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facing each tion.

nack for two


hath obtained sobriety.usness; ant

Agathe al parini-a


position social

Soberly (sö'bér - li), adv. In a sober Socager (sok'áj-er), n. A tenant by socage; that branch of sociology which treats of the manner; as, (a) without intemperance. a socman.

conditions of the stability or equilibrium (6) Without enthusiasm; temperately; mod So-called (ső-kald'), a. Called by such a of the different parts of society, or the erately. name; so named.

theory of the mutual action and reaction Let any prince think soberly of his forces except Soccage, n. See SOCAGE.

of contemporaneous social phenomena on his militia of natives be valiant soldiers. Bacon, Soccager, n. See SOCAGER.

each other, giving rise to what is called 60(c) Without intemperate passion; coolly; | Soccotrine (sok'ot-rin), a. Same as Socot cial order. - Social roar, in Rom. hist. the calmly. rine.

name given to the struggle (B.C. 91) in which Whenever children are chastised let it be done Socdolager (sok-dol'a-jér), 1. Same as Sock the Italian tribes, who were specially termed without passion and soberly. Locke. dolager.

the allies of the Roman state, fought for (d) Gravely; seriously.

Sociability (so'shi-a-bili-ti), n. (Fr. socia admission into Roman citizenship, which Sober-minded (söʻbér-mind-ed), a. Having bilité, from sociable.) The quality of being would give them among other things the a disposition or temper habitually sober, sociable; sociableness. Warburton.

right to share in the distribution of public calm, and temperate.

Sociable (so'shi-a-bl), a. (Fr. sociable, lands. In the end the allies virtually obSober-mindedness (so'ber-mind-ed-nes), n. L. sociabilis. See SOCIAL.] 1. Capable of tained all they strove for, though at the exCalmness; freedom from inordinate passions; being conjoined; fit to be united in one pense of much bloodshed.-The social eru. habitual sobriety. body or company.

a term frequently applied to prostitution.Soberness (so'bêr-Des), n. The state or Another law toucheth them, as they are sociable Syn. Sociable, companionable, conversible, quality of being sober; as, (a) freedom from parts united into one body.

Hooker, friendly, familiar, communicative,convivial, intoxication; temperance. (6) Gravity; 2. Inclined to associate; ready to unite with

festive. seriousness. others. To make man mild and sociable to

Socialism (soʻshal-izm ), nk. The name apThe soberness of Virgil might have shown him the man.' Addison.-3. Disposed to company;

plied to various theories of social organizadifference.

fond of companions; companionable; con-

tion having for their common aim the abo(c) Freedom from heat and passion; calm versible; social.

lition of that individual action on which ness; coolness.

Society is no comfort

modern societies depend, and the substituI am not mad, most noble Festus, but speak forth

To one not sociable.

Shak. tion of the regulated system of co-operative the words of truth and soberness. Acts xxvi. 25.

Them thus employ'd beheld action. The term, which originated among Sober-suited (S0'ber-süt-ed), a. Clad in

With pity Heaven's high King, and to him called the English communists, and was assumed

Raphael the sociable spirit, that deign'd dark or sad-coloured garments; not gaily

by them to designate their own doctrine, To travel with Tobias.

Milton. dressed. Thou sober-suited matron, all in

is now employed in a larger sense, not neblack.' Shak.

4. Affording opportunities for conversation: cessarily implying communism, or the entire Soboles (sob'ő-léz), n. [L.) In bot. a creep

as, a sociable party.-5.No longer hostile; abolition of private property, but applied ing underground stem. friendly.

to any system which requires that the land Soboliferous (sob-o-liffér-us), a. (L. soboles,

Is the king sociable,

and the instruments of production should And bids thee live

Beau, & FI. a young shoot, and fero, to bear.) In bot.

be the property, not of individuals, but of producing young plants from a creeping

SYN. Social, companionable, conversible, communities or associations, or of the gorstem or soboles underground friendly, familiar, communicative, acces

ernment. Sobriety (so-bri'e-ti), n. (Fr. sobriété : L.


Socialist (so'shal-ist), n. One who advosobrietas, from sobrius. See SOBER.) 1. Ha- Sociable (so'shi-a-bl), n. 1. An open carriage cates the doctrines of socialism. bitual soberness or temperance in the use of

with seats facing each other, and thus con A contest which can do the most for the common intoxicating liquors; abstemiousness; ab

venient for conversation. - 2. A kind of good is not the kind of competition which socialists couch with a curved S-shaped back for two repudiate.

9. S. Mill. stinence; as, a man of sobriety. Sobriety hath obtained to signify temperance in

persons, who sit partially facing each other. Socialist. Socialistic (so'shal-ist, so-shalFer Taylor,

3. A gathering of people for social purposes; ist'ik), a. Pertaining to socialism, or to the Public sobriety is a relative duty. Blackstone. an informal party. (United States.)

principles of the socialists. 2. Freedom from the influence of strong

Sociableness (so'shi-a-bl-nes), n. The qua It must be remembered that in a socialist farm or

lity of being sociable; disposition to associ manufactory, each labourer would be under the eye drink. - 3. Habitual freedom from enthusiasm, inordinate passion, or overheated

not of one master, but of the whole community. ate; inclination to company and social intercourse.

7. S. Mill imagination; calmness; coolness. Mild

The national or anti-western current of Russian Sociably (so'shi-a-bli). adv. In a sociable behaviour and sobriety.' Shak. The staid.

political thought finds no more quarter in another manner; with free intercourse; conversibly; paper on the socialistic system of the Russian pea. ness and sobriety of age.' Dryden. The familiarly.

sant communities.

Sal. Re. sobrieties of virtue.' South.-4. Seriousness;

Social (so's a. (Fr. social, from L. socigravity without sadness or melancholy.

Sociality (so-shi-al'i-ti). n. Socialness: the alis, from socius, a companion, from the quality of being social. A scene of perMirth makes them not mad,

root of L. sequor, to follow (whence E. se-
Nor sobriety sad.

| fectly easy sociality.' Boswell.

quence, &c.). 1. Pertaining to society; re- | Socialize (so'shal-iz), v.t. pret. & pp. social. SYN. Soberness, temperance, abstinence, ab

lating to men living in society, or to the stemiousness, moderation, regularity,steadi

ized; ppr. socializing. 1. To render social public as an aggregate body; as, social in- | 2. To form or regulate according to socialness, calmness, coolness, sober-mindedness,

terests or concerns; social duties. Social ism. sedateness, staidness, gravity, seriousness, morality.' Locke.

Socially (so'shal-li), adv. In a social mansolemnity.

The subject of pauper labour generally is one of ner or way; as, to mingle socially with one's Sobriquet (so- bré - kå), n. (Fr.) A nick

the most difficult topics that the social philosopher neighbours. name: a fanciful appellation. Often spelled can deal with.


Socialness (sõ'shal-nes), n. The quality of according to an old French mode, Soubri.

2. Ready or disposed to mix in friendly con 1 being social.

verse; companionable; conversible; sociable; | Sociatet (so'shi-át), n. An associate. "Az The Moriscoes, who understood his character well, held him in terror, as they proved by the familiar soas, a person of social tastes.

for you, Dr. Reynolds, and your sociates.' briquet which they gave him of the 'iron-headed

Withers, adieu! yet not with thee remove

Fuller. devil.'


Thy martial spirit or thy social love. Pope. Sociatet (so'shi-át), v.i To associate. Soc. Soke (sok, sók), n. (A. Sax. 80c, a soke, 3. Consisting in union or mutual converse. Societarian (so-si'e-tá"ri-an), n. Of or liberty, originally the privilege of holding

Thou in thy secrecy, although alone

pertaining to society; societary. "The alla court, from the stem of seek, and there

Best with thyself accompanied, seek'st not

sweeping besom of societarian reformation.' fore akin to sake. Comp. Icel. sókn, an action

Social communication.


Lamb. at law, an assemblage of people, from sækja, 4. In bot. growing naturally in large groups

Societary (80-si'e-ta-ri). a. Pertaining to to seek.] 1. The power or privilege of hold or inasses: a name applied to plants which society. J. Hutchison Stirling. (Rare) ing a court in a district, as in a manor: live in society, occupying exclusively large Society (So-si'e-ti), n. [Fr. société; L. sociejurisdiction of causes, and the limits of that tracts of ground, from which they banish tas, from socius, a companion. See SOCIAL) jurisdiction.-2. Liberty or privilege of ten all other vegetables, such as many species 1. The relationship of men to one another ants excused from customary burdens. - of sea-weed, mosses, ferns, &c.-5. In zool. liv. when associated in any way; social sym3. An exclusive privilege claimed by millers ing in groups or communities, as wolves, deer, pathy; companionship; fellowship; comof grinding all the corn used within the wild cattle, &c.; or as ants, bees, &c., which pany. To abjure the society of men.' Shak. manor in which the mill stands, or of being form co-operative communities. -Social con I beseech your society. And thank you too; for paid for the same as if actually ground. tract or original contract, that imaginary society, saith the text, is the happiness of life. Shal. 4. A shire, circuit, or territory. bond of union which keeps mankind together,

For solitude sometimes is best society, Socage, Soccage (sok'aj), n. (L.L. soca and which consists in a sense of mutual weak

And short retirement urges sweet return. Nikten. gium, socage; lit. the tenure of one overness. It is the solid and natural foundation, 2. Participation; connection. The meanest whom his lord had a certain jurisdiction. as well as the cement, of civil society.-Social of the people, and such as have least society from soc (which see).] In law, a tenure science, the science of all that relates to the with the acts and crimes of kings.' Jer. Toy. of lands in England by the performance social condition, the relations, and institu

lor.-3. A number of persons united together of certain and determinate service: distin

tions which are involved in man's existence by mutual consent in order to deliberate, guished both from knight-service, in which

and his well-being as a member of an or determine, and act jointly for some common the render was uncertain, and from villen ganized community. It concerns itself more purpose; an association formed for the proage, where the service was of the meanest especially with questions relating to public motion of some object, either literary, scikind. Socage has generally been distin health, education, labour, punishment of entific, political, religious, benevolent, conguished into free and villein-free socage, crime, reformation of criminals, pauperism, vivial, or the like; an association for mutual or common or simple socage, where the ser and the like. It thus deals with the effect profit, pleasure, or usefulness; a social vice was not only certain but honourable, of existing social forces, and their result on union; a partnership; a club. as by fealty and the payment of a small the general well-being of the community,

Marriage is a human society, and ... all human sum, as of a few shillings, in name of annual without directly discussing or expounding Society must proceed from the mind rather than the rent, and villein socage, where the service, the theories or examining the problems of

Mitten. though certain, was of a baser nature. This sociology, of which it may be considered as 4. The persons, collectively considered, who last tenure was the equivalent of what is a branch. - Social dynamics, that branch of live in any region or at any period; any now called copyhold tenure.

sociology which treats of the conditions of community of individuals united together Common socage is the ordinary tenure in this

the progress of society from one epoch to by any common bond of nearness or intercountry.

Wharton. another. See SOCIOLOGY. - Social statics, course; those who recognize each other as



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associates, friends, and acquaintances; spe ceives and holds something

protoxide is dissolved in water, there is

IVOS an nolas something else: as the cifcally, the more cultivated portion of any sockets of the teeth or of the eyes.

formed the trne alkali or hydrate of sodium, community in its social relations and influ His eyeballs in their hollow sockets sink. Dryden. called also caustic alkali, Na HO, which is a ences: hence, often those who give and reGomphosis is the connection of a tooth to its socket.

white brittle mass of a fibrous texture, hayceive formal entertainments mutually: used

Wisemani. ing a specific gravity of 1.536. Caustic soda without the article.

2. Especially, the little hollow tube or place has a most corrosive taste and action upon Saunty having ordained certain customs, men are

in which a candle is placed in a candlestick. animal substances : it dissolves readily both bound to obey the laws of society, and conform to its And in the sockets oily bubbles dance.' in water and alcohol, in the solid form it harmless orders. ... I should go to one of the Dryden.

readily attracts carbonic acid from the attea parties in a dressing-gown and slippers, and not Socket - bolt (sok'et-bolt). n. In mach, a mosphere, falling thereby into an effiorescent ia the usual attire of a gentleman, viz pumps, a gold

bolt that passes through a thimble placed carbonate. It forms soaps with tallow, oils, waistcoat, a crush bat, a sham frill, and a white choker, I should be insulting society. ... It has its

between the parts connected by the bolt. wax, rosin; dissolves wool, hair, silk, horn, tode and police as well as governments, and he must Socket-chisel (sok'et-chiz-el), n. A chisel alumina, silica, sulphur, and some metallic conform who would profit by the decrees set forth for made with a socket; a stronger sort of chisel sulphides. With acids soda forms salts their common comfort.


used by carpenters for mortising, and worked which are soluble in water, and many of - Society journal or newspaper, a journal | with a mallet.

which crystallize. The carbonate of soda, whose main object is to chronicle the say-Socket-joint (sok'et-joint), n. A species of Na, Coq101, 0, is the soda of commerce in ings and doings of fashionable society. -- joint in which a ball turns. Called properly various states, either crystallized, in lumps, Society rerses, verses for the amusement of I a Ball-and-socket Joint. See under BALL. or in a crude powder called soda-ash. The polite society: poetry of a light, entertain Socket-pole (sok'et-pol), n. A pole armed manufacture of carbonate of soda is divided inz, polished character.

with an iron socket, and used to propel into three branches. The first process is Socinian (so-sin'i-an), a. (From Lælius and boats, &c. (American.)

the decomposition of sea-salt or common Faustus Socinus, uncle and nephew, natives Sockless (sok'les), a. Destitute of socks or salt (chloride of sodium) by means of sulof Sienna, in Tuscany, the founders of the shoes.

phuric acid; the second, the conversion of seet of Socinians in the sixteenth century.] You shall behold one pair of legs, the feet of which the sulphide of sodium so produced into Pertaining to Lælius or Faustus Socinus or were in times past sockless.

Beau, & FI. crude carbonate of soda by strongly heating their religious creed.

Sock-plate (sok'plāt), n. A plate from which with chalk and carbonaceous matter; and Socinian (so-sin'i-an), n. One of the fol a ploughshare is made.

third, the purification of this crude carbonlowers of Socinus; a Unitarian. Socky (sok'i), a. See SOAKY.

ate, either into a dry white soda-ash or into Socinianism (0-sin'i-an-izm). n. The tenets Socle (so'kl), n. (Fr. socle, L. Socculus, dim. crystals. The chief uses of soda are in the of the Socinians, the teaching or doctrines of of soccus. See Sock, a shoe.) In arch, a manufacture of glass and of hard soap. The Lælius and Faustus Socinus (sixteenth cen flat square member of less height than its carbonate of soda is used in washing, and tury) who denied the doctrine of the Trinity, horizontal dimension, serving to raise pe is a powerful detergent, although milder the deity of Christ, the personality of the destals, or to support vases or other orna than carbonate of potash. It is also used devil, the native and total depravity of man, ments. It differs from a pedestal in being in medicine. Sulphate of soda is glauberthe vicarious atonement, and the eternity of without base or cornice. A continued socle salts. See SODIUM futare punishment. Their theory was that is one continued round a building.

Soda-alum (so'da-al-um), n. A crystalline Christ was a man divinely commissioned, Socman (sok'man), n. [Soc and man.) One mineral, a hydrated double sulphate of who had no existence before he was miracu who holds lands or tenements by socage. aluminium and sodium, found on the Island lously and sinlessly conceived by the Virgin Socmanry (sok'man-ri), n. Tenure by socage. of Milo, at Solfatara, and near Mendoza, on Mary: that human sin was the imitation of Socomet (sok'om), 12.A custom of tenants the east of the Andes. Adam's sin, and that human salvation was to grind corn at the lord's mill.

Soda-ash (sö'da-ash). n. Dehydrated carthe imitation and adoption of Christ's vir Socotran, Socotrine (so'ko-tran, sö'ko-trin), bonate of soda in the form of powder. tue; that the Bible was to be interpreted 1. A native or inhabitant of Socotra, an | Sodaic (só-dā'ik), a. Of, or relating to, or by human reason, and that its metaphors island on the east coast of Africa, near the

containing soda; as, sodaic powders. were not to be taken literally. The Socini. 1 mouth of the Gulf of Aden.

Soda-lime (so'da-lim), n. In chem. a mixans are now represented by the Unitarians. | Socotrine (so'kő-trin), a. Of or pertaining ture of caustic soda and quicklime, used Socinianize (so-sin'i-an-iz), v.t. To cause to

to Socotra, an island in the Indian Ocean chiefly for nitrogen determinations in or. conform or adapt to Socinianism; to regu off the east coast of Africa. --Socotrine aloes. ganic analysis. late by the principles of Socinianism.

the best kind of aloes, obtained from the Sodalite (sõ'da-lit), n. (Soda, and Gr. lithos. Sociologic, Sociological (so'shi-o-loj"ik, leaves of Aloe socotrina, a native of Socotra a stone.) A mineral; so called from the so'shi-6-loj"ik-al), a. Of or pertaining to and the Cape of Good Hope, but now com large portion of soda which enters into its sociology

monly cultivated in the East Indies. See composition. It is of a bluish-green colour, Sociologist (sö-shi-ol'o-jist), 11. One who ALOE

and found crystallized or in masses. Besides trests of or devotes himself to the study of Socratic. Socratical (so-krat'ik, ső-kratik soda it contains silica, alumina, and hydrosociology. J. S. Will

al), a. Pertaining to Socrates the Grecian chloric acid. Sociology (sö-shi-oľo-ji), n. (L. socius, a sage, or to his language or manner of teach Sodality (so-dal'i-ti), n. L. sodalitas, from companion, and Gr. logos, discourse.] The ing and philosophizing. The Socratic method sodalis, a companion.] A fellowship or frascience which investigates the laws or forces of reasoning and instruction was by interro ternity. which regulate human society in all its gatories. Instead of laying down a propo A new confraternity was instituted in Spain, of the grades, existing and historical, savage and sition authoritatively, this method led the slaves of the Blessed Virgin, and this sodality estab. civilized; the science which treats of the antagonist or disciple to acknowledge it

lished with large indulgencies. Stillingfeet. general structure of society, the laws of its himself by dint of a series of questions put Soda-paper (so'da-pa-per), n. A paper satudevelopment, and the progress of actual to him. It was not the object of Socrates rated with carbonate of soda: used as a testcivilization. See also under SOCIAL.

to establish any perfectly evolved system of paper, and also for inclosing powders which The study of socialogy, scientifically carried on by

doctrine, so much as to awaken by his dis are to be ignited under the blow-pipe, so tracing down primary effects to secondary and ter. courses a new and more comprehensive pur that they may not be blown away. tary effects which multiply as they diffuse, will dissi. suit of science, which should direct itself to Soda-powder (sö'da-pou-dér), n. Same as pate the current illusions that social evils admit of

all that is knowable. To him is ascribed Seidlitz-pouder. radical care.

H. Spencer.

two of the very first principles of science, Soda-salt (sö'da-salt), n. In chem. a salt Socios criminis (so'shi-us krim'in-is). (L.) namely, the inductive method and the defi having soda for its base. In law, an accomplice or associate in the nition of ideas.

Soda-water (so'da-wa-ter), n. A refreshing commission of a crime.

Socratically (ső-krat'ik-al-li), adv. In the drink generally consisting of ordinary water Sock (sok), n. (O.E. sok, socke, A. Sax. 80cc, Socratic manner; by the Socratic method. into which carbonic acid has been forced from L occur, a kind of light low-heeled Socratism (sok'rat-izm), n. The doctrines under pressure. On exposure to the ordinary shoe, especially worn by comic actors.) or philosophy of Socrates.

atmospheric pressure the excess of carbonic 1 The shoe worn by the ancient actors of Socratist (sok'rat-ist), n. A disciple of So acid escapes, thus causing effervescence. comedy; hence, comedy, in distinction from crates.

It rarely contains soda in any form. It is tragedy, which is symbolized by the bus Sod (sod), n (L.G. and O.D. sode, D. zoode, I useful in cases of debility of the stomach,

0. Fris. satha; perhaps from same root as accompanied with acidity. Great Fletcher never treads in buskin here,

sad, in the sense of firm.] That stratum of Sod-burning (sod' bērn-ing), n. In agri. Nor greater Jonson dares in socks appear. Dryden, earth on the surface which is filled with the the burning of the turf of old pasture-lands He was a critic upon operas too,

roots of grass, or any portion of that sur for the sake of the ashes, as manure. And knew all niceties of the sack and buskin. face; turf; sward. Turfes and sods.' Hol Sodden (sod'n), v.i. To be seethed or soaked;

Byron. inshed. To rest beneath the clover sod.' to settle down, as if by seething or boiling. 2 A knitted or woven covering for the foot, Tennyson. Sometimes used adjectively.

It (avarice) takes as many shapes as Proteus, and shorter than a stocking; a stocking reaching Her casement sweet woodbines crept wantonly round, may be called above all the vice of middle life, that but a short distance up the leg.3. A warm And deck'd the sod seats at her door.

soddens into the gangrene of old age, gaining strength inner sole for a shoe.

7. Cunningham. by vanquishing all virtues, Mrs. S. C. Hall. BOCK (sok), n (Fr. koc, a ploughshare, from Sod (sod), v. t. pret. & pp. sodded; ppr. sod

Sodden (sod'n), v. t. To soak: to fill the tis. De Celtic: Armor. soc'h. Corn. soch.' Gael. 1ding. To cover with sod; to turi.

sues of with water, as in the process of seethB) A ploughshare. Sod (sod), pret. & pp. of seethe.

ipg: to saturate. Clothes soddened with Sockdolager. Sockdologer (sok-dol'a-jér, And Jacob sod pottage; and Esau came from the | wet.' Dickens. sok-colo-jer). n. (A perversion of doxology.)

field and he was saint.

Gen. xxv. 29.

Sodden (sod'n), p. of seethe, and a. 1. Boiled: I A conclusive argument: the winding up Soda (sö'da), n. [Sp. Pg. and It. soda, glass seethed.-2. Soaked and softened, as in of a debate: a settler.--2. A knock-down or wort, barilla, from Ar. sued, soda.) Na O.) water: applied to bread not well baked; decisive blow.-S. A patent fish-hook having The protoxide of the metal sodium, formerly doughy. Used as the first element of a comtwo hooked points which close upon each called mineral alkali. It has likewise been pound. Thou sodden-witted lord.' Shak. other 18 soon as the fish bites, thus securing called a fixed alkali, in contradistinction Soddy (sod'i), a. Consisting of sod; covered its victim. Spelled also Socdolager. [A from ammonia, which is a volatile alkali. with sod; turfy. United States word. )

Soda, or protoxide of sodium, is formed when Soden, t a. Sudden. Chaucer. Socket (sok'et). n. [From sock, a shoe.) 1. An sodium is burned in dry air or oxygen. It Sodert (sö'der), v.t. To solder. opening or cavity into which anything is is a white powder, which attracts moisture

Let him bethink ... how he will soder up the Atted; any hollow thing or place which re and carbonic acid from the air. When this shifting Aaws of his ungirt permissions. Miltor.




Sodert (so'dér), n. Solder.
Sodium (sõ'di-um), n. (See SODA.) Sym. Na
(from Natrium). At. wt. 23. The metal of
which soda is the oxide, discovered by Davy
in 1807. He obtained it by a process exactly
similar to that by which he procured potas-
sium, which it strongly resembles in many
properties. Gay-Lussac and Thénard soon
afterwards procured it in greater quantity
by decomposing soda by means of iron; and
Brunner showed that it may be prepared
with much greater facility by distilling a
mixture of sodic carbonate with charcoal:
it is now prepared by the latter process in
considerable quantities. Sodium is a silver-
white metal, having a very high lustre. Its
sp. gr. is 0-972; it melts at 194' Fahr., and
oxidizes rapidly in the air, though not so
rapidly as potassium. It decomposes water
instantly, but does not spontaneously take
fire when thrown on water, unless the water
be somewhat warm, or the progress of the
globule of sodium upon the surface of the
water be impeded. When heated in air or
oxygen it takes fire and burns with a very
pure and intense yellow flame. It is per-
haps more abundant in our globe than any
other metal,for it constitutes two-fifths of all
the sea-salt existing in sea-water, in the water
of springs, rivers, and lakes, in almost all
soils, and in the form of rock-salt. Sea-salt
is a compound of chlorine with sodium.
Sodium also occurs as oxide of sodium or
soda in a good many minerals, and more
especially in the form of carbonate, nitrate,
and borate of soda. Soda is contained in
sea plants, and in land plants growing near
the sea. It occurs also in most animal fluids.
The only important oxide of sodium is the
protoxide known as soda. See SODA.
Sodom-apple (sod'om-ap-1), n. 1. The name
given to the fruit of a species of Solanum
(S. sodomeum).-2. A product described by
Strabo, Tacitus, and Josephus, as a fruit
found on the shores of the Dead Sea, beau-
tiful to the sight, but turning to bitter ashes
when eaten, in reality a gall produced on
dwarf-oaks by the puncture of a species of
gall-insect. The Sodom-apple or apple of
Sodom is employed as a rhetorical figure to
represent what excites high hopes or expec-
tations, but ultimately produces only bitter

Your poor mother's fond wish, gratified at last in the mocking way in which overfond wishes are too often fulfilled-sodom-apples as they are.


ing of an apartment divided by cross-beams Mayhew. - 9. Gentle in action or motion;
into compartments. (d) The under part of steady and even.
an overhanging cornice, of a projecting bal. On her soft axle while she paces even,

She bears thee soft with the shooth air along,

Milter, 10. Effeminate; not manly or courageous; viciously nice.

An idle soft course of life is the source of criminal pleasures.

W. Bropene 11. Gentle; easy; quiet; undisturbed; as, soft Blumbers.

Soft stillness and the night Become the touches of sweet harmony. Shas. 12. Foolish; simple; silly.

He made soft fellows stark noodies. Bartost,

13. Readily forming a lather and washing well ss, Soffits.

with soap; not hard; as, soft water is the

best for washing. See HARD.-14. In procony, an entablature, a staircase, &c.-2. In

nunciation, not pronounced with a hard en scene painting, a border. See SCENE, 6.

plosive utterance, but with more or less of Sofi (so'f), n. (Per. sufi or sof, probably from

a sibilant sound, as c in cinder, as opposed Gr. sophos, wise. Comp. sophi.) One of a

to c in candle; and g in gin, as opposed to g religious order in Persia, otherwise termed in gift. -Soft money, paper money, as dis. dervishes. See DERVIS.

tinguished from hard cash or coin. - Soft Sofism (so'fizm), n. The mystical doctrines

palate. See under PALATE.-Soft &auder, of the class of Mohammedan religionists

flattery, generally with the view of playing called sofis. Written also Sufism.

on a person; blarney. (American.] Soft (soft), a. (A. Sax. softe, soft, Sc. and We trust to soft sawder to get them into the house. 0. Sax, saft, O.D. saeft, saft; these are con

and to human natur that they never come out of it.

Halidurter. tracted forms, having lost an n, seen in G.

-Soft soap, (a) a coarse kind of soap. See sanft, soft; comp. other, tooth, sooth, which

under SOAP. (b) As a slang term, flattery: have also lost n.] 1. Easily yielding to pres

blarney; soft sawder. sure; easily penetrated; impressible; yield

Soft (soft), n. A soft person; a person who ing: the contrary of hard; as, a soft bed; a

is weak or foolish. [Colloq. or slang. ) soft peach; soft earth; soft wood. So we speak of a soft stone when it breaks or is

It'll do you no good to sit in a spring-cart o' your

own, if you've got a soft to drive you. George Eliot hewed with ease. "A good soft pillow.' Shak, 2. Easily susceptible of change of form;

Soft (soft), adv. Softly; gently; quietly. hence, easily worked; malleable; as, soft

Soft whispering thus to Nestor's son.'Pope.

Soft (soft), interj. Be soft; hold; stop; not For spirits, when they please,

so fast. Soft! no haste.' Shak. Can either sex assume, or both; so Sot

But sof? my muse, the world is wide. Suckling. And uncompounded is their essence pure.


Softt (soft), v.t. To soften. Spenser. 3. Delicate; fine; not coarse; hence, femi

Softa (sof'ta), n. [Turk.) In Turkey, a pupil nine; as, the softer sex.

of a medrissa or secondary school engaged in Her heavenly form

professional studies for offices in the church, Angelic, but more soft and feminine. Milton, the law, the army, or the state: often re

stricted to students of the Koran. Written 4. Easily yielding to persuasion or motives;

also Sophta. See HODJA
flexible: impressible; facile; weak. A few
divines of so soft and servile tempers.'

Soft-conscienced (soft-kon'shenst), a. Har.

ing a tender conscience, 'Soft-conscienced Eikon Basilikē.

men.' Shak. The deceiver soon found this soft place of Adam's. Soften (sof'n). v.t. To make soft or more

Glanville. 5. Tender; timorous; fearful.

soft; as, (a) to make less hard in substance.

Soften steel and stones.' Shak.
However sort within themselves they are,
To you they will be valiant by despair. Dryden.

Their arrows' point they soften in the fame. Gay 6. Mild: gentle; kind; not severe or unfeel.

(6) To mollify; to make less fierce or intracing; lenient; easily moved by pity; suscep

table; to make more susceptible of humane tible of kindness, mercy, or other tender

or fine feelings; as, to soften a hard heart; affections. The tears of soft remorse.'

to soften savage natures. (C) To make less Shak.

harsh or severe, less rude, less offensive or

violent; as, to soften an expression.
Women are soft, mild, pitiful and flexible;
Thou stern, obdurate, Minty, rough, remorseless.

He bore his great commission in his look,

But sweetly temper'd awe, and seller'd all he spoke.
Yet soft his nature, though severe his lay. Pope.


The flippant put himself to school
7. Civil; complaisant; courteous; not rough, And heard thee, and the brazen fool
rude, or irritating; as, a person of soft man-

Was softened, and he knew not why. Terryton ners.

(d) To palliate; to represent as less enorA soft answer turneth away wrath. Prov. xv. I. mous; as, to soften a fault. (e) To make easy, Thou art their soldier, and being bred in broils,

to compose; to mitigate; to alleviate. Hast not the soft way, which thou dost confess

Music can soften pain to ease. Pepe
Were fit for thee to use, as they to claim,
In asking their good loves.


(f) To make calm and placid. 8. Affecting the senses in a mild, bland, or

Bid her be all that cheers or softens life. Pofte delicate manner; as, (a) smooth; flowing:

(9) To make less glaring; to tone down; as, not rough or vehement; not harsh ; gentle

to soften the colouring of a picture. (A) TO or melodious to the ear; as, a soft voice; a

inake tender; to make effeminate; to enersoft sound; soft accents; soft whispers.

vate; as, troops softened by luxury. O TO

make less strong or intense in sound; to Her voice was ever soft, Gentle, and low; an excellent thing in woman.

make less loud; to make smooth to the ear; Shak.

as, to soften the voice. Soft were my numbers, who could take offence? Soften (sof'n), v. i. To become soft or less


hard; as, (a) to become more pliable and (6) Not harsh or offensive to the sight; mild

yielding to pressure.
to the eye; not strong or glaring: not ex-
citing by intensity of colour or violent con-

Many bodies that will hardly melt, will soften.

Bacon trast: as, soft colours; the soft colouring of (5) To become less rnde harsh or cruel: as, a picture.

savage natures soften by civilization. (c) To The sun shining on the upper part of the clouds, become less obstinate or obdurate: to bemade ... the softest sweetest lights imaginable.

Sir T. Browne.

come more susceptible of humane feelings (c) Agreeable to perceive or feel. 'As sweet

and tenderness; to relent. as balm, as soft as air.' Shak. (d) Smooth

We do not know to the touch; not rough, rugged, or harsh;

How he may soften at the sight of the child. SA. delicate; fine; as, soft silk; soft skin.

(d) To become more mild. Her hand, ... to whose soft seizure

The softening air is balm Thomsen. The cygnet's down is harsh.

Shak. (e) To pass by soft imperceptible degrees : But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed to melt; to blend. Shade unperceird, $0 in soft raiment ? behold, they that wear soft clothing softening into shade.' Thomson. are in kings' houses.

Mat. xi. 8.

Softener (sof'n-er), n. One who or that which Hence, applied to textile fabrics, as opposed softens. Also written Softner. to hardware; as, soft goods. The pack- | Softening (sof'n-ing).n. 1. The act of making man, with his bale of soft wares at his back.'| soft or softer. -2. In painting, the blending

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Sodomite (59. One guilty of sodou Relating

1. An inhabitant

of Sodobe (sod'om-it). Mrs. Gaste Sodomitica one guilty of an inhabitant

Sodomitical (sod-om-it’ik-al), a. Relating

to sodomy. Sodomitically (sod-om-it'ik-al-li), adv. In

a sodomitical manner. Sodomy (sod'om-i), n. The crime of Sodom;

a carnal copulation against nature. Soet (so), n. (Fr. seau, a bucket or pail.) A large wooden vessel for holding water; a cowl. Soefult (so'fyl), n. As much as a soe will hold.

A pump grown dry will yield no water; but pour a little into it at first, for one bason-full you may fetch up so many soe-fulls.

Dr. H. More. Soever (so-ev'er). A word compounded of 80 and ever: generally used in composition to extend or render emphatic the sense of such words as who, what, where,&c. ,asin whosoever, whatsoever, wheresoever. (See these words.) It is sometimes used separate from the pronoun; as, in what things soever you undertake, use diligence and fidelity. What love soever by an heir is shown.' Dryden. Sofa (so'fa), n (Fr. and Sp. sofa, a sofa, from Ar. sofah, a bench for resting on before the house, from saffa, to put in order.) A long seat with a stuffed bottom, and raised stuffed back and ends.

Thus first Necessity invented stools,
Convenience next suggested elbow-chairs,

And Luxury th' accomplish'd sofa last. Cowper. Sofa-bed. Sofa-bedstead (so'fa-bed, so'fabed-sted), n. A sofa adapted for use as a bed when required. One of these sofa-beds common in French houses.' Lord Lytton.

Innumerable specimens of that imposition on society-a sofa-bedstead.' Dickens. Sofett (ső-fet), n. A small sofa. (Rare.) Sofit (sof'it), n. (Fr. soffite, It. soffitta, from L. sujigo, to fasten beneath (apparently through an erroneous form sufficta for suf. fixa)-sub, under, and figo, to fasten.] 1. In arch. (a) the lower surface of a vault or arch. (6) The under horizontal face of an architrave between columns. (c) The ceil




ch other In pathola soi disant (swa dema). Er1 Calling him. I soil (soil). n. In buildina, a provincial term diminution of the natural and healthy firm self; self-styled; pretended; would be.

for a principal rafter of a roof. Gwilt. Dess of organs or parts of organs; mollities. Soigne.t n. (Fr.) Care; diligence; anxiety. Soiliness (soil'i-nes), 1. Stain ; foulness. Softening of the brain, mollities cerebri, Romaunt of the Rose.

(Rare.) an afection of the brain, in which it be Soil (soil), v.t. (0.Fr. soillier (Mod. Fr. sou

Make proof of the incorporation of silver and tin, comes pulpy or pasty.

iller), to soil, to cover with filth. lit. to cover whether it yield no soiliness more than silver, Soft-eyed (soft'id), a. Having soft, gentle, as a pig does by wallowing in mire, from L.

Bacon. Suillus, pertaining to a swine, from sus, a a tender eyes.

Soilless (soilles), a. Destitute of soil or BOW or swine. See also the roun.] 1. To Give virtue scandal, innocence a fear,

mould. Wright. Or from the soft-eyed virgin steal a tear. Pope. make dirty on the surface; to dirty; to

Soil-pipe (soil'pip), n. A pipe for conveying defile; to tarnish; to sully; as, to soil a garSoft-rass (soft'gras), n. The common name

from a dwelling-house, &c., foul or waste ment with dust. of two British species of plants of the genus

water, night-soil, &c. Our wonted ornaments

Soilure (soil'ûr), n. now soild and stain'd.' Milton. Holeus (H. mollis and H. lanatus). See HOL

[Fr. souillure. See

SOIL, v.t.) Stain; defilement; pollution. Either I must, or have mine honour soild

With the attainder of his slanderous lips. Soft-headed (softhed-ed), a. Of weak or

Not making any scruple of her soilure.' Shak.

Shak. [Rare and poetical.) feeble intellect [Familiar.)

2. To cover or tinge with anything extraneSoft-hearted (soft härt-ed), a. Having ten

Then fearing rust or soilure, fashion'd for it ous; as, to soil the earth with blood. Shak.

A case of silk.

Tennyson. demess of heart; susceptible of pity or other

3. To dung; to manure. kindly affection; gentle; meek.

Soilyt (soil'i), a. Dirty; foul; soiled. Men ... soil their ground; not that they love the

Soiree (swa'rá), n. [Fr., from soir, evening. Thou art a prating fellow;

dirt, but that they expect a crop.

South. Car that hath studied out a trick to talk

and that from L. serus, late.] Originally, an And move jeft-hearted people. Beau. & Fl.

Syn. To foul, dirt, dirty, begrime, bemire, evening party held for the sake of converSoft-heartedness (soft'härt-ed-nes), n. The

bespatter, besmear, daub, bedaub, stain, sation only; but the word has since been quality of being soft-hearted or kind-hearted; tarnish, sully, defile, pollute.

introduced into all the languages of modern gentlenesa “A sort of soft-heartedness to

Soil (soil), v.1. To take on dirt; to take a Europe, and is now applied to designate wards the sufferings of individuals.' Jef.

soil or stain; to tarnish ; as, silver soils most descriptions of evening parties, in sooner than gold.

which ladies and gentlemen are intermixed, frey. Soft-horn (soft'horn), n. A foolish per

Soil (soil), n. [In meanings 1 and 2 from the whatever be the amusements introduced.

above verb; in 3 directly from Fr. souille, In this country it is frequently applied to a son; one easily imposed upon; a greenhorn. Collog]

a miry place where a boar wallows; from L. reunion of certain bodies or societies, held Softish (soft'ish), a. Somewhat soft; in

suillus. See the verb.) 1. Any foul matter for the advancement of their respective obchining to softness

upon another substance; foulness.-2. Stain; jects, at which tea, coffee, and other refreshSoftlingt (soft'ling), 1. A sybarite; a volup

tarnish; spot; defilement or taint. Free ments are introduced during the intervals tuary. from touch or soil.' Shak.

of music, speech-making, &c. Edemisate men and sefilings cause the stout inan A lady's honour ... will not bear a soil. Dryden. Soja (so'ja or so'ya), n. [From the sauce to wax tender. Bp. Wootton.

called soy.) A genus of leguminous plants, 3. A marshy or miry place to which a hunted Softly (softli), ade. In a soft manner; as, boar resorts for refuge; hence, wet places,

the only known representative of which is (a) Yot with force or violence; gently; as,

S. hispida, an erect hairy herb with trifoliohe softly pressed my hand. () Not loudly;

streams, or water sought for by other game, late leaves and axillary racemose flowers, a

as deer. without noise; as, speak softly; walk softly.

native of Japan and the Moluccas, and abun

As deer, being stuck, fly through many soils, • In this dark silence softly leave the town.'

dant in the peninsula of India. The seeds Yet still the shaft sticks fast.

Marston. Dryden. (e) Gently; placidly.

resemble those of the French or kidney To take soil, to run into the water or a

bean, and are used by the Chinese to form She syftiy lays him on a flowery bed. Dryden. wet place, as an animal when pursued:

a favourite dish. In Japan they are used in (d) Mdly: tenderly. hence, to take refuge or shelter. 0, sir,

the preparation of soy. Written also Sova. The king must die; have you taken soil here? B. Jonson. -

Solour. 7. Sojourn ; stay; abode. RoThough pity softly pleads within my soul..

4. Dung; compost. Dryden.

maunt of the Rose. -To walk or go softly, to express sorrow,

Improve land by dung and other sort of soils. Sojourn (so'jérn), v.i. (O. Fr. sojorner, 80

Mortimer. priei, contrition, and the like, by one's de- / Soul (soil). n. (O.Fr. soil, soile, Mod. Fr. sol,

journer (Mod. Fr. séjourner), It. soggiornare, meanour.

from a hypothetical L. form subdiurnare, from L. solum, the soil, generally taken And it came to pass when Ahab heard those words,

from L. sub, under, and diurnus, pertaining from the root of solidus, solid.] 1. The upper that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his

to a day, from dies, a day.) To dwell for a Best and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went stratum of the earth; the mould, or that

time: to dwell or live in a place as & temi ki, xxi. 27., compound substance which furnishes nutri.

porary resident, or as a stranger, not conSoftner (sof'n-er). See SOFTENER. ment to plants, or which is particularly

sidering the place as his permanent habiSoftness (soft'nes), n. The quality of being adapted to support and nourish them; earth:

tation. soft, as, (a) that quality of bodies which ren ground. Wherever the surface of the earth

Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there. ders them capable of yielding to pressure, is not covered with water, or is not naked

Gen. xii. Io. or of easily receiving impressions from other

rock, there is a layer of earth more or less The soldiers assembled at Newcastle, and there bodies: opposed to hardness; as, the softmixed with the remains of animal and vege sojourned three days.

Sir 7. Hayward. hou of butter, of a pillow, etc. (6) Suscepti.

table substances in a state of decomposition, SYN. To tarry, abide, stay, remain, live, Wlity of feeling or passion; easiness to be which is commonly called the soil. Soils

dwell, reside. affected; hence, facility; simplicity; weak

may generally be distinguished from mere Sojourn (so'jérn), n. A temporary residence, Ders; as, the softness of the heart or of our masses of earth by their friable nature and

as that of a traveller in a foreign land. In Datures; softness of spirit. (c) Mildness;

dark colour, and by the presence of some our court have made thy amorous sojourn.' kindness; civility: gentleness; meekness;

vegetable fibre or carbonaceous matter. In Shak. as, poftness of words or expressions; soft

uncultivated grounds soils generally occupy Thee I revisit now, . . . though long detained ten of wanders. only a few inches in depth on the surface; In that obscure sojourn.

Milton. For contemplation be and valour form'd, and in cultivated grounds their depth is

Sojourner (so'jérn-ér), n. One who sojourns: For stress she, and sweet attractive grace. generally the same as that to which the

a temporary resident; a stranger or travelMilton. implements used in cultivation have pene- ! ler who dwells in a place for a time. (d) The acceptableness to the senses, as of trated. The stratum which lies immediately

We are strangers before thee and sojourners, as feeling, sight, hearing, &c., arising from under the soil is called the subsoil, which all our fathers were.

Chr. xxix. 15. delicacy, or from the absence of harshness, is comparatively without organized matter. Sojourning (so jern-ing). n. The act of violent contrast, roughness, or the like; as, Soil is composed of certain mixtures or com

dwelling in a place for a time; also, the time the roftness of a voice, of colours, of air, of binations of the following substances: the

of abode. tbe skin, &c(c) Effeminacy; vicious deli earths, silica, alumina, lime, magnesia; the cacy. “A satire against the softness of pro

The sojourning of the children of Israel ... was alkalies, potassa, soda, and ammonia, oxide

four hundred and thirty years.

Ex. xii. 4o. sperity.' Shak.

of iron and small portions of other metallic He was not delighted with the softness of the court. oxides, a considerable proportion of mois

Sojournment (so'jèrn-ment). n. The act of Clarendon, ture, and several gases, as oxygen, hydro

sojourning; temporary residence, as that of Timorousness; pusillanimity: excessive gen, carbonic acid. Besides these every soil

a stranger or traveller. susceptibility of fear or alarm. contains vegetable and animal matters,

I God has appointed our sojournment here as a

period of preparation for futurity. Wakefield, This virtue could not proceed out of fear or soft either partially or wholly decomposed. The


analysing of soils, in order to ascertain their Soke, n. See Soc. b) In art, the opposite of boldness; in some component parts and qualities, and their Sokeman (sökʼman), n. In old Eng. law, instances the term is used to designate adaptation to the growth of various vege

same as Socman. agreeable delicacy; at other times, as in table productions, as well as the methods

Sokemanry (sók'man-ri). n. Socmanry. dicative of want of power. Fairholt. of improving them by means of chemical

Soken, n. [A. Sax. sócn See SoC, SOKE) Sort-epoken (soft' spo-kn), a. Speaking manures, form the subject of agricultural

A district held by tenure of socage. softly having a mild or gentle voice; hence, chemistry.-2. Land; country. Leads dis

Soke - reeve (sok’rëv), n. A rent-gatherer mild; affable. contented steps in foreign soil.' Shak.

in a lord's soke. Sotty (sof'ti), n. A soft or silly person. Must I thus leave thee, Paradise ? thus leave

Sokingly,t ado. Suckingly; gently. ChauCollog)

Thee native soil, these happy walks and shades?

cer. Soget,in Subject Chaucer.

Milton. Soko (söko), n. The native name for a Soggy (sog'i), a. (Icel. söggr, damp, wet,

Soil (soil), v.t. (O. Fr, saouler, to glut, to quadrumanous mammal closely allied to saggi, dampness, moisture; perhaps allied gorge, to satiate, from saoul, Fr. soul; Pr. the chimpanzee, discovered by Dr. Livingto mag. to sink] Wet; soaked with water sadol: It. satollo; L. satullus, full of food. stone at Manyuema, near Lake Tanganyika, or toisture; thoroughly wet; as, 80gry land;

sated, dim, of satur, sated, full) To feed in Central Africa. The flesh is esteemed a foggy timber. This green and soggy mul

(cattle or horses) in the stalls or stables with great delicacy by the natives. It feeds on titude' B. Jonson.

fresh grass daily mowed, instead of putting wild fruits. The soko occasionally kidnaps Soho (80ho), interi. A word used in calling out to pasture-which mode of feeding tends children, but is described as otherwise Trono a distant place; a sportsman's halloo.

to keep the bowels lax; hence, to purge by harmless, unless when attacked. Suket sshot-what seest thou l-Hiin we go to find

feeding upon green food; as, to soil a horse. Sol (sol), 7, (L) 1. The sun. "And when Shak. Shak.

Dan Sol to slope his wheels began.' Thom

mannistry: -205 in foreigiset thus le shades?




son. -2. In her, a term implying or, or gold, in blazoning the arms of emperors, kings, and princes by planets, instead of metal and colour.-3. The name given to gold by the old chemists and alchemists, luna being used to denote silver. Sol (sol), n. (See Sou.] In France, a small

bronze coin; now usually called a sou, Sol (sõl), n. (It.) In music, (a) a syllable applied in solmization to the fifth tone of the diatonic scale. (6) The tone itself. Sola (so'la), n. The name in Bengal.] A plant of the genus Æschynomene, the £. aspera, common in moist places, and in the rainy season, in many parts of the plains of India. The name is also given to the pith-like stem, which is exceedingly light. and with which the natives of India make a great variety of useful articles, especially hats, which are in great request, being very light and cool. Helmets made of sola are much used by European troops in India. Written also Shola. Solace (sol'ās), v. t. pret. & pp. solaced; ppr. solacing. (O.Fr. solace, solas, from L. solatium, from solor, solatus, to solace, to comfort.] 1. To cheer in grief or under calamity: to comfort; to relieve in affliction; to console: applied to persons; as, to solace one's self with the hope of future reward. We will with some strange pastíme solace them.

Shak. 2. To allay: to assuage; as, to solace grief.

A little hint to solace woe.' Tennyson. 3. To delight; to amuse. Solacet (sol'as), v.i. 1. To be happy;

take delight. -2. To take comfort; to be cheered or relieved in grief.

One poor and loving child,
But one thing to rejoice and solace in,
And cruel death hath catch'd it from my sight.

Shak. Solace (sol'as), n. (See the verb transitive.) 1. Comfort in grief; alleviation of grief or anxiety; also, that which relieves in dis. tress; recreation.

The proper solaces of age are not music and compliments, but wisdom and devotion. Johnson. 2. + Happiness; delight --SYN. Consolation, comfort, alleviation, mitigation, relief, l'ecreation, diversion, amusement. Solacement (sol'ās-ment), n. Act of solac

ing or comforting; state of being solaced. Solacious t (80-la'shus), a. Affording com

fort or amusement. Bale. Solanacea (so-la-nă'sē-ė), n. pl. A nat.order of monopetalous exogenous plants, composed of herbs or, rarely, shrubs, natives of most parts of the world, and especially within the tropics. They have alternate leaves, often in pairs, one shorter than the other, terminal or axillary inflorescence, and regular, or nearly regular, monopetalous flowers. The nightshade, potato, capsicum, tomato, egg-plant, and tobacco are all found in this order. The general property of the order is narcotic and poisonous. This prevails to a greater or less degree in all the plants of the order, although certain parts of the plants, when cultivated, are used for food. Solanaceous (ső-la-på'shus), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling plants belonging to the Solanacea. Soland (so'land), n. Same as Solan-goose

(which see). Solander (ső-lan'dér), n. [Fr. soulandres. ]

A disease in horses. Solan-goose (sõ'lan-gös), n. (Icel. súla, the

solan-goose.) The gannet (which see). Solania (so-la'ni-a), n. The active principle of Solanum Dulcamara, or deadly nightshade. See the next word. Solanina, Solanine (sola-ni-na, sõʻla-nin), n. (L. solanum, nightshade.] (C, H, NO, probably.) A vegetable alkaloid obtained from various species of Solanum, as S. Dulcamara, S. nigrum, S. tuberosum, &c. It forms a crystalline powder, very bitter and acrid, and highly poisonous. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol. With acids it forms salts, which are uncrystallizable. Solano (80-lä'no), n. (Sp., from L. solanus (ventus), easterly wind, from sol, the sun.] A hot oppressive south-east wind in Spain. It is a modification of the simoom (which see). Solanum (ső-la'num), n. [L., nightshade. ]

A genus of plants, nat. order Solanacea, of of which it is the type. It is one of the most extensive genera of plants, including from 700 to 900 species. They are shrubs or herbs, sometimes climbing, either smooth or hairy, or (both stems and leaves) armed

with sharp thorns, with alternate, entire, Greek astronomer Ptolemy, the earth was lobed, or pinnately cut leaves, and umbel an absolutely fixed centre, and the heavens late or panicled dichotomous cymes of yel. were considered as revolving about it from low, white, violet, or purplish flowers, and east to west, and carrying along with them are widely distributed throughout the world, all the heavenly bodies, the stars and

planets, in the space of twenty-four hours. The Copernican system, taught by Coper. nicus in the beginning of the sixteenth century, represents the sun to be at rest in the centre of the universe, and the earth and the several planets as revolving about him as a centre, while the moon and the other satellites revolve about their primaries. The heavens and fixed stars were supposed to be at rest, and their apparent diurnal motions were imputed to the earth's motion from west to east. Notwithstanding the defects of this system it produced a powerful effect, and prepared the way for the dis coveries of Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. The Tychonic system, propounded by Tycho Brahé, the Danish astronomer, in the latter

part of the sixteenth century, represented Solanum tuberosum (Potato Plant).

that the earth was fixed in the centre of

the universe, and that round it revolved abounding especially in America. The most

the sun and moon, while the planeta reimportant species are, the S. tuberosum,

volved directly round the sun. Brahe's ob which produces the common potato, a na

servations were of immense service to his tive of America (see POTATO); S. Dulcamara,

contemporary Kepler in discovering the woody nightshade or bitter-sweet; S. escu

famous laws which ultimately led Newton lentum, egg-plant; S. sodomeum, Sodom egg

to the grand theory of universal gravitation, plant, or apple of Sodom. S. esculentum and

(See KEPLER'S LAWS.) The Neutonian sye. its varieties furnish edible fruits, and the

tem, so named as being adopted by Sir Isaac fruits of many other species are eaten. The

Newton, is the only one admitted in modern common love-apple or tomato was formerly

astronomy. It is frequently called the Coincluded in this genus under the name of

pernican system, from its rejecting what S. Lycopersicum, but is now, along with

Copernicus rejected: but it is far from teseveral allied species, generally ranked

ceiving all that Copernicus received. In under a separate genus, Lycopersicum. See

this system there is no fixed centre, the son TOMATO.

only approximating to that character frora Solar (soler), a. (L. solaris, from sol, the

its greater magnitude. The orbits of the sun.] 1. Pertaining to the sun; as, the solar

planets, which all revolve round the sun, system; or proceeding from, or produced by

are ellipses, of which the elements; as, solar light; solar rays; solar influ

Solar telegraph, a telegraph in which the ence.

rays of the sun are projected from and upon His soul proud science never taught to stray, mirrors. The duration of the rays makes Far as the solar walk or milky way. Pope.

the alphabet, after the manner of the dot2. Born under the predominant influence of and-dash telegraphic alphabet; a heliostat the sun, according to astrological notions:

(which see)-Solar time. The same as As influenced by the sun. Proud beside as parent Time. See TIME. -Solar year. See solar people are.' Dryden.-3. Measured YEAR. by the progress of the sun, or by its ap Solar (soʻlér), n. In arch. a sollar; a loft or parent revolution; as, the solar year. - upper chamber. Solar apex, the point in space situated in Solarization (sölér-iz-a"shon), n. In pholog. the constellation Hercules, towards which the injurious effects produced on a picture the sun is moving. --Solar camera, in photog. by over-exposing it in the camera to the an instrument for enlarging pictures by light of the sun, as indistinctness of outline, sunlight. -Solar chronometer, a sun-dial obliteration of high lights, loss of relief, adapted to show mean instead of solar time. &c.

Solar cycle, a period of twenty-eight years. Solarize (sö'ler-iz), v. i pret. & pp. solarized; See CYCLE. -Solar day. See Day.- Solar | ppr. solarizing. In photog. to become in. eclipse. See ECLIPSE. – Solar engine, an jured by too long exposure to the action of engine in which the heat of the solar rays

the sun's rays. is concentrated to evaporate water or ex | Solarize (sõ'ler-iz), v.t. In photog. to affect pand air, used as a motor for a steam or air injuriously by exposing too long to the engine. -Solar flowers, those which open sun's rays. and shut daily at certain determinate hours. Solary (so'la-ri), a. Solar. (Rare.)

Solar lamp. Same as Argand-lamp Solas, t n. Solace; recreation; mirth; sport (which see).-Solar microscope, a microscope Chaucer. in which the object is illuminated by the Solatium (sô-lă'shi-um), n. (L., consolation, light of the sun concentrated upon it. See solace. See SOLACE, v.č.) 1. Anything that MICROSCOPE. --Solar month. See MONTH. alleviates or compensates for suffering or Solar phosphori, substances which are seen loss; a compensation : specifically, in Scots to be luminous in a dark place after having law, a sum of money paid over and above been exposed to light, as the diamond, actual damages, to an injured party, by the putrid fish, calcined oyster shells, &c. - person who inflicted the injury, as a solace Solar plexus, in anat. an assemblage of for wounded feelings. In English laue, such ganglia which are distributed to all the compensation is not in strict principle addivisions of the aorta. --Solar prominences, mitted, but in practice there is no substan red flame-like masses seen in the atmo tial difference. - 2. Eccles, an additional sphere of the sun at a total solar eclipse. daily portion of food allotted to the inmates -Solar spectrum. See SPECTRUM. - Solar of religious houses under exceptional cirspots, dark spots that appear on the sun's cumstances. disc, usually visible only by the telescope, Sold (sold), pret. & pp. of sell. -Sold note. See but sometimes so large as to be seen by the Bought and Sold Note, under BOTOHT. naked eye. They indicate the sun's revolu Soldt (sold). n. (Fr. solde, from L. solidus, tions on its axis, are very changeable in their a piece of money.) Salary: military pay. figure and dimensions, and vary in size from Soldadot (sol-dä'do), n. sp.) A soldier. mere points to spaces of 50,000 miles or Soldant (sol'dan). Sultan. Milton. more in diameter. The frequency of solar | Soldanel (sol'da-nel). 12. A plant of the gee spots attains a maximum every ten-and-a nus Soldanella. half years, falling off during the interval to Soldanella (sol-da-nella), n. (A dim. of It a minimum, from which it recovers gradu soldana, a sultana.) A genus of plants, ally to the next maximum. This periodicity nat. order Primulace. The species are has been thought to be intimately connected small herbs of graceful habit, natives of with meteorological phenomena.-Solar sys alpine districts of Continental Europe. One tem, in astron, that system of which the of them, S. alpina, a native of Switzerland, sun is the centre. To this system belong with lovely blue flowers, is well known as the planets, planetoids, satellites, comets, an object of culture. and meteorites, which all directly or indi. Soldanelle (sol-da-nel), (Fr.) A species rectly revolve round the central sun, the of Convolvulus, the C. Soldanella whole being bound together by the mutual | Soldanriet Soldanryt (sol'dan-ri), ". The attractions of the several parts. According rule or jurisdiction of, or the country rul to the Ptolemaic system, framed by the by a soldan or sultan. Sir W. Scott.

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