. Fresh currents of air, too, are admitted, so as to renew every- instant the delicious coolness of this apartment. — From the Sketch of Moorish History prefixed to Florian's Gonsalvo of Cordova. Consult Swinburne and Du Pebroh.

Fate of Flavy who betrayed the Maid.

"Whe5 Compeigne was besieged by the English and Burgundians, the maid with Xaintrailles threw herself into it. A party which sallied out were driven back by the English. Joan secured their retreat, but Flavy the governor shut the gates upon her, and she was pulled off her horse and taken by the bastard of Vendôme.

"Blanche the wife of Flavy suspected him, soon after, of an intention to murder her, she resolved to be beforehand with him, courted the assistance of his barber and strangled her husband. Charles probably thought her motives such as justified the fact, for he granted her a free pardon."— Andrews. See Brantôme.

Charles might have saved the maid by

threatening reprisal on Talbot, Suffolk, and his other prisoners. The Cardinal of Winton was the only Englishman among her judges.

Insults offered to the Maid in Prison.

Hist, de France par Villaret, 4to. Paris, 1770, tome 8, p. 27, referring to 1431.

"Depos. du Seigneur de Macy present à cette entrevue. "Dans le temps que les commissaries travailloient à l'instruction du procès avec le plus actif acharnement, le Comte de LigneLuxembourg eut l'inhumaine curiosité de voir cette généreuse prisonnière, lui qui l'avoit si lâchement vendue. Les Comtes de Warwick et de Strafford l'aecompagnoient. U voulut lui persuader qu'il venoit pour traiter de sa rançon. Elle dédaigna de lui faire des reproches, et se contenta de lui dire, ' Vous n'en avez ni la volonté, ni la pouvoir. Je sçais bien que ces Anglois me feront mourir, croyant qu'après ma mort ils gagneront la royaume île France; mais seroient ils cent mille Goddons1 plus qu'ils ne sont à present, ils n'auront pas ce royaume.' Strafford tira son epée et l'auroit perçée, si le Comte de Warwick ne l'avoit retenu."

"Jeanne se plaignit qu'un très grand seigneur d'Angleterre l'avoit voulu violer dans sa prison. L'autorité du coupable n'a pas permis qu'il nous parvint d'éclaircissement sur cette infamre particularité: voici un fait atteste; la Duchesse de Bedford, princesse vertueuse obtint qu'on respecteroit du moins la virginité de la pucelle. Elle l'avoit fait visiter; l'opinion de ce temps étant qu'une sorcière ne pouvoit être vièrge. Il n'est pas du report de l'histoire de prononcer sur l'infallibilité des signes: equivoques ou certains ils ne prouveroient point l'innocence de l'accusée; la purité de

1 " Godam, jurement Anglois qui signifie Dieu me damne,"—the common term for the English in France at that time.

ses mceurs etoit un temoignage irreprochable de son intcgrite. Ces monumens ajoutcnt que le Due de Bedford vit cct examen d'une cbambre voisine, par le moyen d'une ouverture pratiquee dans le mur de separation."

Sword at Fez.

A. D. 1457. Alphonso V. of Portugal assails the Moors of Africa with a powerful army and navy. He aims at the possession of a fancied sword which he supposed to hang on the summit of a tower at Fez.— Andrews.

Death of Agnes and Charles.

A. D. 1449. Agnes Sobel poisoned by the Dauphin (Louis XI.) who was known to hate her, and had once publicly given her a box on the ear. Jacques Coeur the king's mint-master bore the blame; he was forsaken by the rascally Charles whom he had assisted with his private fortune in his greatest need. He went to Cyprus. His friends raised him a large sum, and by commerce he became richer than ever.

A.d. 1461. Ciiables VII. died, destroyed by abstinence lest his son should poison him.

Anglo-Norman Shipping.

"The Anglo-Normans were very expert in the management of their shipping, and fought with great courage. Their chief aim was to grapple with the galleys of their enemies, and come to a close engagement, hand to hand, and board them if possible; though they always began the fight at a distance, with their arrows from their cross-bows, assisted by the archers and slingers. Upon a nearer approach, the close heavy-armed soldier (men of arms) with their spears, axes, swords, and other offensive weapons, supported the engagement. They provided themselves with quick lime finely powdered, and at all times carefully strove to be to

windward of their adversaries, and then threw plentifully of this lime into their faces."—Stbutt.

They had trumpets, horns, and other martial music on board. In one of Strutt's prints a man is represented standing in a kind of battlement or box upon the mast' and hurling down darts and stones upon his enemies. It is one of the series of the life of Beauchamp, Earl Warwick, by John Rous.

From the notes of Stephahus Stephanius to Saxo Orammat. Quoted from Tcbfin. Image of Mahomed.

"TbabvNt Sarraceni, quod Idolum istud Mahumet, quern ipsi colunt, dum adhuc viveret, in nomine suo proprio fabricavit, et D&moniacam legionem quandam sua arte magicft in eft sigillavit; qua; etiain tanta fortitudine illud Idolum obtinet, quod a nullo unquam frangi potuit. Cum enim aliquis Christianus ad illud appropinquat, statim periclitatur; sed cum aliquis Sarracenus causa adorandi vel deprecandi Mahumet accedit, ille incolumis recedit. Si forte super illud avis quaslibct se deposuerit, illico moritur. Est igitur in maris margine lapis antiquus, opere Sarracenico optime sculptu6, supra terrain deorsum latus et quadratus, desursum strictus, altissimus scilicet, quantum solet volare in sublime corvus; super quern elevatur imago ilia de auro optimo, in effigie hominis fusa, super pedes suos erecta, faciem suam tenens versus Meridiem, et manu dextra tenens quandam clavam ingentem; qua; scilicet clava, ut ipsi Sarraceni aiunt, a manu ejus cadet, quando Rex futurus in Gallia natus fuerit, qui totom terrain Hispanicam Christianis legibus, in novissimis temporibus, subjugabit."—Cap. 4.'

1 This does not refer to Saxo Grammaticus but to Turpin's c. iv. " My thologue sua? potius, qu'am Historiie de Vita Caroli Maefni et Rolnndi," as Sleplianus Stephanius caffs it. See Notes on Saio Grammaticus, p. 51. Ed. Sorap, 1644, folio.-J. W. W.

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“INGENs in aede (urbis Arkon) simulacrum omnem humani corporishabitum granditate transcendens, quatuor capitibus, totidemgue cervicibus mirandum perstabat, e quibus duo pectus, totidemg; tergum respicere videbantur. Caeterum tam ante quam retro collocatorum unum dextrorsum, alterum laevorsum contemplationem dirigere widebatur. Corrasae barbae, crines attonsi figurabantur, ut artificiis industriam Rugianorum ritum in cultu capitum aemulatam putares. In dexträ cornu vario metalli genere excultum gestabat, quod sacerdos sacrorum ejus peritus, annuatim mero perfundere consueverat, ex ipso liquoris habitu sequentis anni copias prospecturus. Laevå arcum reflexo in latus brachio figurabat. Tunica ad tibias prominens fingebatur, quae ex diversalignimateria creatae, tamarcano nexu genibus jungebantur, ut compaginis locus non nisi curiosiori contemplatione deprehendipotuerit, pedes humo contigui cernebantur, eorum basi intra solum latente. Haud procul frenum ac sella simulacri, compluraq; divinitatisinsigniavisebantur. Quorum admirationem conspicua granditatis ensis augebat, cujus vaginam ac capulum praeter excellentem coelaturae decorem, exteriorargentispecies commendabat.—Hujus sacerdos, praeter communem patriae ritum, barbae comaeq; prolixitate spectandus, pridie quam rem divinam facere debuisset, sacellum (quod ei soli intrandi fas erat) adhibito scoparum usu, diligentissime purgare solebat, observato ne intra aedem halitum funderet, quo quoties capessendo vel emittendo opus habebat, toties ad januam procurrebat, ne videlicet dei presentia mortalis spiritus contagio pollueretur. — Alia quoque fana compluribus in locis hoc numen habebat, quae per supparis dignitatis, ac minoris potentiae flamines regebantur. Praeterea peculiarem albicoloris equum titulo possidebat, cujus jubae aut caudae pilos convellere nefarium ducebatur, hunc soli sacerdoti pascendi, insidendiq; jus erat, ne divini animalis usus, quo frequentior, hoc

vilior, haberetur. In hoc equo, opinione Rugiae, (Swantowith) Suantovitus, (idsimulacro vocabulum erat) adversum sacrorum suorum hostes bella gerere credebatur. Cujus rei praecipuum argumentum extabat, quod is nocturno tempore stabulo insistens, adeo plerumque manè sudore ac luto respersus videbatur, tanquam ab exercitatione veniendo magnorum itinerum spatia percurrisset."—Saxo Grammaticus, lib. 14.

Grave of Balder.

“Cuyus (Balderi) corpus exercitus regio funere elatum, facto colle condendum curavit. Hunc quidam nostri temporis viri, quorum praecipuus Haraldus erat, vigente veteris sepulturae famá, spe reperiendae pecuniae noctu adorti, repentino coeptum horroreliquerunt,exipsonamqueperruptimontis cacumine subita torrentis vis, magno aquarum strepito prorumpere videbatur, cujus rapidior moles incitatissimolapsu subjectis infusa campis quicquid offendebat involveret. Ad cujus impetum deturbati fossores, abjectis ligonibus, variam carpsere fugam, irruentis aquae vorticibus implicandos se rati, si coeptum diutius exeguiniterentur. Ita a diis loci illius praesidibus incussus subito metus, juvenum animos avaritiã abstractos, ad salutis curam convertit, neglectoque cupiditatis proposito, vitae studiosos esse docuit, hujus autem scaturiginis speciem adumbratam, non veram fuisse constat; nec ab imis terrae visceribus genitam, sed praestigiosá quadam administratione productam, cum in arido liquidos manare fontes natura non sinat. Omnes hunc posteri collem, ad quos fractionis ejus fama transierat, intentatum liquére."—Saro Grammaticus, l. 3.

Norwegian Brothers in the torrent-circled Island.

“FRATREs, (duodecim) deficientibus a se sociis, intra insulam rapidissimo ambitam fluvio praealtam moliti vallum, terrestrem in plano munitionem extenderant; cujus receptaculo freti, crebra vicinos irruptione lacesserant. Excedentes enim insula, eontinentem extrueto ponte petere consueverant. Quern portaj munitionis annexum ita quodam funiculorum regimine moderari solebant, ut quasi volubili aliquo cardine circuuivectus, modo trans flumen iter sterneret, modo occulto restiuni ductu superne retractus janua: deserviret. Fuere autem juvenes hi acres aniniis, robusti juventa, prsestabiles habitu corporis, gigantaeis clari triumphis, trophaeis gentium celebres, spoliig locupletes, quorundam vero ex ipsis nomina (nam eaetera vetustas abstulit) subnotavi. Gerbi^n, Gunbi^irn, Armbi^rn, Stenbi0rn, Esbi^rn, Thorbifirn et Bifirn. Hie equum habuisse traditur pra?stantem corpore, prcepetem velocitate, adeo, ut cseteris amnem trajicere nequeuntibus, hie solus obstrepentem indefessus vorticem superaret. Cujus aqua; lapsus tarn in cito ac pnecipiti volumine defertur, ut animalia nandi vigore defecta plerumque pessundare soleat. Ex summis enim montium cacuminibus manans, dum per elivoruin prarupta saxis exceptus eliditur, in profunda vallium multiplicato aquarum strepitu cadit: verum continuo saxorum obstaculo repercussus, celeritatem impetus eadem semper asquabilitate conservat. Itaque tota alvei tractu, undis uniformiter turbidadis,1 spumeus ubique candor exuberat. At ubi scopulorum angustiis evolutus laxius stagnanda effunditur, ex objects rupe insulam fingit. Pra?ruptum hiuc inde jugum eminet variis arborum generibus frequens, quarum objectus amnem eminus pervideri non sinat."

These Norwegian brothers were killed by the Dane Fridlevus, except Btyrn.—Saxo Grammaticus, 1. 6.

Arnold of Brescia.

Arnold of Brescia, a famous heretic of the twelfth century, born at Brescia in Italy,

1 It is so in the original to which I have referred, p. 97, ut supra. Perhaps it should be turbidatis, which is used by Martianns Capella, elsewhere followed by Saxo.—J. W. W.

from whence he went to France, where he studied under the celebrated Peter Abelard. Upon his return to Italy, he put on the habit of a monk, and began to preach several new and uncommon doctrines, particularly that the pope and all the rest of the clergy ought not to enjoy any temporal estate. He maintained in his sermons, that those ecclesiastics who had any estates of their own, or held any lands, were entirely cut off from the least hopes of salvation; that the clergy ought to subsist upon the alms and voluntary contributions of Christians; and that all other revenues belonged to princes and states, in order to be disposed of amongst the laity as they thought proper. He maintained also several heresies with regard to baptism and the Lord's supper. Otto Frisingensis and St. Bernard have drawn his character in very strong colours. The former tells us that he had wit, address and eloquence; but that his eloquence consisted rather of a torrent of words, than in solid and just sentiments. The same author observes that he was extremely fond of peculiar and new opinions; that he assumed a religious habit on purpose to impose upon mankind more effectually, and under pretence of piety; and, as the Gospel expresses it, in sheep's cloathing carried the disposition of a wolf, tearing every one as he pleased with the utmost fury, without the least regard to any person, and having a particular enmity against the clergy, bishops, and monks. "Would to God (says St. Bernard) that his doctrine was as holy as his life is strict! would you know what sort of man this is? Arnold of Brescia is a man that neither eats nor drinks; who, like the devil, is hungry and thirsty after the blood of souls: who goes to and fro upon the earth, and is always doing among strangers what he cannot do amongst his own countrymen; who ranges like a roaring lion, always seeking whom he may devour; an enemy to the cross of Christ; an author of discords andinventorof schisms, a disturber of the public peace: he is a man whose conversation has nothing but sweetness, and his doctrine nothing but poison in

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