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Squiralty (skwir'al-ti), n. Same as Squirearchy. [Rare.]

Squirarchy (skwir'ar-ki),"- SameasSquirearchy.

Squire (skwir), n. [A contr. of esquire. See LsquiRE.) 1. The title of a gentleman next in rank to a knight.

The rest are princes, barons, knights, squirts.
And gentlemen of blood. Shak.

2. An attendant on a knight; the knight's shield or armour bearer.

Then tending her rough lord tho' all unask'd In silence did hint service as a squire. Tennyson,

Hence—3. An attendant on a great warrior, a noble or royal personage, or the like; also, in colloquial language, a devoted male attendant on a lady; a male companion; a beau; a gallant.

Marry, there I'm called
The squirt of dames, or servant of the sex.

Massinger.

4 A title popularly given to a country gentleman— 5. In the United States, a title of magistrates and lawyers. In New England it is given particularly to justices of the peace and judges; in Pennsylvania to justice* of the peace only. Squire (skwirX ft. pret. &pp. squired; ppr.

2uiring. 1. To attend, as a squire.—2. To tend, as a beau or gallant; to escort; as, to squire a lady to the gardens. [Colloq.]

He (a Frenchman) squires her to everyplace she visits, cither on pleasure or business. //'. Guthrie.

Squire t (skwir),;*. (O.Fr. esquierre, a square. See SqUARE.] A rule; a foot-rule; a square.

Not the worst of the three but Jumps twelve foot and a half by the squire. Skak.

Squirearch (skwlr*ark), n. A member of the squirearchy. Ld. Lytton.

Squirearchal (skwlr-ark'al), a. Of or pertaining to a squirearchy.

Squirearchy (skwlr'ark-i). n. The squires or gentlemen of a country taken collectively; the domination or political influence exercised by squires considered as a body. Written also Squirarchy.

Squireen (skwi-ren'X «. A small or petty squire; a half-squire, half-farmer. 'Ignorant and worthless squireens.' Macaulay. [Irish.]

SquirehOOd (skwir'hud), n. The rank and state of a squire. Swift.

Squireling (skwirling), n, A small or petty squire. Tennyson. [Used in contempt.]

Squirely (skwir'li), a. Becoming a Bquire. Shelton.

Squire ship (skwlr'ship), n. Squlrehood. Shelton.

Squirm (skwenn), v.t or L [Perhaps a modiflcatiou of swarm, to wriggle up a tree, the q being Inserted as in squander, prueamish. Some connect it with Lith. kirm, Skr. krimi, a worm.) 1. To move like a worm or eel, with writhing or contortions. [Local.] S. To climb by embracing and clinging with the hands and feet, as to a tree without branches. [United States.]

Squirm (skwenn). n. 1. A wriggling motion, like that of a worm or eel.—2. iVauf, a twist in a rope.

Squirr. See Sqcib.

Squirrel (skwh/rel), n. [O.Fr. esmtirel, e$evret, Mod.Fr. fcureuil, from L.L. sciuriolus, dim. of L. sciurus, Or. skiouros, a squirrel—riria, a shadow, and oura, a tail. Lit. the animal that shades itself with its tail]

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terus). The true squirrels are distinguished by their strongly compressed Inferior incisors and by their long bushy tail. They have four toes before and five behind. The thumb of the fore-foot is sometimes marked by a tubercle. They have in all four grinders, variously tuberculated, and a very small additional one above in front, which very soon falls. The head is large, and the eyes projecting and lively. Several species are enumerated, as the common squirrel, which inhabits Europe and the north of Asia, the cat-squirrel and gray squirrel, both American species. The common British squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) and several other species are remarkably nimble, running up trees and leaping from branch to branch with surprising agility. They subsist on nuts, acorns, seeds, &c., of which they lay up a store for winter, some of them in hollow trees, others in the earth. The fur of some of the American species is an article of commerce. See also Ground-squirrel and Pteromys.

Squirrel-corn (sk wir'rel-korn),n. The American name for a fragrant plant of the genus Dicentra(Z). canadensis), nat order Fumariacese.

Squirrel-fish (skwir'rel-fish), n. A sort of perch.

Squirrel-monkey (skwir'rel-mnng-kl), n. A platyrhine monkey of the genus Callithrix, inhabiting Brazil, resembling in general appearance and size the familiar squirrel. See Saooin.

Squirrel-tail (skwir'rel-tal), n. A name for a species of wild barley, Hordeum maritimum.

Squirt (skwert), v.t [Prov.E. swirt, L.G. swirtjen, to squirt, the q being inserted as in squander, squeamish. Comp. also Icel. skvetta, to squirt] To eject or drive out of a narrow pipe or orifice in a stream; as, to squirt water.

The hard-featured miscreant coolly rolled his tobacco in his cheek and squirted the Juice into the fire-grate. -Sir IV. Scott.

Squirt (skwert), v.i. 1. To be thrown out or ejected from a narrow orifice in a rapid stream; as, water squirts from a pipe.—2. To throw out words. [Old slang]

You are so given to squirting up and down, and chattering-, that the world would say, I had chosen a jack-pudding for a prime minister. SirJi. LEstrange.

Squirt (skwert), n. 1. An instrument with which a liquid is ejected in a stream with force; a syringe.

His weapons are a pin to scratch and a squirt to bespatter. Pofe.

2. A small jet; as, a squirt of water.—a A foppish young fellow; a whipper-snapper. [Colloq. United States]

Squirter (skwertfer), n. One who or that which squirts.

Squirting-cucumber (skw6rt'ing-ku-kumber), n. One of the popular names of the fruit of Ecballium agreste, which, when nearly ripe, separates suddenly from its peduncle, at the same time ejecting its juices and seeds.

Squlry t (skwi'ri), n. The body of squires; the squirearchy.

Sradha, Shraddha (sradTia, shrad'ha). n. A fuiiLi al ceremony paid by the Hindus to the manes of deceased ancestors, to effect, by means of oblations, the re-embodying of the soul of the deceased after burning his corpse, and to raise his shade from this world up to heaven among the manes of departed ancestors.

Sravaka (sr&'va-ka or shra'va-ka), n, [Skr. Stu, to hear.] A name given to those disciples of Buddha who through the practice of the four great truths attain the dignity of saints.

Stab (stab), v.t. pret. & pp. stabbed; ppr. stabbing. [A word allied to staff, though its history is uncertain. Probably directly from the Celtic; comp. GaeL stob, Ir. stobaim, to stab, to thrust or drive into something; Gael, stob, a stake; Sc. stob, a stake, a prickle, a small Instrument for boring holes; also Goth, stabs, a rod; G. stab, a staff. Comp. also stub.] 1. To pierce or wound with a pointed weapon; to kill by a pointed weapon; as, to be stabbed by a dagger or spear; to stab fish or eels. 'Whose daggers have stabbed Caesar.' Shak.—2. To drive, thrust, or plunge, as a pointed weapon. 'Stab poniards in our flesh.' Shak.—

3. To pierce in a figurative sense; to injure secretly or by malicious falsehood or slander; to inflict keen or severe pain on.

'Stabbed through the heart's affections.' Tennyson.

I am stabbed with laughter. Skat.

Stab (stub), v.i. 1. To give a wound with a pointed weapon; to aim a blow with a pointed weapon; as, to stab at a person.

None shall dare With shorten'd sword to stab in closer war. Dryden.

2. To give a mortal wound; to mortify; to be extremely cutting.

She speaks poniards, and every word stabs. Skak.

Stab (stab), n. 1. The thrust of a pointed weapon. 'To fall beneath a base assassin's stab.' Howe. —2. A wound with a sharppointed weapon. 'His gashed stahg.' Shak. 3 An injury given in the dark; a sly mischief; keen, poignant pain. * This sudden stab of rancour.' Shak.

'Stab (stab), n. An abbreviation employed by workmen for established wages, as opposed to piece-work.

Stabat Mater (sta'bat ma'ter). [L., the mother stood] The first words, and hence the name, of a mediaeval hymn still sung in the ecclesiastical services of the Roman Catholic Church during Holy Week. It has been set to music by Pergoiesi, Rossini, and other famous composers.

Stabber (stab'er), n, 1. One that stabs; a privy murderer. 'A lurking, waylaying coward, and a stabber in the dark.' Pope. 2. Naut a small marline-spike to make holes with; a pricker.

Stabbingly (stab'ing-ll), ado. In a stabbing manner; with intent to do a secret act maliciously. Bp. Parker.

Stabilify (eta-biVi-fi), v. t To render Btable, fixed, or firm; to establish. 'Render solid and stabilify mankind.' Browning.

Stabiliment (sta-bil'i-raent), n, [L. stabilimentum, from stabilio, to make firm. See Stable. ] Act of making firm; firm support. [Rare.]

They serve tot stabiliment, propagation, and shade.
Derham.

Stabilitatet (sta-btl'i-tat). v.t. To make stable; to establish. Dr. H. More.

Stability (sta-bil'i-ti), n. [L. stabilitas, from stabilis. stable. See Stable.] 1. The state or quality of being stable or firm; stableness; firmness; strength to stand without being moved or overthrown; as, the stability of an edifice or other erection; the stability of a system: the stability of a throne; the stability of a constitution or government. — 2. Steadiness or firmness of character; firmness of resolution or purpose; the qualities opposite to fickleness, irresolution, or ineonstaney; as, a man of little stability or of unusual stability.—&i Fixedness, as opposed to fluidity. 'Since fluidness and stability are contrary qualities.' Boyle.Sv.n. Steadiness, stableness, constancy, immovability, firmness.

Stable (sta'bl), a. [L. stabili.*, from sto, to stand, a widely-spread root, being also seen in E. stand (which sec).] 1. Firmly established; not to be easily moved, shaken, or overthrown; firmly fixed or settled; as, a stable government; a stable structure.

If the world be in the middle of the heart it will be often shaken . . . but Cod in it keeps it statu. Abp. Leighton.

2. In physics, a term applied to that condition of a body in which, if its equilibrium be disturbed, it is immediately restored, as in the case when the centre of gravity is below the point of support. —Stable and unstable equilibrium. See EQUILIBRIUM.—

3. Steady in purpose; constant; firm in resolution; not easily diverted from a purpose; not fickle or wavering; as, a stable man; a stable character.

Ev'n the perfect aneels were not stable.

But had a fall more desperate than we. Siry. Davits.

4. Abiding; durable; not subject to be overthrown or changed; as, this life is not stable. Syn. Fixed, established, immovable, steady, constant, abiding, strong.

Stablet (sta'bl), v.t. To fix; to establish. Strype.

Stable (sta'bl), n. [L. stabulum, a standingplace, a stage, a Btable, from sto, to stand. See the adjective.] A building constructed for horses to lodge and feed in, and furnished with stalls, and proper contrivances to contain their food, and necessary equipments.

If your husband have stables enough, yon 11 look he shall lack no bams. Shat.

This fs now the regular use of the word, but it has been, and in America still is, used in a wider sense, equivalent to a house, shed, or building for beasts generally to STABLE

ISO

STAFF

lodge and feed in, as a cow-house or the like.

And I will make Rabbah a stable for camels.

Ezek. xxv. 5.

Stable (sta'bl), v.t. pret. & pp. stabled; ppr.

stabling. To put or keep in a stable. Stable (sta'bl), v.i. To dwell or lodge in a

stable; to dwell, as beasts; to kennel.

In their palaces.
Where luxury late reign'd, sea monsters whelp'd
And stabled. Milton.

Stable-boy (staTjl-boi), n. A boy who attends at a stable. Siri/t.

Stable-man (sta'bl-man), n. A man who attends in a stable; a groom; an ostler. Swift

Stahleness (sta'bl-nes), n. The state or quality of being stable; stability; as, (a) fixedness and steadiness as regards position; firmness of position; strength to stand or remain unchanged; as, the stableness of a throne or of a system of lawB. (b) Steadiness; constancy; firmness of purpose; as, stableness of character, of mind, of principles or opinions. 'Justice, verity, temperance, stableness.' Shak.

Stabler (stabler), n. A stable-keeper; one who stables horseB. [Local.]

Stable-room (sta'bl-rbm), n. Room in a stable; room for stables.

Stable-stand (sta'bl-stand), n. In old Eng. law, the position of a man who is found at his standing in the forest with a crossbow bent, ready to shoot at a deer, or with a long-bow; or standing close by a tree with greyhounds in a leash ready to slip. This is one of the four presumptions that a man intends Btealing the king's deer.

Stabling (sta'bl-in g), n. 1. The act or practice of keeping in a stable. —2. A house, shed, or room for keeping horses; also, in a wider sense, a house, shed, or place of Bhelter for other beasts. 'A stabling now for wolves.' Thornton,

Stablisnt (stab'liBh), v.t. fOFr. establir, establissant. Mod. Fr. Ctablir; from L stabilio, to cause anything to stand firmly. See Stable] To settle in a state for permanence; to make firm; to fix; to establish.

His covenant sworn
To David, stablish'd as the days of Heaven.

Milton.

Stablishment t (stab'lish-ment), n. Establishment.

Stably (sta'bli), adv. In a stable manner; firmly; fixedly; steadily; as, a government stably settled.

S tabulation^ (stab-u-la'shon), n. [L. stabulatio. See Stable, n.] 1. Act of housing beasts. — 2. A place or room for housing beasts.

Staccato (stak-ka'to> [It, pp. of staccare, for distaccare, to separate = Fr. detacher, to separate. See Detach.) In music, disconnected; separated; distinct: a direction to perform the notes of a passage in a crisp, detached, distinct, or pointed manner. It is generally indicated by dots or dashes placed over the notes, the dash implying the strongest or most marked degree of staccato or crispness. A certain amount of time is subtracted from the nominal value of any note performed staccato.

Stacner (stach'er), v.i. [An allied form of stagger.] To stagger. [Scotch.]

Stac'nys (sta'kis), n. [Or., an ear of corn, from the mode of flowering.] A genus of plants belonging to the nat. order Labiates. The species are very numerous. They are herbs or uudershrubs with entire or toothed leaves, and sessile or very shortly stalked purple, scarlet, yellow, or white flowers arranged in whorls. They are widely distribute 1 through the temperate regions of the globe. Four species are British, and are known under the name of woundwort. The most beautiful species of the genus is S. coccinea, a native of Chili and Peru. It has large dark scarlet flowers an inch in length.

Stachytarplia, Stachytarpheta (stak-itar'fa, stak-i-tar'fe-ta), n. pi. [Gr. stachys, an ear of corn, and tarpheios, thick, from its method of flowering] A genus of aromatic flowering plants, nat. order Verbenaceoe.. natives, for the most part, of tropical or sub-tropical America. S. iamaicensis is held in high esteem in Brazil for its medicinal qualities, and its leaves are used to adulterate tea. In Austria it Is sold under the name of Brazilian tea.

Stack (stak), n. [A Scandinavian word; Icel. stakkir), Sw. stack, Dan. stak, a stack, a pile of hay; Prov. O. stock, heustock, a stack, a hay-stack. From the same root as stake, stick, stock.] 1. Corn in the sheaf,

hay, pease, straw, <fcc., piled up in a circular or rectangular form, coming to a point or ridge at the top, and thatched to protect it from the influence of the weather. —2. A pile of wood containing 108 cubic feet; also, a pile of poles or wood of indefinite quantity.

Against every pillar was a stack of billets above a man s height. Baccrt.

3. A number of funnels or chimneys standing together.—i A single chimney or passageway for smoke; the chimney or funnel of a locomotive or steam-vessel.— 5. A high rock detached; a columnar rock; a precipitous rock rising out of the sea. Sir W. Scott. —Stack of arms, a number of muskets or rifles placed together with their breeches on the ground, and the bayonets crossing each other, so as to form a conical pile.

Stack (stak), v.t. To pile or build into the form of a stack; to make into a large pile; as, to stack hay or grain.—To stack arms (milit), to set upmuskets, rifles, or carbines together, with the bayonets crossing each other or united by means of ramrods or hooks attached to the upper band of the weapon, so as to form a sort of conical pile.

Stackage (stak'aj), n. 1. Hay, grain, and the like, put up in stacks. [Rare.]—2. A tax on things Btacked.

Stack-borer (stak'bor-er),n. An instrument for piercing stacks of hay, to admit air, where the hay has acquired a dangerous degree of heat.

Stack-cover (stak'kuv-er), n. A cloth or canvas covering for suspending over stacks during the time of their being built, to protect them from rain.

Stacket (stak'et),n. A stockade. Sir W. Scott

Stack-funnel (stak'fun-nelXn. A pyramidal open frame of wood in the centre of a stack. Its object is to allow the air to circulate through the stack, and prevent the heating of the grain. See Stack-stand.

Stack-guard (stak'gard), u. A canvas covering for a hay or other stack; a stackcover.

Stackhousiacese (stak'hous-i-a"se-e), n. pi. [In honour of Mr. Stackhouse, a British botanist.] A family of dicotyledonous polypetalous plants allied to Celastraceie, consisting of about twenty species, all herbaceous, with a perennial and often a woody Btock, simple erect stems, alternate small narrow leaves, and terminal racemes of small white or yellow flowers. With the exception of two, they are all Australian, and are of no special interest.

Stacklng-band, Stacklng-belt (stak'ingband, stak'ing-belt), n. A band or rope used in binding thatch or straw upon a stack.

Stacking-Stage (stak'ing-staj), n. A scaffold or stage used in building stacks.

Stack-stand (stak'stand), n. A basement of timber or masonry, sometimes of iron, raised on props and placed in a stack-yard,

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Stack-stand with Stack funnel

on which to build the stack. Its object is to keep the lower part of the stack dry, and exclude vermin.

Stack-yard (stak'yard), a A yard or inclosure for stacks of hay or grain.

Stacte (stak'te), n. [Gr. stakti, the oil that drops from myrrh, from staid, to drop, to distil.] One of the sweet spices which composed the holy incense of the ancient Jews. Two kinds have been described, one the fresh gum of the myrrh tree (Balsa jnodendron Myrrha), mixed with water and squeezed out through a press; the other kind, the resin of the Btorax (Styrax officinale), mixed with wax and fat. Exod. xxx. 34.

Staddle (stad'l), n. [A.Sax. stathol, stathel, a foundation, a basis, firm seat; from root of stead, steady, stand. ] 1.1 A prop or support;

a staff; a crutch. Spenser. — 2. The frame or support of a stack of hay or grain; a stack-stand.—3. A young or small tree left uncut when others are cut down.

If you leave your staddles too thick you shall never have clean underwood, but shrubs and bushes.

Bacon.

4. In agri one of the separate plots into which a cock of hay is shaken out for the purpose of drying.

Staddle (stad'l), v.t 1. To leave the staddles in, as a wood when it is cut. Tusser.—2. To form into staddles, as hay.

Staddle - roof (stadl-rbf), n. The roof or covering of a stack.

Stade (stad), u. A furlong; a stadium (which see). Donne.

Stade (stad), n. Same as Staith.

Stadium (sta'di-um), u. [I... from Gr. stade-it ] 1. A Greek measure of 125 geometrical paces, or 625 Roman feet, equal to 606 feet 0 inches English; consequently the Greek stadium was somewhat less than our furlong. It was the principal Greek measure of length.—2. The course for foot-races at Olympia in Greece, which was exactly a stadium in length. The name was also given to all other places throughout Oreece wherever games were celebrated. — 3. In med. the Btage or period of a disease, especially of an intermittent disease.

Stadlet (stad'l), n. Same as Staddle.

Stadtholder (stafh61d-er), n, [D. stadhouder—stad, a city, and houder, holder. ] Formerly, the chief magistrate of the United Provinces of Holland; or the governor or lieutenant-governor of a province.

Stadtholderate, Stadtholdership (stafhdld-er-at, stat'hold-er-ship), n. The ofllce of a stadtholder.

Staff (staf), n. pi. Staves, Staffs (stavz, stafs), (in last two senses always the latter). [A. Sax. steef, a stick, a staff, a support; D. and LG. staf, a staff, a sceptre; Icel stafr, a BtafT, a post, a stick; G. stab, a staff. From same root as stab, and Skr. stabh, stambh, to make firm] 1. A stick carried in the band for support; a walking-stick. Hence—

2. A support; that which props or upholds.

The boy was the very staff of my age, my very prop.
Shak.
Thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed.
Is. xxxvi. 6.
Bread is the staff of life. Swift.

3. A stick used as a weapon; a club; a cudgel; as, the stick used at qu&Tter-staff. 'With forks and staves the felon to pursue.' Dryden.— 4. A long piece of wood used for many purposes; as, (a)t a pole; a stake. 'The rampant bear chaln'd to the ragged staff.' Shak. (b) The long handle of an instrument or weapon, as the staff of a spear; the spear itself.

There stuck no plume in any English crest
That is removed by a staff of France. Shak.

Hence, to break a staff, to tilt; to combat with a spear. 'Apuisny tilter, that . . . breaks his staff like a noble goose.' Shak. (c) A straight-edge for testing or truing a line or surface; as, the proof staff used in testing the face of the Btone in a grind-mill. (<i) In surv. a graduated stick, used in levelling. See also Cross-staff, Jacob's-staff. («) In ship-building, a name given to several measuring and spacing rules. (/) JVatif. a light pole erected in different parts of a ship 011 which to hoist and display the colours; as, the ensign-staff for displaying the ensign; the Jlagstaff for displaying the flag, and the jack-staff for extending the jack.—5. t The round of a ladder.

Descending and ascending by ladders, I ascended at one of six hundred and tlurty-nine stow.

Dr. J. Campbell.

6. In surg. a grooved steel instrument having a curvature, used to guide the knife or gorget through the urethra into the bladder m the operation of lithotomy.—7. The name of several instruments formerly used iu taking the sun's altitude at sea; as, the forestaff, back-staff, croBS-staff. &c. (See these terms) - 8. t A stanza; a stave.

Cowley found out that no kind of staff'is proper for a heroic poem, as being all too lyrical. Dryden.

9. The five parallel lines, and the four spaces

between them, on which notes and other musical characters are placed.—10. TnorcA. same as Rudenture.—11. An ensign of authority; a badge of office; as. a constable's

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siaff. "This staff, mine office-badge." Shak. See Pastoral-staff, Crozier.

The Eail of Worcester Hath broke his staff, resigned his stewardship. Shak,

12. [From staff, as an ensign of authority.] Mi'if. a body of officers whose duties refer to an army or regiment as a whole, and who are not attached to particular subdivisions. The staff of the British army includes the general officers commanding divisions, district brigades, Ac;—the officers of the quartermaster-general's and the adjutant-general's departments: called the General Staff; —officers attached to commanding general officers as military secretaries and aides-decamp: called the Personal Staff;—officers employed in connection witli the civil departments at the war office; and those engaged in recruiting and garrison work. A regimental staff, consisting of adjutant, quartermaster, paymaster, Ac, is attached to each regiment—13. A body of executive officers attached to any establishment for the carrying out of its designs, or a number of persons, considered as one body, intrusted with the execution of any undertaking; as, the editorial and reporting staff of a newspaper; the staff of the Geological Survey; a hospital staff, Ac.

The college staffs hare not yet broken up.

AiacmiUan's Mag.

Staff-angle (stafang-gl), n. In plastering, a square rod of wood, standing flush with the wall on each of its sides, at the external angles of plastering, to prevent their being damaged.

Staff-bead (started), n. In arcA. see AngleBead.

Staff-hole (stafTiol), n. In metal, a small hole in the puddling-furnace through which the puddler heats his staff. Weale.

Staffier- (staf'i-cr),n. An attendant bearing a staff. 'Staffier* on foot' Hudibras.

Staffisht (staf'ish), a. Stiff; harsh. Ascham.

Staff-man (stafman), n. A workman employed in silk-throwing.

Staff-officer (stafof-fis-er),n. Milit.an officer upon the staff of an army or regiment. See STAFF.

Staff-sergeant (stafsar-jant), n. One of a superior class of non-commissioned officers belonging to the staff of a regiment, as the qu ar te nuaste r-se rgean t, arrao urer-sergean t, hospital-sergeant, Ac.

Staff-sling (staf sliug), n. A leathern sling fixed on to one end of a shaft about a yard in length. The slinger held it with both hands, and could hurl stones with great violence. It was subsequently employed to thrtiw grenades. Chaucer. Staff-striker t (staf'stri-ker), n, A sturdy Iwggar; a tramp.

Staff-tree (Btartre), n, Celastrus, a genus of plants allied to the genera Euonymus and Catha. The species are evergreen shrubs and climbers, and are found in the temperate regions of tropical countries, appearing in greatest number in the Himalayas.

Stag (stag), n. tFr°TM the root of A. Sax. sttgan, Ieel. stiga, G. steigen, to mount; lit. the mounter. (SeeSTAIR.) The name, under slightly different forms, is given to male animals of very different species; I eel. steggr, a male fox, a gander, a drake, also the male of several wild animals; Sc. staig, a stallion; O.E. stag, a castrated bull, a young horse, a cock-turkey; staggard, a hart in its fourth year ] 1. The male red-deer or a generic name of the red-deer (Cervu* elaphiu); the male of the hind; a hart: sometimes applied particularly to a hart in its fifth year. The ■tag is a native of Europe and Northern Asia. In Britain it is now found wild only in the Highlands of Scotland. It is called the red-deer from the reddish-brown colour of the upper parts in summer, the colour in winter being rather grayish-brown. A full■ized stag with his antlers well-developed Is a magnificent animal, standing about 4 feet high at the shoulder, and having horns 3 feet in length. (See Antler.) The females are quite hornless, and smaller. These animals feed on grass, buds, and young ■hoots of trees. Ac. In winter they associate in herds. (See cut Deer.) In America the stag is represented by the wapiti (C. canadensis).— 2. A colt or filly; also, a romping girl; a hoyden. (Provincial ] —3. The male of the ox kind, castrated at such an age that he never gains the full size of a bull; a bull-staff Called also in some parts of England and Scotland Bull-segg. —t In

commercial slang, (a) an outside irregular dealer in stocks, not a member of the exchange, (b) A person who applies for the allotment of shares in a joint-stock company, not because he wishes to hold the shares, but because he hopes to sell the allotment at a premium. If he fails in this he forbears to pay the deposit, and the allotment is forfeited.

Stag (stag), Ft. In com. to act as a Btag on the stock exchange. See STAG.

Stag-beetle (stag'be-tl), n. A name of beetles of the genus Lucanus, a genus of lamelticorn coleopterous insects, fam. Lucanidee. The common stag-beetle (Lucanus cervus) is one of the largest of British insects, distinguished by the enormous size

[graphic]

Staff-beetle {Lucanus cerrus)

of the horny and toothed mandibles in the males, and by the rather long elbowed antenna;, which are terminated by a perfoliated club, and are composed of ten joints, the first being very long. It is common in some localities in the neighbourhood of London, and Is often 2 inches long, of a black colour. See LuOAjrrnjL

Stag-dance (stagMana), n A dance performed by males only; a bull-dance. [United States. ]

Stage (staj), n. [O. Fr ettage. Mod. Fr. itagc, Pr. estatge, a stage, a story of a house, from a hypothetical 1. form statiewn, from sto, statum, to stand (whence station, Ac).] l.t A floor or story of a house. Wickliffe.— ■_' A floor or platform of any kind elevated above the ground or common surface, as for an exhibition of something to public view; as. a stage for a mountebank; a stage for speakers in public. 'High on a stage be placed to the view.' Shak.

We princes . . . are set on stages in the sight and view of all the world. Queen Eltxabeth.

3. A floor elevated for the convenience of performing mechanical work and the like; a scaffold; a staging; as, seamen use floating stages, and stages suspended by the Bide of a snip, for caulking and repairing.—4. The raised platform on which theatrical performances are exhibited; the flooring in a theatre on which the actors perform; hence, the stage, the theatre; the profession of representing dramatic compositions; the drama, as acted or exhibited; as, to take to the stage; to regard the stage as a school of elocution.

All the world's a stage. And all the men and women merely players. Shak. I.o! where the stage, the poor degraded stage. Holds its warped mirror to a gaping age.

Sfrague.

5. A place where anything is publicly exhibited; a field for action; the scene of any noted action or career; the spot where any remarkable affair occurs.

When we are born, we cry that we are come
To this great stage of fools. Shak.

6. A place of rest on a journey, or where a relay of horses is taken, or where a stagecoach changes horses; a statiou; as, when we arrive at the next stage we will take some refreshment. Hence—7. The distance between two places of rest on a road; as, a stage of 15 miles. 'Performing the journey by easy stages.' Smiles.

Brother, you err, 'tis fifteen miles a day.
His stage is ten. Beau. &■ Fl.

8. A single step of a gradual process; degree of advance; degree of progression, either in increase or decrease, in rising or falling, or in any change of state; as, the several stages of a war; the stages of civilization or improvement; stages of growth in an animal or plant; stages of a disease, of decline or recovery.

Such a polity is suited only to a particular stage in the progress of society. Macttuiay.

9. A coach or other carriage running regularly from one place to another for the con

veyance of passengers, Ac; a stage-coach. 'A parcel sent by the stage.' Cowper.

I went in the six-penny stage. Swift.

10. In arch, the part between one splayed projection and another in a Gothic buttress; also, the horizontal division of a window separated by transoms.—11. A wooden structure on a beach to assist in landing; a landing-place at a quay or pier. It sometimes rises and subsides with the tide, or is lowered or raised to suit the varying height of water. 12. In optics, the platform on which an object is placed to be viewed by a microscope.

Stage t (staj), v t. To exhibit publicly, as in a theatre. Shak.

Stage - box (staj'bokB), n. A box in a theatre close to the stage. Shnmonds.

Stage - carriage (staj'kar-rij), n. A stagecoach.

Stage - coach (BtajTcoch), n. A coach that runs by stages; or a coach that runs regularly every day or on stated days between two places, for the conveyance of passengers.

Stage - coachman (staj'kdch-man), n. A driver of a stage-coach.

Stage - direction (staj-di-rek'shon ), n. A written or printed instruction as to action or the like, which accompanies the text of a play. 'Like the barbarous monsters in the stage-direction in King Lear.' Thackeray.

Stage -door (staj'ddr), n. The door giving access to the stage and the parts behind it in a theatre; the actors' and workmen's entrance to a theatre.

Stage-driver (staj'driv-er), n. One who drives a stage-coach.

Stage-effect (staj'ef-fekt), n. Theatrical effect; effect produced artificially and designedly.

Stagelvt (stajli), a. Pertaining to a stage; becoming the theatre; theatrical. Jer. Taylor.

Stage - manager (staj-man'aj-er), n. In theatres, one who superintends the production and performance of a play, and who regulates all matters behind the scenes.

Stage-play (staj'pla), n. A theatrical entertainment; a play adapted for representation on the Btage.

The clause . . distinguishes SAtire properly from stage-Hays which are all of one action, and one continued series of action. Drydtn.

Stage-player (staj'pla-er), n. An actor on the stage; one whose occupation is to represent characters on the stage. 'Stage-players or actors.' Arbuthnot.

Stager(staj'er), n. l.t A player. B. Jonson [Rare.] —2. One that has long acted on the stage of life; a person of experience, or of skill derived from long experience.

One experienced stager, that had baffled twenty traps and tricks before, discovered the plot.

SirJt. /.'Estrange. You will find most of the old stagers still stationary there. Sir It'. Scott.

3. A horse employed in drawing a stagecoach.

Stagery (staj'er-i), n. Exhibition on the stage. 'A piece of stagery, or scene-work.'

Milton.

Stage-struck (staj'strukX a. Smitten with a love for the stage; possessed by a passion for the drama; seized by a passionate desire to become an actor.

'You are a precious fool. Jack Buncc,' said Cleveland, half angry, and, in despite of himself, half diverted by the false tones and exaggerated gesture of the stage-struck pirate. Sir H". Scott.

Stag-evil (stag'e-vil), n, A disease in horses, tetanus or lock-jaw.

Stage-wagon (staj'wag-on), n. 1. A wagon for conveying goods and passengers, by stages, at regularly appointed times.— 2.f A stage-coach.

Stage-whisper (staj'whis-per), n. A loud whisper, as by an actor in a theatre, meant to be heard by those to whom it is not professedly addressed; an aside.

This was conveyed in the tone in which ladies usually give admonitions to servants in company, that is to say, a low one; but which, like a stage-whisfer, from its peculiar emphasis, is most distinctly heard by everybody present. Dickens.

Stage-wright (stai'rit), n. A dramatic author; a play-wright 'Your stagers and your stage-wrights too.' II Jonson.

Stagey (itaj'I), a. Of or pertaining to the stage; resembling the manner of dramatic performers; theatrical, in a depreciatory sense; as, to have a very stagey manner.

Staggard (stag'ard), n. [From stag.] A stag four years old.

Stagger (stag'er), v.i, [From old (and prov.) «foX«r, to Btagger, from root of stake, comp. to STAGGER

182

STAKE

stick fast; O.D. staggeren, Dan. dial staggre, Sc. stacker, stacker, Icel. «taAxa, to stagger, to totter.] 1. To reel; to move to one side and the other in standing or walking; not to stand or walk with steadiness.

Deep was the wound; he stagger'd with the blow. Dryden.

2. To fail; to cease to stand firm; to begin to give way. 'The enemy staggers.' Addison.—3. To hesitate; to begin to doubt and waver in purpose; to become leas confident or determined.

He (Abraham) staggered not at the promise of God through unbeliefT Rom. iv. ao.

Stagger(stag'er).!?.!. 1. Tocausetoreel Shak. 2. To cause to doubt and waver; to make to hesitate; to make less steady or confident; to shock. 'The question did at first so stagger me.' Shak. * To stagger credibility.' Burke.

When a prince fails in honour and justice, it is enough to stagger his people in their allegiance.

Sir R. L 'Estrange.

Stagger (stag'er), n. 1. A sudden swing or reel of the body, as if the person were about to fall

The individual . . . advanced with a motion that alternated between a reel and a stagger.

G. A. Sala.

2. pi I A sensation which causes reeling. Shak. 3. pl.\ Perplexity; bewilderment; confusion.

I will throw thee from my care for ever
Into the staggers, and the careless lapse
Of youth and Ignorance. Shak.

4. pi. A disease of horses and cattle attended with reeling or giddiness. In the horse it appears in two forms—mad or sleepy staggers and grass or stomach staggers; the former of which arises from inflammation of the brain, the latter being due to acute indigestion.

Stagger-bush (stag'er-bqsh), n. An American plant, Andromeda mariana, growing in low sandy places near the coast, having large white nodding flowers and leathery leaves. It is said to be poisonous to sheep that eat it

Staggeringly (stag'er-ing-li), adv. In a staggering or reeling manner; with hesitation or doubt.

Stagger - wort (stajrer-wert), n. Same as liagwort.

Stag-hound (stag'hound), n. A large and powerful kind of hound used in hunting the stag or red-deer.

Staging (staj'ing), n. 1. A temporary structure of posts and boards for support, as for building; scaffolding. —2. The business of running or managing, or the act of travelling in stage-coaches.

Staglrite (staj'i-rit), n. See Staqyrite.

Stagnancy (stag'nan-si), n, [SeeStagnant.] 1. The state of being stagnant or without motion, flow, or circulation, as in a fluid; stagnation. — 2. Anything stagnant; a stagnant pool. 'Stagnancies left by the flood.' Cotton.

Stagnant (stagnant), a. [L. stagnans, stagnantis, ppr. of stagno, to stagnate. See Stagnate.] 1. Not flowing; not running in a current or stream; motionless; standing; hence, impure from want of motion; as, a stagnant lake or pond; stagnant blood In the veins.—2. Inert; inactive; sluggish; torpid; dull; not brisk; as, business is stagnant. 'The gloomy slumber of the stagnant soul.' Johnson.

For him a stagnant life was not worth living.
Palfrey.

Stagnantly (stag'uant-li), adv. In a stagnant or still, motionless, inactive manner.

3tagnate (stag'nat), v.i. pret & pp. stagnated; ppr. stagnating. [L. stagno, stagnatum, to stagnate; stagnum, a piece of standing water, a pool (whence stank and tank).]

1. To cease to run or flow; to be motionless; to have no current; as, water that stagnates in a pool or reservoir soon becomes foul.

1 am fifty winters old; Blood then stagnates and grows cold. Cotton.

2. To cease to be brisk or active; to become dull, quiet, or inactive; as, commerce stagnates; business stagnates.

Ready-witted tenderness . . . never stagnates in vain lamentations while there is room for hope.

Sir II. Scott.

Stagnatet (stag'nat), a. Stagnant. 'A stagnate mass of vapour.' Young.

Stagnation (stag-na'shon), n. I The condition of being stagnant; the cessation of flowing or circulation of a fluid; or the state of being without flow or circulation; the state of being motionless; as, the stagnation

of the blood; the stagnation of water or air; the stagnation of vapours.—2. The cessation of action or of brisk action; the state of being dull; as, the stagnation of business.

A spot of dull stagnation, without light

Or power of movement, seem'd my soul. Tennyson.

Stag-worm (stagVerm), n. An insect that is troublesome to deer.

Stagyrlte (staj'i-rit), n. An appellation given to Aristotle from the place of his birth, Stagira, in Macedonia.

Stahlian (stal'i-an), n. A believer in or supporter of Stall Ha 11 ism.

Stahlianism, StahUsm(sta]'i-an-teml staTizm), n. The doctrine of Staid, a German physician, who held the theory of a vital force or anima residing in the body, whose motions it directed. See also Phlogiston.

Staid (stadX pret & pp. of stay.

Staid (stad),a. [From stay, to stop.] Sober; grave; steady; sedate; regular; not wild, volatile, flighty, or fanciful; as, a staid elderly person. 'My staider senses.' Shak. 'Staid wisdom.' Milton.

The doctor, who was what is called a staid, discreet personage, appeared somewhat unwilling to gratify our curiosity. T. Hook.

Staidly ( stadli), adv. In a staid manner; calmly; soberly.

Staidness (stad'nes), n. The state or quality of being staid; sobriety; gravity; sedateness; steadiness; regularity. 'The staidness and sobriety of age. Dryden.

Stalg (stag), n. [See Stag. ] A young horse not yet broken in for work or riding; a stallion. [Scotch.]

Stain (stun), v.t. [An abbrev. of distain (which see); comp. sport, from disport. ] 1. To discolour by the application of foreign matter; to make foul; to spot; as, to stain the hand with dye; to stain clothes with vegetable juice. 'An image like thyself, all stain'd with gore.' Shak. 2. To colour, as wood, glass, or the like, by a chemical or other process; to tinge with colours which chemically combine with, or which penetrate, the substance of; as, to stain wood; to stain glass. 'Turned-up bedsteads made of stained wood.' Lhckens. — 3. To dye; to tinge with a different colour; as, to stain cloth.—4. To impress with figures or patterns in colours different from the ground; as, to stain paper for hangings.—5. To soil or sully with guilt or infamy; to tarnish; to bring reproach on; as, to statn the character; stained with guilt—3.t To darken; to dim; to obscure; to eclipse.

She stains the ripest virgins of her age.

Beau. &• FL Clouds and eclipses stain both moon and sun. SHaJt.

7.t To deface; to disfigure; to impair, as shape, beauty, excellence, or the like. 'And

but he's something stained with grief.' Shak. 1*11 corrupt her manners, stain her beauty. Shak.

8. t To corrupt; to pervert; to deprave. Shak Svn. To spot, blot, soil, dye, sully, discolour, disgrace, taint Stain (stan), n. 1. A spot; discoloration from foreign matter; as, a stain on a garment or cloth.— 2. A natural spot of a colour different from the ground. 'Swift trouts, diversified with crimson stains.' Pope. Under her breast . . . ties a mole.

. . . You do remember This stain upon herf Skat.

3.t A slight taste or quality; a tincture; a tinge.

You have some stain of soldier In you; let me ask you a question. Shak.

4. Taint of guilt or evil; tarnish; disgrace; reproach; as, the stain of sin. 'Some stain or blemish in a name of note.* Tennyson.

Our opinion is, I hope, without any blemish or stain of heresy. Hooker.

6. Cause of reproach; shame; disgrace.

Hereby I will lead her that is the praise and yet the stain of all womankind. Sir P. Sidney.

Sys. Blot, spot, taint, pollution, sully, blemish, tarnish, disgrace, infamy, shame.

Stain (stan), v.i. To take stains; to become stained or soiled; to grow dim; to be obscured. 'If virtue's gloss will stain with any soil.' Shak.

Stainand (stau'and), a. In her. a term applied to the colours sanguine and tenne1 when used in the figures called abatements or marks of disgrace.

Stained (stand), p. and a. 1. Having a stain or stains; discoloured; spotted; dyed; blotted; tarnished. — 2. Produced by staining. 'Wash away thy country's stained spots.' Shak.—Stained glass, glass painted with me

tallic oxides or chlorides, ground up with proper fluxes, and fused into its surface at a moderate heat. Stained glass is employed in ornamenting the windows of churches as well as of other public and private buildings. The colours produced are all transparent, and therefore can be viewed only by transmitted light.

Stainer (stan'er), n. 1. One who stains, blots, or tarnishes.—2. A workman engaged in staining: often used as the second element of a compound, as In paper-stainer.

Stainless (stan'les), a. 1. free from stains or spots. 'Faultless length and stainless hue. Sir P. Sidney.— 2. Free from the reproach of guilt; free from sin; immaculate. 'A stainless wife.' Tennyson.

Stainlessly (stanles-li), adv. In a stainless manner; with freedom from stain.

Stair (star), n. [O.K. stayre, steyer, lit. that by which a person sties or mounts (see Sty); A. Sax stceger, from sttgan, Icel. stiga, O. steigen, to ascend, to climb, whence also stUe (on a fence), and the first part of stirrup.] Originally, any succession of steps to mount by. 'Cords made like a tackled stair.' Shak. Now, usually a succession of steps rising one above the other arranged as a way between two points at different lu-ights in a building, Ac: used often in plural in same sense, while the singular is also employed to mean a single step. 'A winding staire.' Chaucer. 'On the highest stayre of the honourable stage of womanhead.' Spenser. * Up stairs and down stairs.' Shak. 'Up the cork-Bcrew stair.' Tennyson. 'Up a flight of stairs into the hall.' Tennyson.

The stairs, as he treads on them, kiss his feet

Shak.
Satan, . . . now on the lower stair
That scaled by steps of gold to heaven gate.

Milton.

-—Pair of stairs, a set or flight of steps or stairs (see Pair); more properly perhaps two flights. See extract.

It is usual to divide the stair, when the height of the stories is considerable, into flights or sections separated by landing-places, and each flight might not improperly be considered an independent stair. Now, in the great majority of stairs, there was but one intermediate landing-place, and of course the whole ascent from floor to floor was divided into two flights or stairs, and thus formed a/air of stairs.

G. P. Marsh.

—Flight of stairs, a succession of stops in a continuous line or from one landing to another. Below stairs, in the basement or lower part of a house. — Up stairs, in the upper part of a house,

Stair-carpet (starTtar-pet), n. A carpet for covering stairs.

Staircase (starTcas), n. The part of a building which contains the stairs. Staircases are straight or winding. The straight are called fliers or direct fliers—Staircase shells, shells of the genus Solarium.

Stair-foot (star'fut), n. The bottom of a stair. Bacon.

Stairhead (startled), n. The top of a staircase.

Stair-rod (star*rod), n. A metallic rod for holding a stair-carpet to its place.

Stairway (starVa), n. A staircase. Moore.

Stair-wire (staVwir), n. A stair-rod.

The very stair-vires made your eyes wink, they were so glittering. Dickens.

Staith (stath). n. [A. Sax. stctth, a shore, bank, a landing-place, station; Icel. stoth, a harbour, a station, from root of stead, stand. ] An elevated wharf with a chute for shipping cool, A'c. [North of England.]

Stalthman (stath'man), n. A man engaged in weighing and shipping coals at a staith.

Staith wort (stath'wert), n. Another name for Coletcort.

Stake (stakX n. [A. Sax. staca, L.O. staire, D. staak, Dan. stage; from the root of stick, stock.] 1. A piece of wood or timber sharpened at one end and set in the ground, or prepared for setting, as a support to something, as part of a fence, &c. Thus stakes are used to support vines, to support hedges, salmon nets, Ac.

Sharp stakes, pluckt out of hedges They pitched in the ground. Shak.

Was never salmon yet that shone so fair

Among the stakes of Dee. Kingsley.

2 A post to which a bear was tied to be baited.

Have yon not set mine honour at the stake.
And baited it with all the unmuzzled thoughts
That tyrannous heart can think T Shak.

3. The post to which one condemned to die by fire was fastened; as, to suffer at the stake, that is, to Buffer death,often a martyr's

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STAKE

183

STALKING

death, by burning. —4That which is pledged or wagered; that which is laid down to abide the issue of a contest, to be gained by victory or lost hy defeat; something hazarded. 'Whose game was empires, and whoae stake* were thrones.' Byron. 'One who had a stake in the county.' Dickens.

The game was «o contrived that one particular cut took up the whole stake, and when sonic others came up, you laid down. Aroufhnot.

5 The state of being laid or pledged aa a wasrer, the state of being put at hazard: preceded by at; as, his honour is at stake.

Hath any of you great interest at stake in a distant pan of the world! Hath he ventured a gixxi share of his fortune T Bp. Atltrbury.

6. A small anvil to straighten cold work, or to cat and punch upon. Moxon.—7. In shipbuilding, one In the regular ranges of planks on the bottom and sides of a snip reaching from the stem to the stern. Weale. Stake (stak), v.t pret. & pp staked; ppr. ttaking. L Tout and plant like a stake; to fasten, support, or defend with stake*; as, to stake rines or other plants.

I have a soul of lead
So sijitr me lo the- ground I cannot move. Shak.

1 To mark the limits of by stakes: with out; aa, to stake out land; to stake out a new road or the ground for a canal.—3. To wager; to pledge; to put hazard upon the issue of competition, or upon a future contingency.

Ill stake yon lamb that near the fountain plays. Pope. Thus Id our country the dearest interests of parties have frequently been staked on the results of the researches of antiquaries. Macaulay,

1 To pierce with a stake. Spectator.

Stake-fellOW (stak'fel-16), n. One tied or burned at the stake with another. Southey. Stake-head (stak'hed). n. In rope-tnaking, a stake with wooden pins to keep the strands apart.

Stake-bolder (stakliold-er), n. 1. One who holds stakes, or with whom the bets are deposited when a wager is laid.—2. In law, one with whom a deposit is made by two or more who lay claim to it

Stake-net (stnk'net), n. A form of net for catching salmon, consisting of a sheet of net-work stretched upon stakes fixed Into the ground, generally In rivers or frithB, where the sea ebbs and flows, with contrivances for entangling and securing the fish.

Staker.t vi. To stagger. Chaucer.

Staktometer (stak-tom'et-er), is. [Or. staktot. falling by drops, and metron, a measure-1 Lit a drop measure. A glass tube having a bulb in the middle, and tapering to a fine orifice at one end, used for ascertaining the number of drops in equal bulks of different liquids. Called also Stalagmometer.

Stalactlc, Stalactical (sta-lak'tik. sta-Iak'tik-aJ), a. [From stalactite] Pertaining to stalactite; resembling a stalactite. 'This sparry, stalacticttl substance.' Derham.

Stalactlform (sta-lak'ti-formX a. Having the form of a stalactite; like stalactite; stalactical.

Stalactite (sta-lalr/tit), n. [From Gr. stalakto9, trickling or dropping, from stalasso or stalazO, to let fall drop by drop.] A mass of

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water containing particles of carbonate of lime through fissures and pores of rocks. Similar masses are frequently to be seen also depending from stone bridges or elsewhere. The water being evaporated leaves a deposit of lime behind it, which, by the continued trickling of the water, gradually increases in size. As some of the water often drops to the floor also, a mass of the same kind is formed below, called a stalagmite. See Stalagmite. [The plural is regular, sta-lak'tits, but Byron unwarrantably uses sta lak'U-tez ]

Stalactitest (sta-lak-ti'tez), n. A stalactite. Woodward.

Stalactitlc. Stalactttical (sta-lnk-tit'ik, sta-lak-tit'ik-al), a. Having the form or character of stalactite; containing stalactites.

Stalactitiform (sta-lak-tit'i-form), a. Same as Stalaetiform.

Stalagmite (sta-lag'mit), n. [Gr. stalagmos, a dropping, irom stalazo, to drop. See STALACTITE. ] A deposit of stalactitic matter on the Moor of a cavern. Simultaneously with the formation of the Btalactite a similar but upward growth takes place at the spot vertically below where the successive drops of water fall and evaporate. Tins sometimes forms continuous sheets over the surface, sometimes rises unto columns, which meet and blend with the stalactites above. See Stalactite.

Stalagmltic, Stalagmltlcal(sta-lag-mlt'ik, sta-Iag-mit'ik-al), a. Relating to or having the form of stalagmite.

Stalagmitically (sta-Iag-mit'ik-al-11), adv. In the form or manner of stalagmite.

Stalagmometer (sta-lag-inom'et-er), n. Same as Staktometer.

Staldert (stal'der), n. [From stall, to set or place] A wooden frame to set casks on.

Stalding (stald'ing), n. A counterfeit coin of the reign of Edward I., worth about £<f., manufactured abroad and surreptitiously introduced Into England.

Stale (stal), a. [From same root as stall, the meaning being from standing long; comp. O.D. stel, that remains standing, quiet, ancient. See Stall, »*.] 1. Vapid or tasteless from age; having lost Its life, spirit, and flavour from being long kept; as, stale beer. 'That stale, old, mouseeaten, dry cheese.' Shak.— 2. Not new; not freshly made; as. stale bread, or that which has been baked at least twenty-four hours.

3. Having lost the life or graces of youth; long past prime; decayed.

A state virgin sets up a shop in a place where she is not known. Spectator.

4. Out of regard from use or long familiarity; trite; common; having lost its novelty and power of pleasing; musty; as, a stale remark. 'A proverb never stale in thrifty mind.' Shak. 'Within a dull, stale, tired bed.' Shak.

They reason and conclude by precedent.

And own Jta/f nonsense which they ne'er invent Pope.

Stale (stal), n, [From Stale, a.] l.t That which has become vapid and tasteless or is worn out by use, as old, vapid beer, beer kept until flat. Hence—2. t A prostitute.

I stand dishonour'd that have gone about

To link my dear friend to a common stale. Shak.

Stale (stal), v.t. pret. <fr pp. staled; ppr. staling. To make vapid, useless, cheap, or worthless; to destroy the life, beauty, or use of; to wear out.

Age cannot wither her, nor custom state
Her infinite variety. Shak.

Stale (staR n. [O.Fr. estal, Mod. Ft. Hal, place, stall, market, from OH. G. stal, stall.] l.t Something set or offered to view as an allurement to draw others to any place or purpose; a bait; a decoy; a stool-pigeon; specifically, the form of a bird set up to allure a hawk or other bird of prey. Mir. for Mags.

Still as he went he crafty stales did lay. Spenser.

A pretenre of kindness is the universal stale to all base projects. Dr. H. More.

2. t A stalking-horse.

Dull, stupid Lentulus,
My state with whom I stalk. B. fenson.

3. In chess-playing, stalemate. 'A stale at chess.' Bacon. A. f A laughing-stock; a dupe; an object of ridicule.

I pray you, sir, is it your will

To make a stale of me amongst these mates! Shak.

6t [See Stale, v.i.) Urine, as of horses and cattle.

Stale (stal), v.i. [D. and G. stallen, Dan. staUe, Sw. stalla, to make water, from

"llil stal, A. Sax. stall, a Btable; or from O.Fr. estal, a standing still, estaler, to come to a stand, the ultimate origin being the same.] To make water: to discharge urine, as horses and cattle. Hudibras.

Stale (stal), n. [A. Sax. stel, stela, L.G. and l ■ steel, G. stiel, a stalk, stock, handle, probably from root of stalk.] A long handle; as, tin: stale of a rake.

Stalely (stal'li), adv. 1. In a Btale manner.— 2. t Of old; of a long time.

All your promised mountains And seas I am so stately acquainted with. B. Jonson.

Stale-mate (stal'mat), n. In chess-playing, the position of the king when stalled or set, that is, when Bo situated that, though not in ch«ck, he cannot move without being placed in check, there being no other available move. In this case the game is drawn.

Stale-mate (stal'mat), v.t To subject to a stale-mate in chess; hence, to put in a corner; to put or bring to a stand; to perplex completely; to nonplus. * I stalemated him.' Macmillan's Mag.

StaleneS8 (stal'nes), n. The state of being stale; as, (a) vapidness; the state of having lost the life or flavour; oldness; as, the staUness of beer or other liquors; the stalenest of provisions. (6) The state of being out of regard; triteness; commonness; as, the staleness of an observation.

Stalk (stak), n. [Probably from Dan. stilk, Icel. stilkr, a stalk, and akin to E. stale, a handle, the vowel being modified by the influence of the verb to stalk or other words. In last sense directly from this verb.] 1. The stem or main axis of a plant; that part of a plant which rises immediately from the root, and which usually supports the leaves, flowers, and fruit; as, a stalk of wheat, rye, or oats; the stalks of hemp.—2. The pedicel of a flower, or the peduncle that supports the fructification of a plant, called the flower-stalk. —3. The stem of a quill; anything resembling the stalk or stem of a plant; as, the stalk of a spoon; the stalk of a tobacco-pipe, &c 4. In arch, an ornament in the Corinthian capital which resembles the stalk of a plant, and which is sometimes fluted. From it the volutes and helices springs — 5 t One of the upright pieces of a ladder in which the rounds or steps are placed.—

0. A high, proud, stately step or walk. 'With martial stalk.' Shak.

The which with monstrous stalk behind him stept. And ever as he went due watch upon him kept.

Spenser.

Stalk (stak), v.i. [A. Sax. stcetcan, to go softly or warily; Dan. stalke, to stalk; from stem of steal, meaning literally to walk in a stealthy manner. As to form of word comp. talk (and tell), walk] 1. To walk softly and warily; to walk in a sly or stealthy manner.

Bertram
Stalks close behind her like a witch's fiend,
Pressing to be employed. Dryden.

2. To walk behind a stalking-horse; to pursue game by approaching softly and warily behind a cover.

The king crept under the shoulder of his led horse and said, Imust stalk. Bacon.

3. To walk with high and proud steps; to walk in a lofty or dignified manner; to pace slowly: sometimes implying the affectation

of dignity.

With manly mien he stalk'J along the ground. Dryden.
Then stalking through the deep
He fords the ocean. Addison.

Stalk (stak), v.t. In sporting, to pursue stealthily; to pursue behind a cover; to watch aud follow warily for the purpose of

killing.

As for shooting a man from behind a wall, it is cruelty like to stalking a deer. Sir W. Scott.

When a lion is very hungry, and lying in wait, the sight of an animal may make him commence stalkingiu Dr. Livingstone.

Stalked (stakt), a. Having a stalk or stem. Stalker (st#k er), n. 1. One who stalks.—

1. A kind of flshing-net.

Stalk-eyed (stak'id), a. In zool. applied to certain Crustacea named PodophthalmatA, which have the eyes set at the end of footstalks of variable length. The lobster, shrimp, and crab are examples of this group.

Stalking (stak'ing), n. In sporting, the act of approaching game softly and warily, taking advantage of the inequalities of the ground, &c., as in deer-stalking or as in fowling.

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