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Stalking-horse (stak'ing-hora), >> l. A horse, or figure made like a horse, behind which ft fowler conceals himself from the sight of the game which he is aiming to kill. Hence — 2. Anything thrust forward , to conceal a more important object; a mask; a pretence.

Hypocrisy is the devil's stalking-horse under an affectation of simplicity and religion. Sir R.L'Estrange.

Stalkless (stalCles), a. Having no stalk.

Stalklet (stak'let), n. In bot. a secondary petiole; a petlolule; the stalk of a leaflet.

Stalky (stftk'i), a. Hard as a stalk; resembling a stalk. 'At the top bears a great xtalky head.' Mortimer.

Stall (stal), n. [A. Sax. steall, stall, place, station, stall, stable; Icel. stallr, a shelf or other support, a stall; D. stal, G. stall, Dan. staid, a stall, a stable, Ac.; O.H.G. stallan, G. stellen, to place. The ultimate root is that of stand, ] l.The stand or place where a horse or an ox is kept and fed; the division of a stable, or the apartment for oue horse or ox; as, the stable contains eight or ten stalls.— 2. A stable; a place for horses or cattle.

At last he found a stall where oxen stood. Drydcn.

3. A bench, form, or kind of table in the open air, where anything is exposed to sale. 'Nature's coarser wares that lie on the stall, exposed to the transient view of every common eye.' Olanville.—4. A small house or shed, either in the open air or within a large building, in which merchandise is exposed for sale, or in which an occupation is carried on; as, a butcher's stall. 5. A fixed seat inclosed, either wholly or partially, at the


Stalls, Higham Ferrers Church, Northamptonshire,

back and sides, in the choir or chancel of a cathedral, collegiate church, &c, and mostly appropriated to some dignitary of such churches. — 6. The chief seat on the dais in a domestic hall. Lydgate.—7. A highclass seat in a theatre.—8. In mining, an opening made between pillars in the direction that the work is progressing or transversely.—9. The name given by garotters and pocket-pickers to the parties who walk before {fore-stall) and behind (back-stall) the person who is to operate and his victim, so as to conceal the crime, make off with the booty, and otherwise assist the escape of the actual robber.

Stall (st. i\).v.t I T<> put intoastall or stable, or to keep in a stall; as, to stall a horse. 'Where king Latinus then his oxen stall'd.' Dryden.—1.\ To fix or fasten Bo as to prevent escape; to secure.

When as thine eye hath chose the dame.
And stalfd the deer that thou shouldst strike.

3.t To install; to place in an office with the customary formalities.

And see another as I see thee now,
Deck'd in thy rights, as thou art stall'd in mine.

4. To plunge into mire, so as not to be able to proceed; as. to stall horses or a carriage. Burton. 5.t To place and keep securely'Stall this in your breast' Shak.—6.t To forestall.

That is not to be stall'd by my report,

This only must be told. Massinger

7. To satiate; to fatten. [Provincial English. ]

Stall (stal), v.i. U To live as in a stall; to dwell; to inhabit

We could not stall together

In the whole world. Shak.

2. To kennel, as dogs. Johnson.—8. To be

tired of eating, as cattle.—4. To be set fast,

as in mire.

Stallage (stal'aj), n. 1. The right of erecting stalls in fairs, or rent paid for a stall.—

2t Laystall; dung; compost. StaUationt (stal-a'shon), n. Installation.

'His stallation drew near.' Ld. Herbert. Stall-board (staj'bord), n. One of a series

of floors on to which soil or ore is pitched

successively in excavating. StaHert (stal'er), n. A standard-bearer.

Fuller. Stall-feed (started), v.t. To feed and fatten

in a stall or stable, or on dry fodder; as, to

stall-feed an ox. Stalling (staling), n. Stabling.

Hire us some fair chamber for the night. And stalling for the horses. Tennyson.

Stallinger (stal'in-JGrX «• One who keeps a stall. [Local.]

Stalling-ken (staring-ken), n. A house for receiving stolen goods. Dekker. [Old slang.]

Stallion (stal'yun), n. [0-E- stalon, stallant, O.Fr. estalon (Mod. Fr. ttaloix), a stallion; It. staUone; from O.H.G. stal. E. stall; lit. the horse kept in the stall. See Stall.] A horse not castrated; an entire horse; a horse kept for breeding purposes.

Stallman (stat'man), n. A man who keeps a stall

The stallman saw my father had (a strong fancy) for the book the moment he laid his hands upon it. Sterne.

Stall-reader (stal'red-er), n. One who reads books at the stall where they are sold.

Cries the stall-reader, ' Bless us, what a word on
A title page is this I' MiUon.

Stalwart, Stal worth fatal' wert, stal' we rth), a. [O.E. stalword, stallworth, from A. Sax. st&lwcorth, lit. worthy of place, from stal, stall, place, position ;hence estimable, brave. See Stall] 1. Brave; bold; redoubted; daring. 'A stalwart tiller of the soil.' Prof, Wilson.

Well by his visage you might know
He was a stalworth knight, and keen.

Sir IK Scott.

2. Tall and strong; large and strong in frame. [The spelling stalworth is now obsolete or obsolescent]

Stalwartht (stal'w6rth),a. Same as Stalwart.

Stalwartness (stal'wert-nes), n. The state or quality of being stalwart.

Stalwortnness (stal'werth-nes), n. Same as Stalwartness

Stamblia (stambTia), n. See I.At.

Stamen (sta'men), u. pi. Stamens (sta'raenz) (only in the fourth sense) or (in the other three senses) Stamina (stam'i-na). [ L. stamen, pi. stamina, the warp of a web. a thread, the fibre of wood; Gr. tt&mOn, the warp of a web, from root sta, to stand.] 1. A thread, especially a thread of the warp; the warp in the ancient upright loom at which the weaver stood upright instead of sitting.

2. [Probably only used in the plural.] The fixed, firm part of a body, which supports it or gives it its strength and solidity; as, the bones are the stamina of animal bodies; the ligneous parts of trees are the stamina which constitute their strength. Hence—

3. pi. Whatever constitutes the principal strength or support of anything; power of endurance; Btaying power; long lasting strength or vigour; backbone ; as. the stamina of a constitution or of life; the stamina of a state.

He succeeded to great captains who had sapped the whole stamina and resistance of the contest. De Quintty.

The tea (in coffee-houses) is usually of the weakest, its constitution is delicate, it waiits stamina and vitality. Mrs. Riddell.

4. In bot. the male organ of fructification in plants, formed principally of cellular tissue.

It is situated immediately within the petals, and is composed, in most cases, of three parts, the filament, the anther, and the pollen, of which the two latter are essential, the other not. The stamens and pistils constitute

the sexual or reproductive organs of plants.

Generally they both exist in the same


a a. Stamens, s, Stigma.

flower, which is thus Baid to be hermaphrodite or perfect. The number of stamens varies in different plants, from one to a hundred or more. With respect to their directions they are named erect, indexed, reflexed, spreading, ascending, decimate; and their insertions with regard to the ovary are said to be hypogynous, epigynous, or perigynous. (See these terms.) It was on the number of stamens and their arrangements and relations, that Linmeus founded the classes of his sexual system of plants.

Stament (sta'men),n. SeeSTAMIN. Chaucer.

Stamened (sta'mend), a. Furnished with stamens.

Stamfortis t (stam-for'tls), n. Same as Stanium.

Stamint (sta'min), n. [O.Fr. estamine, Fr. itamine, alight kind of stuff, a bolting cloth, from O.Fr. estame, It. stame, yarn, worsted, from L. stamen, a fibre. See Stamen. Stammel.] A slight woollen stuff; linseywoolsey. Chaucer.

Stamina (stam'i-na), n. Plural of stamen (which see).

Staminal (staro'l-nal), a. Pertaining to stamens or stamina; consisting in stamens or stamina. Balfour.

Staminate (stam'i-nat), a. Furnished with stamens.

Staminate (stam'i-nat), v.t. pret A pp. staminated; ppr. staminating. To endue with stamina.

Stamineal (sta-min'e-al), a. Same as Stamineous.

Stamineous (sta-min'e-us), a. [L. stamineus, consisting of threads, from stamen, a fibre.] 1. Consisting of stamens.—2. Possessing stamens. — 3. Pertaining to the stamen or attached to it; as, a stamineous nectary.

Staminldluxn (sta-mi-nid'i-um), n. pi. Staminldia (sta-mi-nid'1-a). [L. stamen, staminis, a stamen, and Gr. eidou, resemblance. ] The antheridium, an organ in cryptogamic plants equivalent to a Btamen.

Stamlnlferous (sta-mi-nif'er-us). a. [I. stamen, staminis, a stamen, and fero, to bear.] Bearing or having stamens.—.4 staminiferous flower is one which has stamens without a pistil.—A staminiferous nectary is one that has stamens growing on it.

Staminode, Stamlnodium (stam'in-dd, stam-i-no'di-um), n. [L. stamen, and Gr. eidos, shape.] An abortive stamen, or an organ resembling an abortive stamen.

Stammelt (Btam'el), n. [O.Fr. estamet, a coarse woollen cloth; estame, a woollen stuff; from L. stamen, a thread. See StaMin ] 1. A kind of woollen cloth, which seems to have been often of a red colour. Hence—2. A coarse kind of red. inferior to fine scarlet. B. Jonton.

Stammel t (stam'el), a. Of a reddish colour; pertaining to the cloth culled stammel.

And see to yon pretty wench, Adam, who comes tripping through them all with her milk pail. She has a stammel waistcoat, like your favourite Cissiy Sutherland. Sir /f. Scett.

Stammer (stam'er). v.i. [A freq. form from a root stam; A. Sax. stamor, stamer, Icel. stamr, stammr, stammering, speaking with difficulty; O.E stamercn, stamber, to stammer; Sc. stammer, to stumble; L G. stammern, D. stameren, stamelen, G. stammeln, Icel. stamma, to stammer. Allied to stumble.] To make involuntary breaks or pauses in speaking; to hesitate or falter in speaking; and hence, to speak with stops and difficulty; to stutter. 'The new strong wine of love that made my tongue so stammer and trip.' Tennyson.

Your hearers would rather you should be less correct than perpetually stammering, which is one of the worst solecisms in rhetoric. Stt'ift.

Stammer (stam'er), v. t. To utter or pronounce with hesitation or imperfectly: frequently with out. 'His pale lips faintly stammered out a ' No." Dickens.

Stammer (stam'er), n. Defective utterance; a stutter; as, to be troubled with a stammer. See Stammering.

Stammerer (stam'er-er), n. One that stammers, stutters, or hesitates in speaking.

Stammering (stam'er-ing), ft. The act of stopping or nesi fating in speaking; an affection of the faculty of speech characterized by irregular.imperfect,or spasmodic actions of the muscles concerned in articulation. It manifests itself in a difficulty in beginning the enunciation of words, especially such as begin with on explosive consonant, or in a spasmodic and for a time an incontrollable reiteration of the same syllable after the word is begun; this latter defect STAMMERING



being also called stuttering. Stammering is always increased by emotional disturbance, and is much mitigated, and often cured, by the patient acquiring confidence in himself, never attempting to speak in a hurry or when the chest is empty of air, or by reading measured sentences slowly and with deliberation.

Stammering (stam'er-hjg), a. Characterized by spasmodic or defective speech; hesitating in speech; apt to stammer; stuttering. 'Stammering tongues.' Dryden. 'Stammering accents." Dr. Caird.

Stamrheringly (stanver-ing-li), adv. With stammering; with Btops or hesitation in ■peaking.

Stamp (stamp), v.t. [IceL stampa, Dan. stampe, Sw. stampa. D. stampen, G. stamp

fen. to stamp with the feet, nasalized forms from stap, stem of D. stappen, IceL stappa, G. stap/en, to step, to set down the feet, to stamp. Akin step. The Germanic word passed into the Romance languages: O.Fr. (stamper. Hod. Fr. Hamper, It. stampare, Sp. estampar] I. To strike, beat, or press forcibly with the bottom of the foot, or by thrusting the foot downward.

Coder my feet I stamp thy cardinal's hat. Shak. He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground. - -. . Dryden.

2. To impress with some murk or figure; to mark with ait impression; as, to stamp a plate with arms or initials. 'Stamped coin.' SAafr. —3. To impress; to imprint; to fix deeply; as, to stamp virtuous principles on the heart 'Wax . . . wherein is stamped the semblance of a devil' Shak.

God has stamped no original characters on our minds, wherein wc may read his being. Locke. Stamps God's own name upon a lie just made. To turn a penny in the way of trade. Ctrwper.

4. To coin; to mint; to make current Shak.

5. To affix a stamp (as a postage or receipt stamp) to; as, to stamp a letter or newspaper.

6. To cut into various forms with a stamp.

7. To crush by the downward action of a kind of pestle, as ore in a stamping-mill.— To stamp out, to extinguish, as fire, by stamping with the foot on; hence, to extirpate, as a disease which has broken out in a herd of cattle, by destroying the animal or animals affected; hence, to extirpate generally; to eradicate; to exterminate; to suppress.

A capital thing were these proverbs and sayings tor stamping out what were called notions or" uppt^haess in children, or hopes of having everything their own way. ft*. Chambers.

Stamp (stamp), t). i. To strike the foot forcibly downward. *A ramping fool to brag ami stamp and swear.' Shak.

Stamp (stamp), n. 1. The act of stamping; as, a stamp of the foot 'And, at our stamp, here o'er and o'er one falls.' Shak.— 2. Any instrument for making impressions on other bodies; an engraved block, or the like, by which a mark may be delivered by pressure.

Tis gold so pure.
It cannot bear the stamp without alloy. Dryden.

3. A mark imprinted; an impression. 'The rank ia but the guinea stamp.' Burns.

That sacred name gives ornament and grace.
And. like his stamp, makes basest metals pass.

4. That which is marked; a thing stamped. 'Hanging a golden stamp about their necks.' Shak.—5 t [ft. estampe.) A picture cut in wood or metal, or made by impression; an engraving; a plate.

At Venice they put out very curious stamps of the sercrai edifices which are most famous for their beauty and magnificence. Addison.

4, An official mark set upon things chargeable with some duty or tax showing that the duty is paid; the impression of a public mark or seal made by the government or its officers upon paper or parchment whereon private deeds or other legal instruments are written, for the purposes of revenue; as. the stamp upon a bond or indenture. Hence, pi Stamps-Stamp-duties. See Stamp-duty.— 7. A small piece of paper having a certain figure impressed by government, sold to the public to be attached to a paper, letter, or document liable to duty, in order to show that such has been paid, as, a postage stamp; a receipt stamp. & An instrument for cutting out materials (as paper, leather. Ac.) into various forms by a downward pressure.—9. A character or repatatiun, good or bad, fixed on anything.

The persens here reflected upon are of such a stamp of impiety, that they seem formed into a kind of diabohcaJ society for the finding out new experiments in »)cc- South.

10. Currency; value derived from suffrage or attestation; authority.

The common people do not Judge of vice or virtue by morality or immorality, so much as by the stamp that is set upon it by men of figure.

Sir R. LEstrange.

11. Make; cast; form; character; as, a man of the same stamp, or of a different stamp. 'A soldier of this season's stamp.' Shak

12. In metal, a kind of hammer or pestle raised by steam or water power for crushing or beating ores to powder; anything like a pestle used for pounding or beating.

Stamp-act (stamp'akt),n. An act for regulating the imposition of stamp-duties; especially, an act passed by the British parliament in 1765, imposing a duty on all paper, vellum, and parchment used in the American colonies, and declaring all writings on unstamped materials to be null and void. This act roused a general opposition in the colonies, and was one cause of the revolution.

Stamp-collector (stamp'kol-lek-ter), n.

1. A collector or receiver of stamp duties.—

2. One who collects rare or foreign stamps as articles of curiosity or the like.

Stamp-distributor (stamp'dis-tri-but-er), n. An official who issues or distributes government stamps.

Stamp-duty (stamp'du-ti), n. A tax or duty imposed on pieces of parchment or paper, on which many species of legal instruments are written. Stamp-duties on legal instruments, such as conveyances, deeds, legacies, etc., are chiefly secured by prohibiting the reception of them in evidence unless they bear the stamp required by the law.

Stampede (stam-ped'), n, [Amer. Sp. estampida, a stampede. ] A sudden fright seizing upon large bodies of cattle or horses, in droves or encampments on the prairies, and causing them to run for long distances; a sudden scattering of a herd of cattle or horses; hence, any sudden flight, as of an army, in consequence of a panic.

The panic nVht of the Federals at Bull Run, near the Potom.ic, U.S., in 1S61, was a stampede,


Stampede (stam-ped'), v.i. To take sudden | flight, as if under the influence of panic terror.

Stampede (atam-ped7). v.t pret A pp. stampeded; ppr. stampeding. To cause to break off in a stampede; to cause to take to panic flight

Horses on their first few days* journey are easily stampeded, and will sometimes stray home again. Caps, Mayue Reid.

Stampedo (stam-pe'do). n. Same as Stampede. 'A sudden stampedo or rush of horses.' W. Irving. [Rare.]

Stamper (stamp'erX n. 1. One who stamps; as, a stamper in the post-office.—2. An instrument for stamping; a stamp.

Stamp-hammer (BtampTiam-mer), u. A direct-acting hammer where the hammerblock is lifted vertically, either by cams or friction-rollers, or, as is more commonly the case, by steam or water pressure acting on a piston in a closed cylinder. Percy.

Stamp-bead (stanip'hed), n. The heavy metal block forming the head or lower end of a bar which is lifted and let fall vertically, as in a stamping-mill.

Stamping - machine (stamp'ins-ma-ah en), n. A machine for forming articles or impressions by stamping, as for manufacturing pans, kettles, spoons, forks, and other articles from sheet-metal, by means of blocks, dies, and a heavy hammer.

Stajnplng-mill (stamp'ing-mi]), n. An engine by which ores are pounded by means of a stamp.

Stamping-press (stamp'ing-pres), »• Same as Stamping-machine.

Stamp-note (stamp'not), n. In com. a memorandum delivered by a shipper of goods to the searcher, which, when stamped by him, allows the goods to be sent off by lighter to the ship, and ia the captain's authority for receiving them on board. Simmonds

Stamp*office (stamp'of-fis), n. An office where government stamps are issued, and stamp-duties and also taxes are received.

Stance (stans), n. [From L. sto, stare, to stand, through the French.] A site; a station; an area for building: a position. [Scotch.]

The boy . . . danced down from his stance with a gaUiard sort of step. Sir «*. Scott.

Stanch (stansh). r. t [O. Fr. estaneher. Mod. Fr. etancher, to stop from running, to stanch.

supposed to be from a L.L. stancare, for L. stagnare, to make or be stagnant See StagNate.] 1. To prevent the flow of, as blood; to stop the flow of blood from, as from a wound; to stop; to dry up.

Iron or stone laid to the neck, doth stanch the bleeding of the nose. Bacon.

Then came the hermit out and bare him in.
There stanch'd his wound. Tennyson.

2.t To quench, as fire or as thirst; to allay the craving of. * Covetise of men that may not be stanched.' Chaucer. 'To stanch his thrust (thirst).' Gower. Stanch (sttinsh), v.i. To stop, as blood; to cease to flow.

Immediately her issue of blood stanched.

Luke viii. 44.

Stanch (stansh), a. [From the above verb, the literal meaning being Btopped, tight, and, as applied to a ship, not leaky. See theverb.] [Written also Staunch.) 1. Strong and tight; not leaky; Bound; firm; as, a stanch ship. 'Stancher vessels, and more sunny days.' Boyle. 2. Firm in principle; steady; constant and zealous; hearty; loyal; as, a stanch republican; a stanch friend or adherent. 'A stanch churchman.' Addison.

In politics I hear you're stanch. Prior.

8.t Close; secret; private.

This is to be kept stanch and carefutly watched.

Stanchel (Btan'shel), n. In arch, a stanchion.

Stancher (stansh'er), n. One who or that which stanches or stops the flowing of blood. Stanchion (stan'shon), n. [0. Fr. estanson, estancon, from estance, that which supports, from a L.L. form stantia, from L. sto, to stand. ] 1. A prop or support; a post, pillar, beam, or the like, used for a support, as a piece of timber supporting one of the main parts of a roof.—2. In shtp-bttilding, an upright post or beam of different forms, used to support the deck, the quarter-rails, the nettings, awnings, aud the like. Stanchion-gun (stan'shon-gun), n. A pivotgun; a boat gun for wild-duck shooting. Stanchless (stansh1es),a. Incapableofbeing stanched or stopped; unquenchable; insatiable. 'A. stanchless avarice.' Shak. Stanchness (stansh'nes), n. The state or quality of being stanch; as, (a) the state of being strong, sound, firm, or not leaky. 'To try the stanchness of the phial.' Boyle, (b) Firmness in principle; closeness of adherence.

Stanck,t Stankt (stangkX a. [O Fr. estane, It. stanco, tired, wearied.] Exhausted; faint; weak; worn out; weary. Spenser. Stand (stand), v.i. pret & pp. stood; ppr. standing. [A. Sax. standan, pret. stod, pp. standen, Icel. standa, ORG. standan, stantan, Goth, standan, I), staan, Q. stehen; from a root common to the Indo-European languages, being seen also in L. sto. Gr. (hi)stanai, Skr. sthd. Stand is a nasalized form of a stem stad, and is akin to stead. Stall, still, stool, etc., are from the same root, and through the French and Latin come stage, state, station, stable, Ac] 1. To be stationary or at rest in an erect or upright position; to be set in an upright position; as, (a) to rest on the feet in an erect position, as opposed to sitting, lying, or kneeling: said of men or beasts. 'Stands he, sits her or does he walk'r' Shak. (b) To be on end; to continue upright; as, a beam stands on end. 'A field of standing corn.' Drayton.—2. To be as regards position or situation; to occupy a permanent place; to have Its site or situation; to hold a place; to be situated or located; as, London stands on the Thames 'Where thy nose stands.' Shak. 'Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine (eyes).' Shak.

Stands Scotland where it did? ShaJr.

3. To cease from progress; not to proceed; to come to a state of rest; to cease moving in any direction; to stop action or movement; to stop; to pause; to halt

I win tell you who time ambles withal, who time gallops withal, and who he stands still withal. Shak I charge thee stand. And tell thy name. Dryden.

4. To continue or remain without ruin or injury; to hold out against or withstand tendencies to impair, injure, or decay; to \*e permanent; to last; to endure; to abide. 'While England stands.' Shak. 'Our peace shall stand as firm.' Shak 'A living temple, built by faith to stand.' Milton.—& To maintain one's ground or position; not to fall or fail; to be acquitted or saved

'Headers by whose judgment I would stand




or fall' Addition —6. To maintain a fixed, firm, or steady attitude; to take up a fixed position, as of opposition, resistance, or defence. 'And when they stand against you, may they fall/ Shak.

The king granted the Jews which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life. EsL via. Ii.

7. To persevere; to persist

Never stand in a lie when thou art accused, but auk pardon and make amends. fer. Taylor.

The emperor, standing upon the advantage he had gut by the seizure of Uieir fleet, obliged them to deliver. S-wifl.

8. To be pertinacious, unyielding, or obstinate; to insist, as, not to stand on ceremonies. See also phrases below,

Stand not upon the order of your going.
But go at once. Shak.

9. To be placed with regard to relative position, rank, or order.

Among liquids endued with this quality of relaxing, warm water stands first. Arbuthnot.

Theology would truly enlarge the mind were it studied with that freedom and that sacred charity which, it teaches; let this therefore stand always chief. Watts.

10. To be in a particular state or condition; to be; as, how stands the matter with you? I hope you will stand my friend. 'Thus it stands with me.' Shak. 'For my wife, I know not how it stands.' Shak.

I stand resigned and am prepared to go.

Dry den.

11. To be consistent; to agree; as, it stands to reason. See also phrases below.

His faithful people, whatsoever they rightly ask, the same shall they receive, so far as may stand with the glory of God, and their own everlasting good. Hooker. Doubt me not; by heaven I will do nothing But what may stand with honour. Masstnger,

12. To be in the place; to represent; to be equivalent.

Their language being scanty, had no words in it to stand for a thousand. Lode.

13. To become a candidate for an office or the like; as, he stood for the borough at last election. 'How many stand for consulships?' Shak. —14. To hold a certain course, as a ship; to be directed towards any local point; as, to stand for the harbour.

From the same parts of heaven his navy stands. Dryden.

15. To measure, as from the feet to the head, or from bottom to top. 'He stood four feet six inches and three quarters in his socks.' Dickens.—16. To stagnate; not to fiow; as, a standing pool. 'The black water of Pomptina stands.' Dryden,—17. To be valid; to continue in force; to have efficacy; not to be void. 'No conditions of our peace can stand.' Shak.

God was not ignorant that the judges, whose sentence in matters of controversy he ordained should stand, would be deceived. Hooker.

[Note. Stand with many adverbs receives the sense of motion as previous to coming to rest, or of a state caused by previous motion, and becomes equivalent to to step, to go, to come; as, to stand aloof; to stand apart; to stand aside; to stand back; to stand forth, and the like.]— 17> sta nd against, to resist; to oppose; as, one candidate stands against another at an election.—To stand by, (a), with by the adverb, (1) to be present without taking an active part; to be a spectator; to be near.

Now Margaret's curse is fallen upon our heads,

For standing by when Richard stabbed her son.


(2) To be placed or left aside; to be neglected or disregarded.

In the meantime we let the command stand by neglected. Dr. H. More.

(b) With by the preposition, (1) to support; to defend; to assist; not to desert

The ass hoped the dog would stand by him if set upon by the wolf. Sir Jt. LEstrange.

(2) To rest in; to repose on.

iThfs reply standeth all by conjectures. ti'hitgtft.

(3) Naut to attend to and be prepared for action; thus to stand by a rope is to take hold of it; to stand by the anchor, to prepare to let it go.— Tostand/ast, to be fixed; to be unshaken, unwavering, or immovable.

My covenant shall standfast with him.

Ps. Ixxxix. 38.

—To stand /or, (a) to espouse the cause of; to side with; to maintain; to support; to defend. 'Freedom we all stand for.' B. Jonson.

I'll stand to^ay for thee and me and Troy. Shak.

(6) To represent; to take the place of.

A face, a leg, a head stood/or the whole. Shak.
My will shall stand for law. Shak.

in To offer one's self as a candidate.

I heard him swear.
Were he to stand for consul ne'er would he
Appear i' the market-place. Shak.

(d)Xaut. todirectthe course towards; as,the enemy stood for the shore—To stand from (naut), to direct the course f rom.— To stand tn, or stand in for, to direct a course toward land or a harbour.—To stand in hand, to be conducive to one's interest; to be serviceable or advantageous.— To stand off, (a) to keep at a distance. (&) Not to comply.

Stand no more off.
But give thyself unto my sick desires. Shak.

(c) To keep at a distance in friendship or social intercourse; to forbear intimacy.

Though nothing can be more honourable than an acquaintance with God, we stand offdom it.


(rf) To appear prominent; to have relief.

Picture is best when it standeth off as if it were carved. il'otton.

To stand off and on (naut), to sail toward land and then from it—To stand or stand in (with personal objects, the person being really in the dative), to cost; as, that coat stood him four pounds.

These wars—I mean the Punic wars—could not have stood the human race in less than three millions of the species. Burke.

—To stand on. (a) See To stand upon, (b) Naut. to continue in the same course or tack.—To stand out, (a) to project; to be prominent 'Stood out the breasts, the breasts of Helen.' Tennyson.

Their eyes stand out with fatness. Ps. IxxiiL ?.

(6) To persist In opposition or resistance; not to yield or comply; not to give way or recede.

His spirit is come in.
That so stood out against the holy church. Shak.

—To stand to, (a) to ply; to apply one's seKto.

Stand to your tackles, mates, and stretch your oars. Dryden.

(6) To remain fixed in a purpose or opinion.

I will stand to it, that this is his sense.


(c) To abide by; to adhere, as to a contract assertion, promise, Ax.; as, to stand to an award; to stand to one's word, (d) Not to yield; not to fly; to maintain the ground.

Their lives and fortunes were put in safety, whether they stood to it or ran away. Baco*i.

(e) To be consistent, or tally with; as, ft stand* to reason he could not have done so. —To stand together, to be consistent; to agree.—To stand to sea (naut), to direct the course from land.—TV* stand under, to undergo; to sustain.—To stand up, (a) to rise from sitting; to rise to one's feet; to assume an erect position. (6) To arise in order to gain notice.

Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of such things as I supposed. Acts xxv. 18.

(c) To rise to make a claim or a declaration; to rise in opposition, revolt, or the like. 'We all stand up against the spirit of Coesar.' 'Once we stood up about the corn.' Shak. (d) To rise and stand on end; as, his hair stood up with fear. — To stand up against, to place one's self in opposition to; to resist.

He called into his civil pursuits the same energy which enabled him to stand up against so many years of constant, and, to but his own mind, hopeless defeat in the field. Brougham.

—To stand up for, to rise in defence of; to defend; to justify; to support or attempt to support; as, to stand up for the administration.—To stand upon, (a)i to concern; to


Docs it not stand them upon, to examine upon what grounds they presume it to be a revelation from GodT Locke.

(6) To value; to pride.

We highly esteem and stand much upon our birth, Ray.

(c) To insist on; to attach a high value to; to make much of. 'You stand upon your honour!' 'This fellow doth not sta nd upon points.' Shak. (d) To depend on. * It stood upon the choice of friends.' 'Your fortune stood upon the casket there.' Shak. To stand with, to be consistent

It stood -with reason that they should be rewarded liberally. Sir J. Davies.

Stand (stand), v t. 1. To place or set in an erect position; to set up. [Colloq.]

* And as concerning the nests and the drawers,' said

Sloppy, after measuring the handle on his sleeve, ana softly standing the stick aside against the wall, 'why, it would be a real pleasure to me.' DirJtens.

2. To endure; to sustain; to bear; as, I cannot stand the cold or the heat. Hence, to stand it, to be able to endure or bear something, or to maintain one's ground or state; as, the expense is so great that we cannot stand it; she screamed so loud that he could not stand it.—Z. To resist without yielding or receding; to withstand.

He stood the furious toe. Pope.

4. To await; to Buffer; to abide by.

Bid him disband his legions, . . .
And stand the judgment of a Roman senate.


5. To be at the expense of; to pay for; as, to stand treat. [Colloq]

Asked whether he would stand a bottle of champagne for the company, he consented. Thackeray.

—To stand one's ground, to keep the ground or station one has taken; to maintain one's position, in a literal or figurative sense; as. an army stands its ground when it is not compelled, to retreat; a man stands his ground in an argument when he is able to maintain it, or is not refuted.

Peasants and burghers, however brave, are unable to stand their ground against veteran soldiers.


—To stand fire, to remain while being shot at by an enemy without giving way.—To stand trial, to sustain the trial or examination of a cause; not to give up without trial. Stand (stand), n. [From the verb. J L The state of standing; a cessation of progress, motion, or activity; a Btop; a halt; as, to make a stand; to come to a stand, either in walking or in any progressive business.—

2. A point or condition beyond which no further progress is made.

Vice is at stand, and at the highest now. Dryden. The sea, since the memory of all ages, hath continued at a stand, without considerable variation. Bei/tley.

3. A state of hesitation, embarrassment, difficulty, or perplexity.

A fool may so far imitate the mien of a wise man as at first to put a body at a st.tnd what tn make of him. Sir H. L'Estrangt.

4. A place or post where one stands, or a place convenient for persons to remain for any purpose; a station; as, his stand was on the top of a hill. —5. Rank; post; station; standing. [Rare.]

Father, since your fortune did attain

So high a stand, I mean not to descend. Daniel.

6. A halt made for the purpose of resisting an attack; the act of opposing or resisting; as, the little party made a gallant stand.

We are come off
Like Romans, neither foolish in our stands.
Nor cowardly in retire. Shak.

7. A young tree, usually reserved when the other trees are cut; also, a tree growing or standing upon its own root, in distinction from one produced from a scion set in a stock, either of the same or another kind of tree.— 8. A small table or frame, on or in which articles may be put for support; as, a candle stand; on umbrella stand; or on which

?:oods may be exposed for sale; a stall; as, a rait stand.—Q. In com. a weight of from 2$ cwt to 3 cwt of pitch. —10. A place or station In a town where carriages, cabs, and the like stand ready for hire.—11. The place where a witness stands to testify in court— 12. An erection or raised platform for spectators at open-air gatherings, such as horseraces, cricket matches, and the like.—IS. A beer barrel standing on end. 'This stand of royal blood shall be abroach, atilt' Beau. <£* FL—Stand of arms (milit), a musket or rifle with its usual appendages, as a Kayonet, cartridge-box, Ac.-syn. A stop, halt, stay. rest, station, position, interruption, obstruction, perplexity, difficulty, embarrassment, hesitation, support, table, frame.

Standage (stand'aj), n. In mining, a space for retaining water in shafts.

Standard (stand'ard),n, [FromO.Fr.e-stanrfart, estendart. Mod. Fr. itendard. It stendardo, Sp. estandarte, Pr. estandart, these forms, according to Littre\ being from the Teutonic verb to stand, the old standard being a pole or mast set up during a battle; according to Diez, Brachet, 4c. from L. ertendere, to extend, to spread out, to display. There is no doubt that in the Teutonic languages the word was looked upon as connected with stand, and several of the meanings in English (as 6 and 8 below) have arisen in this way. Conip. also D. standaard, M.H.G. stanthart, Mod.O. standarU.] 1. In its widest sense, a flag or ensign round whkh STANDARD



men rally, or under which they unite for a common purpose; a flag or carved symbolical figure. &c., erected on a long pole or staff, serving as a rallying-point or the like. Id a more strict sense the term is applied to a flag which bears the arms, device, or motto of the owner, long in proportion to its depth, tapering towards the fly, and, except when belonging to princes of the bloodroyal, slit at the end. The so-called British royal standard is more correctly a banner, being a square flag.and having its whole field covered solely by the national arms. The cavalry standards are also, properly speaking, banners, and are of small size, of a colour corresponding to the regimental facings, and charged with the cipher, number, insignia, and honours of the regiment. The infantry corresponding flags are called colour*.— 2. That which is capable of satisfying certain defined conditions flxed by the psoper authorities; especially that which is established by competent authority as a rule or measure of quantity; the original weight or measure sanctioned by government, and committed to the keeping of a magistrate, or deposited in some public place, to regulate, adjust, and try weights and measures used by particular persons in traffic; as, by the burning of the House of Commons in 1 s:l the standards were destroyed; the imperial yard is the standard of lineal measure in Britain; the pound troy is the standard of weight See Measure, Weioht.

3. That which is established as a rule or model, by the authority of public opinion, or by respectable opinions, or by custom or general consent; that which serves as a test or measure; as, writings which are admitted to be the standard of style and taste; to have a low standard by which to Judge of morality. 'The court, which used to be the standanl of propriety and correctness of speech.' SvifL

When people hare brought right and wrong to a false standard, there follows SB envious malevolence. Sir /t. L'Estrange.

A disposition to preserve, and-in ability to improve, taken together would be Bty standard of ■ statesman. Burke.

4. In coinage, the proportion of weight of fine metal and alloy established by authority.

That precise weight and fineness, by law appropriated to the pieces of each denomination, is called the sLindard. Locke.

The standard of gold coins in Britain is at present 22 carats, that is, 22 parts of fine gold and 2 of alloy; and the sovereign should weigh 123274 grains troy. The standard of silver coins is 11 ounces 2 dwts. of pure silver and IS dwts. of alloy, making together 1 lb. troy; and the shilling should weigh 87272 grains.— 5. In hort. a tree or shrub which stands singly, without being attached to any wall or support; also, a shrub, as a rose, grafted on an upright stem 6. In shipbuilding, an inverted knee placed upon the deck instead of beneath it, with its vertical branch turned upward from that which lies horizontally.—7. In bot. the upper petal or banner of a papilionaceous corolla, & In earp. any upright in a framing, as the quarters of partitions, the frame of a door, and the like. — 9. t A candlestick of large size, standing on the ground, with branches for several lights.

Standard (standard), a. 1. Having a permanent quality; capable of satisfying certain conditions flxed by competent authority; fixed; settled; as, ^standard work; a standard measure; standard weight, Ac.

In comely rank call every merit forth;

Imprint on every act its standard worth. Prior.

2. In hort. not trained on a wall, A*c; standing by itself; as, a statulard pear-tree; standard rosea — Standard stars, a name given by astronomers to those stars which are best known and best adapted for observation.

Standard-bearer (stand'ard-bar-er), n. An officer of an army, company, or troop that bears a standard.

And if my standard-dearer fall, as fall full well he

may . . . Press where ye see my white plume shine, amidst the

ranks of war. Macau/ay.

Standardize (stamvard-iz ), v.t. To bring up to or to recognize as a standard.

Stand - crop (stand'krop), n. A plant, the Crassula minor,

Standel t (stand'el), n. 1. A tree of long standing. Fuller.—2. In law, a young store oak-tree, twelve of which were to be left In every acre of wood at the felling thereof.

Stander (stand'er), n. 1. One who stands. —

2. In the early church, one of the third or highest class of penitents. See ConsisTENTES.— 3.t A tree that has stood long.

Stander-by (stand'cr-bi).n. One that stands; one that is present; a mere spectator; a bystander.

When a gentleman is disposed to swear, it is not for any standersl-y to curtail his oaths. Shak.

Stander-grass, Standard-grass (stand'er-gras, stand'ard-gras). n. A name given by the old botanists to some species of Orchis, as O. mascula.

Stander-up (stand'Or-up),n. One who takes a side.

Standers-up for their country, and for the liberties . . . of the subject. South.

Standing (stand'ing), p. and a. 1. Established, either bylaw or by custom, Ac; continually existing; permanent; not temporary; as, a standing army, that is, a regular army inconstant service, as distinct from the militia— 2. Lasting; not transitory; not liable to fade or vanish; as, a sta tiding colour.

3. Stagnant; not flowing; as, standing water.

4. Fixed; not movable; as, a standing bed: distinguished from a truckle bed.—5. Remaining erect; not cut down; as, standing corn. — Standing orders, the orders made by either house of parliament, or other deliberative assembly, respecting the manner in which business shall be conducted in it— Standing rigging (naut.), the cordage or ropes which sustain the masts and remain flxed in their position. Such are the shrouds and stays.

Standing (stand'ing), n, l. The act of stopping or coming to a stand; the state of being erect upon the feet; Btand.—2 Continuance; duration or existence; as, a custom of long standing. 3. Possession of an office, character, or place. 'A patron of long standing.' Dryden.

I wish your fortune had enabled you to have continued longer in the university, till you were of ten years' standing. Swift.

4. Station; place to stand in.

I will provide you with a good standing to see his entry. Bacon.

6. Power to stand.

I sink in deep mire, where there is no standing.

PS. UlZ. 3.

0. Condition in society; relative position; rank; reputation; as, a man of good standing or of high standing among his friends.

Standtsh (stan'dish^. it, [Stand and dish.] A case for pen and ink. * A standish, steel and golden pen.' Pope.

Stand-pipe (stand'pip),n. 1. A vertical pipe erected at a well or reservoir, into which water is forced by mechanical means, in order to obtain a head pressure sufficient to convey it to adistance.—2. Also,a small pipe inserted into an opeuing in the water-main in a street.

Stand-point (staud'point), n. [A modern word probably based on G. standpunkt.] A fixed point or station; a basis or fundamental principle; a position from which things are viewed, and in relation to which they are com

fiarcdand judged; as,
Le looked at every-
thing from the statid-
point of a philoso-

Stand-rest (stand'-
rest), n, A kind of
stool which supports
aperson behind while
standing almost in an
upright position at a Stand-rest

desk, an easel, Ac.

Stand-still (stand'stil), n. Act of stopping; state of rest; a stop; as, to come to a standstill.

Stand-Up (stand'up), a. In punilism, a term applied to a fair boxing-match, where the combatants stand manfully to each other, without sham or false falls; as, a fair stand-up fight.

If it should be pitted . , . for a stand-up fight, . . its best friends would have most reason to deplore the inevitable results. Times newspaper.

Stane(stan), n, A stone. [Scotch] Stane-raw, Staney-rag (stan'ra, stan'lrag), n, [Scotch Perhaps=stain-ra<?.] A foliaceous lichen of the genus Parmelia (P. saxatilis), used by Highland peasants to make a brown dye for domestic purposes.


Called also Slack Crottles, and in Shetland Scrottyle.

Stang (stang), n. [A. Sax. staeng, stcng, a pole; D. steng, stang, Q. stange, stenge, Dan. stang, IceL string, bar, l>eam, pole; from root of sting, stick] l.t A pole, rod, or perch; a measure of land.—2 A long bar; a pole; a shaft —To ride the stang, to be carried on a pole on men's shoulders, in derision: a punishment inflicted in former times on wife or husband beaters and the like. [Provincial.] Stang (stang), ft. A sting. [Scotch.] Stang (stang), v.t. To sting. [Scotch] Stang (stang), v.i. To snoot with pain. [Local]

Stang-ball (stang'bal), n. A projectile consisting of two half-balls connected by a bar; a bar-shot.

Stanhope (stanliop), n, A light two-wheeled carriage without a top: so called from the gentleman Stanhope, for whom it was contrived.

The vehicle was not actually a gig, neither was it a stanhope. Dickens.

Stanhope - lens (stanliSp-lenz), n. A lens of small diameter with two convex faces of different radii, and inclosed in a metallic tube.

Stanhope-press (stanTiop-pres), n. [After the inventor, the Earl of Stanhope.] A kind of printing-press.

Staniel (stan'yel). n. Bams as Stannel.

Stanlelry (stan'yel-ri), n. The act or practice of hawking with staniels; ignoble falconry.

Stanium (sta'ni-nm), n. A strong cloth of a superior quality worn during the AngloNorman period. Also called Stam/ortis.

Stank, t a. See Stanck.

Stank (stanck), v.i. [Sw. stanka, to sigh.] To sigh. [Provincial]

Stank (Btangk), old pret. of stink. Stunk is now used.

Stank (stangk), n. [O.Fr. cstang, Pr estanc. It stagno, from L. stagnum,a piece of standing water, a pool. See Stagnate.] A pool; a pond; a ditch. [Scotch. ]

Stannary (stau'a-ri), a. [L. stannum, tin. See STANNUM.] Relating to the tin-works; as, the stannary courts In Devonshire and Cornwall, for the administration of justice among those connected with the tin-mines.

Stannary (stan'a-ri). n. [See the adjective.] A tin-mine; tin-works. The term is now used as including by one general designation the tin-mines within a particular district, the tinners employed in working them, and the customs and privileges attached to the mines and to those employed in them. The great stannaries of England are those of Devon and Cornwall.

Stannate (stan'at), u. [L. stannum, tin. See Stannary, «.] A salt of stannic acid.

Stannel (stan'el), n. [Probably a corruption of stand-gale, which name the bird has from Its habit of sustaining itself in one position, always with its head to the wind, by a rapid motion of its wings. From this peculiarity it has its synonym mnd-hover.] The kestrel, a species of hawk, called also Stone-gall. Written also Staniel, Stanyel, Stannyel. See Kestrel.

Stannic(stan'ik), a. [L. stannum. tin.] Pertaining to tin; procured from tin; as. the stannic acid (Sn H20 ). a hydrate obtained from stannous oxide, which unites with bases to form the salts called stannates.

Stanniferous(stan-ifer-UB),fi, [L. stannum, tin, and/ero, I bear.] Contaiuingoraffording tin.

Stannine (stan'in), n. (I. stannum, tin.] A brittle, steel-gray or Iron-black ore of tin, of metallic lustre, consisting of tin and sulphur, with some copper and iron, and generally zinc, found in Cornwall; tin pyrites. Called also from its colour Bell-metal Ore.

Stan no type (stau'6-tip), ft, [L, stannum, tin, and Gr. typos, impression.] lnphotog. a picture taken on a tin plate.

Stannous (stan'us), a. Of, or pertaining to, or containing tin; as, stannous oxide, or protoxide of tin (SnO).

Stannum(stan'um),n. [Originally stagnum, a mixture of silver and lead. This word was probably influenced in its ultimate form (staimum) and sense of tin (which it assumed about the fourth century) by the Cornish word staen, tin ] Tin.

Stannyel t (stan'yel), n. Same as Stannel.

Stant.> Yor Standeth. Chaucer.

Stantlentt (Btan'shent), » A stanchion.

Stantion (Btau'shuu), n. Same as Stemson.

Stanza (stan'za), n. [It, a stanza; property an abode, a lodging, a stop, a stanza, from L.

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stans, stantts, ppr. of sto, to stand. The stanza has its name from its being, as it were, a complete period at the end of which a stop or pause in the versification is made.] 1. In poetry, a number of lines or verses connected with each other, and properly ending in a full point or pause; apart of a poem containing every variation of measure in that poem. A stanza presents in metre, rhymes, and the number of its lines a combination which repeats itself several times in the course of the same poem. A stanza is variously termed terzina, quartetto, sestina, ottava, &c, according as it consists of three, four, six, or eight lines.

Horace confines himself to one sort of verse or startc.t in every ode. Dryden.

2. In arch, an apartment or division in a building; a room or chamber.

Stanzaic (stan-za'ik), a. Consisting of or relating to Btanzas; arranged as n stanza

Stanze,t Stanzot (stanz, stau'zo), u. A stanza. Shak.

Stapedial (sta-pe'di-al), a. [See below] Stirrup-shaped; as, the stapedial bones of the ear.

Stapedius (sta-pe'di-us).n. [FromL stapes, a stirrup ) A small muscle of the internal ear inserted into the neck of the stapes or stirrup, which it draws obliquely upwards.

Stapella(sta-pe'li-a), n. (Named by Linnrcus after Boderus Stapel, a physician of Amsterdam, and commentator on Theophrastus. ] An extensive and curious genus of plants, nat. order Aselepiadaceoe, or milk-weeds. Most of the species are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. They are succulent plants, without leaves, frequently covered over with dark tubercles, giving them a very grotesque appearance. In most instances the flowero give off a very unpleasant odour, like that


Stapelia variegata.

of rotten flesh, insomuch that the name of carrion-flower has been given to some of these plants. They are, nevertheless, cultivated on account of their singular and beautiful flowers.

Stapes (sta'pez), n. [L., a stirrup.] In anat. the innermost of the small bones of the ear: Bo called from its form resembling a stirrup.

Staphisagria (staf-i-sa'gri-a), n. [L. and Gr. staph is, stavesacre, and Gr. agria, fern, of

Xios, wild.] Stavesacre {Delphinium Sta, ,,'sagria).

Staphyle (staf Me), n. [Gr. staphyU, a bunch of grapes.] In anat. the uvula.

Staphylea (staM-le'a), n. [From Gr. staphytt, a bunch, the flowers and fruits being disposed in clusters. The Greek name was staphy lode ndron.) Bladder-nut. a genus of plants, group Staphy leacetc. The species, which are few, are dispersed over the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. S. pinnata, or common bladder-nut, is a native of central and eastern Europe, and is sometimes cultivated in shrubberies. It has pinnate leaves, white pendulous racemose flowers, and large inflated capsules. The wood Is used for various kinds of turning.

Staphy leaceSB (sta-flre-a"se-e),n.z>{. A small group of plants belonging to the nat. order Sapindacesc. The species are shrubs, with opposite pinnate leaves, and small white stipulate flowers, arranged in panicles or racemes. There are only three genera belonging to the group, which inhabit the warmer and temperate parts of the earth. Only one species is found in Europe, the Staphylea pinnata. The seeds of all contain a mild oil, which may be expressed.

StaphyUne (staf'i-Hn), a. [Gr. staphyU. a bunch of grapes.] In mineral, having the form of a bunch of grapes; botryoidal.

Staphyilnldse (staf-Min'i-de),n.pi, A family of coleopterous insects, of which the genus Staphylinus is the type.

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Staphylinus (staf-i-li'nus), n. A genus of coleopterous insects, with short wingsheaths, the type of the family Staphylinidrc; the rove - beetles. The species are usually found under dead leaves, stones, dung, Ac. The S. otens, common in this country, lias received the name of the cock-tail beetle or devil's coachhorse. It is of a dead black.thickly punctured,and covered with short hairs.

Staphyloma (staf-i-16'ma), n. [Gr. staphyli, a grape] A name given to different tumours of the anterior surface of the globe of the eye. Dunglison. Called also Staphylosis.

Staphyloplasties (staf'il-6-plas"tik), a. Of or relating to staphyloplasty.

Staphyloplasty (staTilo-plas-ti), n. [Gr. staphyU, the uvula, and plassd, to form.] In surg. the operation for replacing the soft palate when it has been lost.

Staphyloraphy (staf-i-lor'a-fl), n. [Gr. staphyle, the uvula, and raphe, a suture, from raptd, to join by sewing.] In surg. the operation of uniting a cleft palate.

Staphylosis (staf-i-16'siB), n. Same as Sta


Staphylotomy (stafil-o-tom), n. [See StaI'hvlotomy.] In surg. a knife for operating upon the uvula or palate.

Staphylotomy (staf-i-lot'o-ml), n. [Gr. staphyU, the uvula, and tomi, a cutting, from temnO, to cut] Iu surg. amputation of the uvula.

Staple (sta'pl), u. [A. Sax. stapel, a prop, trestle, also a step; D. stapel, a stem, support, the stocks for a ship, heap, staple; G. stupet, a post, prop, stocks, heap, emporium; so also Sw. stapel, Dan. stabel. The root is that of stamp and step. The development of meanings, that which stands or rests firmly, prop, support, heap, wares heaped up or accumulated, etc., does not present much difficulty. In some of the above meanings it resembles stock; conip. the stocks of a shin, a stock of gooda In meaning 6 it may l>e rather from stop; comp. stopple.] 1. According to old usage, a settled mart or market; an emporium; a town where certain commodities are chiefly taken for sale. In England, formerly, the king's staple was established in certain ports or towns, and certain goods could not be exported without being first brought to these ports to be rated and charged with the duty payable to the king or public. The principal commodities on which customs were levied were wool, skins, and leather, and these werw originally the staple commodities.

Bruges ... was the great staple Tor both Mediterranean and northern merchandise. Hallatn.

Hence—2.The principal commodity grown or manufactured in a country, district, or town, either for exportation or home consumption, that is, originally, the merchandise which was sold at a staple or mart; as, cotton is the staple of several of the southern states of America.

As I told you before, the whale Is the staple of this Island. Marryatt.

3. The principal element of or ingredient in anything; the chief constituent; the chief item; as, politics were the staple of his conversation.

He lias two very great faults, which are the staple of his bad side. DicJeens.

4. The material or substance of any thing; raw or unmanufactured material. —5. The thread or pile of wool, cotton, or flax; as, wool of a < < i. irse*(<1 /,/,'..r a finestaplc; cotton of a short staple, long staple, fine staple, <fca—6. A loop of iron, or a bar or wire bent and formed with two points to be driven into wood to hold a hook, pin, bolt, &c. 'Massy staples, and corresponsive and fulfilling bolts.' Shak. —7. In coal-mining, a small underground pit sunk from the workings on an upper Beam to those of a lower one for the purpose of promoting ventilation. Tomlinnon.— S.t A district granted to an abbey. Camden.—Staple of land, the particular nature and quality of land.

Staple (sta'pl), a. 1. Pertaining to or being a mart or staple for commodities; as, n staple

town.—2. Mainly occupying commercial enterprise; established in commerce; tu.astaple trade. — 3. According to the laws of commerce; marketable; fit to be sold. 'Will take off their ware at their own rates, and trouble not themselves to examine whether it be staple or no.' Swift. [Rare.]—4. Chief;principal; regularly produced or made for market; as, staple commodities.

Staple (sta'pl), v.t. pret. & pp. stapled; ppr. stapling. To sort or adjust the different staples of, as wool.

Stapler (sta'pl-er). n. 1. A dealer in staple commodities. 'The staplers of Hamburgh.' Howell.—2. One employed in assorting wool according to its staple.

Star (star), n. [A word common to all the Indo-European languages. A. Sax. steorra, Sc. starn, I eel. stjarna. Goth, stairno, D. ster, O.D. sterne, G. stem; cog. L. Stella (for sterula, also astrum), Gr. asttr, Armor. and Corn, steren. Per. satarah, Skr. tdrd (for stdrd), Vedic Skr. stri, pi. staras—star. Probably from root of E. strew, Skr. stri, to strew, from the heavenly bodies scattering or sprinkling light. ] 1. In a popular sense, any celestial body whatever except the Bun and moon; but, in astron. the term is usually restricted to one of those self-shining bodies constituted like the sun, situated at immense distances from us, and doubtless, like our sun, the centres of systems similar to our own. Stars are distinguished from planets by remaining apparently immovable with respect to one another, and hence they were called fixed stars, although their fixity has been disproved in numerous cases, and is no longer believed in regard to any. The principal points which form the subjects of astronomical inquiries regarding the stars are their apparent and relative magnitudes,their distribution, their number, their distances, motions, and nature. In order to distinguish the stars one from another the ancients divided the heavens into different spacescalled constellations, which they supposed to be occupied by the figures of animals and other objects, as a lion, a bear, a man, a lyre. <fcc. (SeeCoNSTELLATlON.) The stars are divided, according to their brightness, into stars of the first, second, third, &c, magnitudes; but no magnitude, in the proper sense of the word, has yet been observed in any star. All the stars beyond the sixth or seventh magnitude are called telescopic stars, as they cannot be seen without the aid of the telescope. The gradations of magnitude among the telescopic stars are continued by astronomers from the eighth down to the sixteenth. The stars are very irregularly distributed over the celestial sphere. Iu some regions scarcely a star is to be seen, while in others they seem crowded together, especially in the Milky Way, where they appear, when viewed through a powerful telescope, to be cro wded almost beyond imagination. Of the stars visible to the naked eye at any one time the number probably does not exceed a few thousands, but in the telescope theirnuraber 1b so great as to defy all calculation; and, besides, there is every reason to believe that there are countless hostB which lie beyond the reach of the most powerful telescopes The distances of the fixed stars from the earth are very great The nearest yet found, that of * Centauri, a double star in the southern hemisphere, being calculated at 20 billions of miles, so that light takes 3£ years to travel from it to our earth. Many stars have been observed whose light appears to undergo a regular periodic increase and diminution of brightness, amounting, in some instances, toa complete extinction and revival. These ore called variable and periodic stars. It is found that some stars, formerly distinguished by their splendour, have entirely disappeared, others have shone forth with extraordinary brilliancy, and, after a longer or shorter period, have gradually died away and become extinct These are called temporary stars. Many of the stars are found, when observed with telescopes of high magnifying power, to be composed of two, and some of them of three or more stars in close juxtaposition. These are termed double and multiple stars. The appearances known as nebulae ore, in many cases at least, agglomerations of stars, separated from our system and from one another by unfathomable starless intervals See NEBULA. — Binary stars, sidereal systems composed of two stars revolving about each other in regular orbits. —Falling or shooting stars. See FALLINOSTAK.—Pole-star, a bright star in the tail of

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