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STALKING-HORSE

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STAMMERING

Stalking-horse (stąk'ing-hors), n. 1. A horse, or figure made like a horse, behind which a fowler conceals himself from the sight of the game which he is aiming to kill. Hence - 2. Anything thrust forward to conceal a more important object; a mask ; a pretence.

Hypocrisy is the devil's stalking-horse under an af. fectation of simplicity and religion. Sir R. L'Estrange. Stalkless (stak'les), a. Having no stalk. Stalklet (stak'let), 12. In bot. a secondary

petiole: a petiolule; the stalk of a leaflet. Stalky (stak'i), a. Hard as a stalk; resembling a stalk. At the top bears a great stalky head.' Mortimer. Stall (stal), n. (A. Sax. steall, stall, place, station, stall, stable; Icel. stallr, a shelf or other support, a stall; D. stai, G. stall, Dan. stald, a stall, a stable, &c.; 0.H.G. stallan, G. stellen, to place. The ultimate root is that of stand. ] 1. The stand or place where a horse or an ox is kept and fed; the division of a stable, or the apartment for one horse or ox; as, the stable contains eight or ten stalls.-2. A stable; a place for horses or cattle. At last he found a stall where oxen stood. Dryden, 3. A bench, form, or kind of table in the open air, where anything is exposed to sale.

Nature's coarser wares that lie on the stall, exposed to the transient view of every common eye.' Glanville.-4. A small house or shed, either in the open air or within a large building, in which merchandise is exposed for sale, or in which an occupation is carried on; as, a butcher's stall. - 5. A fixed seat inclosed, either wholly or partially, at the

Stall (stal), v.i. 1. To live as in a stall; to dwell; to inhabit.

We could not stall together
In the whole world.

Shak. 2. To kennel, as dogs. Johnson.-3. To be tired of eating, as cattle.-4. To be set fast, as in mire. Stallage (stal'āj), n. 1. The right of erecting stalls in fairs, or rent paid for a stall. — 2. † Laystall; dung; compost.. Stallation (stal-a'shon), n. Installation.

His stallation drew near. Ld. Herbert, Stall-board (stal'bord), n. One of a series of floors on to which soil or ore is pitched successively in excavating. Stallert (stal'èr), n. A standard-bearer.

Fuller. Stall-feed (stąl'fēd), v.t. To feed and fatten

in a stall or stable, or on dry fodder; as, to stall-feed an ox. Stalling (stąl'ing), n. Stabling.

Hire us some fair chamber for the night,
And stalling for the horses.

Tennyson, Stallinger (stal'in-jér), n. One who keeps

a stall. (Local.) Stalling-ken (stąl'ing-ken), n. A house for

receiving stolen goods. Dekker. (Old slang. ) Stallion (stal' yun), n. (O.E. stalon, stallant, 0. Fr. estalon (Mod. Fr. étalon), a stal. lion; It. stallone; from O.H.G. stal, E. stall; lit. the horse kept in the stall. See STALL.] A horse not castrated; an entire horse; a horse kept for breeding purposes. Stallman (stąl'man), n. A man who keeps a stall

The stallman saw my father had (a strong fancy) for the book the moment he laid his hands upon it.

Sterne. Stall-reader (stąl'rēd-ér), n. One who reads books at the stall where they are sold.

Cries the stall.reader, 'Bless us, what a word on
A title page is this!'

Milton. Stalwart, Stalworth (stal'wert,stal'werth).

a. (0.E. stalword, stallworth, from A. Sax. stælweorth, lit. worthy of place, from stæl, stall, place, position; hence estimable, brave. See STALL] 1. Brave; bold; redoubted; daring. *A stalwart tiller of the soil.' Prof. Wilson.

Well by his visage you might know
He was a stalworth knight, and keen.

Sir W. Scott. 2. Tall and strong; large and strong in frame. [The spelling stalworth is now obsolete or obsolescent. Stalwartht (stal'werth).a. Same as Stalwart. Stalwartness (stal'wert-nes), n. The state

or quality of being stalwart. Stalworthness (stal'wėrth-nes), n. Same

as Stalioartne88. Stambha (stamb'ha), n. See LÂT. Stamen (sta'men), n. pl. Stamens (stā'menz) (only in the fourth sense) or (in the other three senses) Stamina (stam'i-na). (L. stamen, pl. stamina, the warp of a web, a thread, the fibre of wood; Gr. stēmón, the warp of a web, from root sta, to stand.) 1. A thread, especially a thread of the warp; the warp in the ancient upright loom at which the weaver stood upright instead of sitting. 2. Probably only used in the plural.] The fixed, firm part of a body, which supports it or gives it its strength and solidity: as. the bones are the stamina of animal bodies; the ligneous parts of trees are the stamina which constitute their strength. Hence3. pl. Whatever constitutes the principal strength or support of anything: power of endurance; staying power; long lasting strength or vigour; backbone; as, the stamina of a constitution or of life; the stamina of a state.

He succeeded to great captains who had sapped the whole stamina and resistance of the contest.

De Quincey. The tea (in coffee-houses) is usually of the weakest, its constitution is delicate, it wants stamina and vitality.

Mrs. Riddell. 4. In bot. the male organ of fructification in plants, formed principally of cellular tissue.

It is situated immediately within the petals, and is composed, in most cases, of three parts, the filament, the anther, and the pollen, of which the two latter are essential, the

other not. The a a, Stamens. S, Stigma. stamens and pis

tils constitute the sexual or reproductive organs of plants. Generally they both exist in the same

flower, which is thus said to be hermaphrodite or perfect. The number of stamens varies in different plants, from one to a hundred or more. With respect to their directions they are named erect, inflered, reflexed, spreading, ascending, declinate; and their insertions with regard to the ovary are said to be hypogymous, epigynous, or perigynous. (See these terms.) It was on the number of stamens and their arrangements and relations, that Linnæus founded the classes of his sexual system of plants. Stament (stä'men), n. See STAMIN. Chaucer. Stamened (stä'mend), a. Furnished with

stamens. Stamfortist (stam-fortis), n. Same as Sta

nium. Stamint (sta'min), n. (O.Fr. estamine, Fr. étamine, a light kind of stuff, a bolting cloth, from 0. Fr. estame, It. stame, yarn, worsted, from L. Stamen, a fibre. See STAMEN. STAMMEL.) A slight woollen stuff; linsey. Woolsey. Chaucer. Stamina (stam'i-na), n. Plural of stamen

(which see). Staminal (stam'i-nal), a. Pertaining to stamens or stamina; consisting in stamens or stamina. Balfour. Staminate (stani'i-văt), a. Furnished with

stamens. Staminate (stam'i-nát), v.t. pret. & pp. staminated; ppr. staminating. To endue with stamina. Stamineal (sta-min'é-al), a. Same as Stamineous. Stamineous (sta-min'é-us), a. (L. stamineus, consisting of threads, from stamen, a fibre.] 1. Consisting of stamens.-2. Possessing stamens.-3. Pertaining to the stamen or attached to it; as, a stamineous nectary. Staminidium (sta-mi-nid'i-um), n. pl. Staminidia (sta-mi-nid'i-a). (L. stamen, staminis, a stamen, and Gr. eidos, resemblance.) The antheridium, an organ in cryptogamic plants equivalent to a stamen. Staminiferous (stă-mi-nif'er-us). a. [L. stamen, staminis, & stamen, and fero, to bear.) Bearing or having stamens.-A staminiferous flower is one which has stamens without a pistil. - A staminiferous nectary

is one that has stamens growing on it. Staminode, Staminodium (stam'in-od, stam-i-nö'di-um), n. L. stamen, and Gr. eidos, shape.) An abortive stamen, or an organ resembling an abortive stamen. Stammelt (stam'el), n. (O. Fr. estamet, a coarse woollen cloth; estame, a woollen stuff ; from L. stamen, a thread. See STAMIN.) 1. A kind of woollen cloth, which seems to have been often of a red colour. Hence--2. A coarse kind of red, inferior to fine scarlet. B. Jonson. stammelt (stam'el), a. Of a reddish colour; pertaining to the cloth called stammel.

And see to yon pretty wench, Adam, who comes tripping through them all with her milk pail. She has a stammel waistcoat, like your favourite Cissly Sutherland.

Sir IV. Scott. Stammer (stam'ér), v. i. (A freq. form from a root stam; A. Sax. stamor, starer, Icel. stamr, stammr, stammering, speaking with difficulty: 0.E. stameren, stamber, to stammer; Sc. stammer, to stumble; L.G. stammern, D. stameren, stamelen, G. stammeln, Icel. stamma, to stammer. Allied to stuinble.) To make involuntary breaks or pauses in speaking; to hesitate or falter in speaking; and hence, to speak with stops and difficulty; to stutter. The new strong wine of love that made my tongue so stammer and trip.' Tennyson.

Your hearers would rather you should be less correct than perpetually stammering, which is one of the worst solecisins in rhetoric.

Swift. Stammer (stam'er), v.t. To utter or pronounce with hesitation or imperfectly: frequently with out. His pale lips faintly stammered out a No.' Dickens. Stammer (stam'ér), nu. Defective utterance;

a stutter; as, to be troubled with a stammer. See STAMMERING. Stammerer (stam'er-er). n. One that stammers, stutters, or hesitates in speaking. Stammering (stam'ér-ing), n. The act of stopping or hesitating in speaking; an affection of the faculty of speech characterized by irregular, imperfect, or spasmodic actions of the muscles concerned in articulation. It manifests itself in a difficulty in begin. ning the enunciation of words, especially such as begin with an explosive consonant, or in a spasmodic and for a time an incontrollable reiteration of the same syllable after the word is begun; this latter defect

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warp reaver Sonly use body,

solidnodies;

back and sides, in the choir or chancel of a cathedral, collegiate church, &c., and mostly appropriated to some dignitary of such churches. – 6. The chief seat on the dais in a domestic hall. Lydgate.-7. A highclass seat in a theatre.-8. In mining, an opening made between pillars in the direction that the work is progressing or transversely.-9. The name given by garotters and pocket-pickers to the parties who walk before (fore-stall) and behind (back-stall) the person who is to operate and his victim, so as to conceal the crime, make off with the booty, and otherwise assist the escape of the actual robber. Stall (stal).v.t. 1. To put into a stall or stable, or to keep in a stall; as, to stall a horse.

Where king Latinus then his oxen stall'd.' Dryden.-2. To fix or fasten so as to prevent escape; to secure.

When as thine eye hath chose the dame,
And stall d the deer that thou shouldst strike.

Shak. 3. To install; to place in an office with the customary formalities.

And see another as I see thee now,
Deck'd in thy rights, as thou art stall'd in mine.

Shak 4. To plunge into mire, so as not to be able to proceed; as, to stall horses or a carriage. Burton. - 5.To place and keep securely.

Stall this in your breast.' Shak.-6. To forestall.

That is not to be stall'd by my report,
This only must be told.

Massinger 7. To satiate; to fatten. (Provincial English.)

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STAMMERING

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STAND

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being also called stuttering. Stammering is 10. Currency: value derived from suffrage or
always increased by emotional disturbance, attestation; authority.
and is much mitigated, and often cured, by The common people do not judge of vice or virtue
the patient acquiring confidence in himself, by morality or iinmorality, so much as by the stamp
never attempting to speak in a hurry or

that is set upon it by men of figure.

Sir R. L'Estrange. when the chest is empty of air, or by read

11. Make; cast; form; character; as, a man ing measured sentences slowly and with de

of the same stamp, or of a different stamp. liberation.

A soldier of this season's stamp.' Shak. Stammering (stam'er-ing), a. Character

12. In metal. a kind of hammer or pestle ized by spasmodic or defective speech; hesi.

raised by steam or water power for crushing tating in speech; apt to stammer; stutter

or beating ores to powder; anything like ing. 'Staminering tongues.' Dryden. 'Stam

a pestle used for pounding or beating. mering accents.' Dr. Caird.

Stamp-act (stamp'akt), n. An act for reguStammeringly (stam'ér-ing-li), adv. With

lating the imposition of stamp-duties; espestammering; with stops or hesitation in

cially, an act passed by the British parliaspeaking

ment in 1765, imposing a duty on all paper, Stamp (stamp), v.t. (Icel stampa, Dan.

vellum, and parchment used in the Ameri. stampe, Sw. stampa, D. stampen, G. stamp

can colonies, and declaring all writings on fen, to stamp with the feet, nasalized forms

unstamped inaterials to be null and void. from stap, stem of D. stappen, Icel. stappa,

This act roused a general opposition in the G. stapfen, to step, to set down the feet, to

colonies, and was one cause of the revolustamp. Akin step. The Germanic word

tion. passed into the Romance languages: 0.Fr.

Stamp - collector (stamp'kol-lek-ter). n. estamper, Mod. Fr. étam per, It. stampare,

1. A collector or receiver of stamp duties. Sp. estampar.] 1. To strike, beat, or press

2. One who collects rare or foreign stamps forcibly with the bottom of the foot, or by

as articles of curiosity or the like. thrusting the foot downward.

Stamp-distributor (stamp'dis-tri-būt-er Under my feet I stamp thy cardinal's hat. Shak.

n. An official who issues or distributes He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground. government stamps.

Dryden. 2. To impress with some mark or figure; to

Stamp-duty (stamp'dū-ti), n. A tax or

duty imposed on pieces of parchment o mark with an impression; as, to stamp & plate with arms or initials. Stamped coin.'

paper, on which many species of legal ir

struments are written. Stamp-duties on Shak. - 3. To impress; to imprint; to fix deeply; as, to stamp virtuous principles on

legal instruments, such as conveyances,

deeds, legacies, &c., are chiefly secured by the heart. Wax . . . wherein is stamped

prohibiting the reception of them in evithe semblance of a devil' Shak.

dence unless they bear the stamp required God has stamped no original characters on our

by the law. minds, wherein we may read his being. Locke.

Stampede (stam-pēd'), n. (Amer. Sp. 68-
Stamps God's own came upon a lie just made,
To turn a penny in the way of trade. Cowper.

tampida, a stampede.) A sudden fright seiz4. To coin; to mint; to make current. Shak.

ing upon large bodies of cattle or horses, in

droves or encampments on the prairies, and 5. To affix a stamp (as a postage or receipt

causing them to run for long distances; stamp) to; as, to stampa letter or newspaper.

a sudden scattering of a herd of cattle or 6. To cut into various forms with a stamp.

horses; hence, any sudden flight, as of an 7. To crush by the downward action of a

army, in consequence of a panic. kind of pestle, as ore in a stamping-mill. To stamp out, to extinguish, as fire, by

The panic flight of the Federals at Bull Run, near

the Potomac, U.S., in 1861, was a stampede. stamping with the foot on; hence, to extir

Breuer pate, as a disease which has broken out in Stampede (stam-pēd), v. i To take sudden a herd of cattle, by destroying the animal flight, as if under the influence of panic or animals affected; hence, to extirpate

terror. generally; to eradicate; to exterminate ; to Stampede (stam-pēd'), v.t. pret. & pp. stamsuppress.

peded; ppr. stampeding. To cause to break A capital thing were these proverbs and sayings off in a stampede; to cause to take to panic for stamping Out what were called notions of up flight. peshness' in children, or hopes of having everything their own way.

N. Chambers.

Horses on their first few days' journey are easily

stampeded, and will sometimes stray home again. Stamp (stamp), 0.i. To strike the foot forci.

Capt. Mayne Reid. bly downward. 'A ramping fool to brag Stampedo (stam-pe'do). n. Same as Stamand stamp and swear.' Shak.

pede. 'A sudden stampedo or rush of Stamp (stamp), 7. 1. The act of stamping: horses.' W. Irving. (Rare.) as, a stamp of the foot. And, at our stamp, Stamper (stamp'er), n. 1. One who stamps; here o'er and o'er one falls.' Shak.-2. Any as, a stamper in the post-office.-2. An ininstrument for making impressions on other strument for stamping; a stamp. bodies: an engraved block, or the like, by Stamp-hammer (stamp ham-mer), n. A which a mark may be delivered by pressure. direct-acting hammer where the hammer'Tis gold so pure,

block is lifted vertically, either by cams or It cannot bear the stamp without alloy. Dryden. friction-rollers, or, as is more commonly the 3. A mark imprinted; an impression. The case, by steam or water pressure acting on rank is but the guinea stamp.' Burns.

a piston in a closed cylinder. Percy. That sacred name gives ornament and grace,

Stamp - head (stamp'hed), n. The heavy And, like his stamp, makes basest metals pass.

metal block forming the head or lower end

Dryden. of a bar which is lifted and let fall verti. 4. That which is marked; a thing stamped. cally, as in a stamping-mill • Hanging a golden stamp about their necks.' Stamping - machine (stamp'ing-ma-shēn), Shak.-5. (Fr. estampe.) A picture cut in n. A machine for forming articles or imwood or metal, or made by impression; an pressions by stamping, as for manufacturing engraving; a plate.

pans, kettles, spoons, forks, and other arAt Venice they put out very curious stamps of the ticles from sheet-metal, by means of blocks, several edifices which are most famous for their | dies, and a heavy hammer. beauty and magnificence.

Stamping-mill (stamp'ing-mil), n. An en6. An official mark set upon things charge

gipe by which ores are pounded by means able with some duty or tax showing that of a stamp. the duty is paid; the impression of a pub Stamping-press (stamp'in

Same lic mark or seal made by the government as Stamping-machine. or its officers upon paper or parchment Stamp - note (stamp' nöt), n. In com a whereon private deeds or other legal in memorandum delivered by a shipper of struments are written, for the purposes of goods to the searcher, which, when stamped revenge; as, the starp upon a bond or in by him, allows the goods to be sent off by denture. Hence, pl. Stamps = Stamp-duties. lighter to the ship, and is the captain's auSee STAMP-DUTY.-7. A small piece of paper thority for receiving them on board. Simhaving a certain figure impressed by go monds. vernment, sold to the public to be attached Stamp-ofice (stamp'of-fis), n. An office to % paper, letter, or document liable to where governinent stamps are issued, and duty, in order to show that such has been stamp-duties and also taxes are received. paid; as, a postage stamp; & receipt stamp. Stance (stans), n. (From L. sto, stare, to & An instrument for cutting out materials stand, through the French.] A site: a sta(as paper, leather, &c.) into various forms tion; an area for building; a position. by a downward pressure.-9. A character or (Scotch.) repatation, good or bad, fixed on anything. The boy ... danced down from his stance with a The persons here reflected upon are of such a galliard sort of step.

Sir W. Scott. peculiar stamp of impiety, that they seem formed into a kind of diabolical society for the finding out

Stanch (stänsh), v.t. 10. Fr. estancher, Mod. RCT experiments in vice.

South Fr. étancher, to stop from running, to stanch,

supposed to be from a L.L. stancare, for L. stagmare, to make or be stagnant. See STAGNATE.] 1. To prevent the flow of, as blood; to stop the flow of blood from, as from a wound; to stop; to dry up.

Iron or stone laid to the neck, doth stanch the bleeding of the nose.

Bawn. Then came the hermit out and bare him in,

There stanch'd his wound. Tennyson. 2. To quench, as fire or as thirst; to allay the craving of. 'Covetise of men that may not be stanched.' Chaucer. "To stanch his thrust (thirst).' Gower. Stanch (stänsh), v... To stop, as blood; to cease to flow. Immediately her issue of blood stanched.

Luke viii. 44. Stanch (stänsh), a. (From the above verb, the literal meaning being stopped, tight, and, as applied to a ship, not leaky. See the verb. Written also Staunch.) 1.Strong and tight; not leaky; sound; firm; as, a stanch ship. 'Stancher vessels, and more sunny days. Boyle.-2. Firm in principle; steady; constant and zealous; hearty; loyal; as, a stanch republican; a stanch friend or adherent. 'A stanch churchman.' Addison.

In politics I hear you're stanch. Prior. 3. Close; secret; private. This is to be kept stanch and carefully watched.

Locke. Stanchel (stan'shel), n. In arch. a stan

chion. Stancher (stänsh'er), n. One who or that

which stanches or stops the flowing of blood. Stanchion (stan'shon), N. (0.Fr. estanson, estançon, from estance, that which supports, from a LL. form stantia, from L. sto, to stand.) 1. A prop or support; a post, pillar, beam, or the like, used for a support, as a piece of timber supporting one of the main parts of a roof.-2. In ship-building, an upright post or beam of different forms, used to support the deck, the quarter-rails, the nettings, awnings, and the like. Stanchion-gun(stan'shon-gun), n. A pivot

gun; a boat gun for wild-duck shooting. Stanchless (stänsh'les),a. Incapable of being stanched or stopped; unquenchable; insatiable. A stanchless avarice.' Shak. Stanchness (stänsh'nes), n. The state or quality of being stanch; as, (a) the state of being strong, sound, firm, or not leaky. To try the stanchness of the phial.' Boyle. (6) Firmness in principle; closeness of adherence. Stanck, Stankt (stangk), a. (0. Fr. estanc,

It. stanco, tired, wearied. ) Exhausted; faint; weak; worn out; weary. Spenser. Stand (stand), vi pret. & pp. stood; ppr. standing. (A. Sax. standan, pret. stod, pp. standen, Icel. standa, O.H.G. standan, stantan, Goth, standan, D. staan, G. Stehen; from a root common to the Indo-European languages, being seen also in L. sto, Gr. (histanai, Skr. stha. Stand is a nasalized form of a stem stad, and is akin to stead. Stall, still, stool, &c., are from the same root, and through the French and Latin come stage, state, station, stable, &c.] 1. To be stationary or at rest in an erect or upright position; to be set in an upright position; as, (a) to rest on the feet in an erect position, as opposed to sitting, lying, or kneeling: said of men or beasts. Stands he, sits he? or does he walk! Shak, (6) To be on end; to continue upright; as, a beam stands on end.

A field of standing corn.' Drayton.-2. To be as regards position or situation; to occupy a permanent place; to have its site or situation; to hold a place; to be situated or located; as, London stands on the Thames.

Where thy pose stands.' Shak. “Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine (eyes).' Shak.

Stands Scotland where it did? Shak. 3. To cease from progress; not to proceed; to come to a state of rest; to cease moving in any direction; to stop action or movement; to stop; to pause; to halt.

I will tell you who time ambles withal, who time gallops withal, and who he stands still withal. Shak.

I charge thee stand,
And tell thy name.

Dryder.
4. To continue or remain without ruin or
injury: to hold out against or withstand
tendencies to impair, injure, or decay; to
be permanent; to last; to endure; to abide.

While England stands.' Shak. Our peace shall stand as firm.' Shak. 'A living temple, built by faith to stand.' Milton.-5. To maintain one's ground or position; not to fall or fail; to be acquitted or saved. Readers by whose judgment I would stand

very curi famous Addison

STAND

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STANDARD

Shak

or fall.' Addison. ---6. To maintain a fixed, firm, or steady attitude: to take up a fixed position, as of opposition, resistance, or defence. And when they stand against you, may they fall.' Shak.

The king granted the Jews which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life.

Est. viii. 11. 7. To persevere; to persist.

Never stand in a lie when thou art accused, but ask pardon and make amends. Fer. Taylor.

The emperor, standing upon the advantage he had got by the seizure of their feet, obliged them to deliver

Swift. 8. To be pertinacious, unyielding, or obstinate: to insist, as, not to stand on ceremonies. See also phrases below.

Stand not upon the order of your going:

But go at once. 9. To be placed with regard to relative position, rank, or order.

Among liquids endued with this quality of relaxing, warm water stands first.

Arbuthnot. Theology would truly enlarge the mind were it studied with that freedom and that sacred charity which it teaches; let this therefore stand always chief.

Watts. 10. To be in a particular state or condition; to be; as, how stands the matter with you? I hope you will stand my friend. "Thus it stands with me.' Shak. For my wife, I know not how it stands.' Shak. I stand resigned and am prepared to go.

Dryden. 11. To be consistent; to agree; as, it stands to reason. See also phrases below.

His faithful people, whatsoever they rightly ask, the same shall they receive, so far as may stand with the glory of God, and their own everlasting good.

Hooker.
Doubt me not; by heaven I will do nothing

But what may stand with honour. Massinger. 12. To be in the place; to represent; to be equivalent.

Their language being scanty, had no words in it to stand for a thousand.

Locke, 13. To become a candidate for an office or the like: as, he stood for the borough at last election. "How many stand for consulships?' Shak.-14. To hold a certain course, as a ship: to be directed towards any local point; as, to stand for the harbour. From the same parts of heaven his navy stands,

Dryden. 15. To measure, as from the feet to the head, or from bottom to top. “He stood four feet six inches and three quarters in his socks.' Dickens.-16. To stagnate; not to flow; as, a standing pool. The black water of Pomptina stands.' Dryden.-17. To be valid: to continue in force; to have efficacy; not to be void. No conditions of our peace can stand.' Shak.

God was not ignorant that the judges, whose sen. tence in matters of controversy he ordained should stand, would be deceived.

Hooker.
I Note. Stand with many adverbs receives
the sense of motion as previous to coming
to rest, or of a state caused by previous
motion, and becomes equivalent to to step,
to go, to come; as, to stand aloof; to stand
apart; to stand aside; to stand back; to stand
forth, and the like.)-To stand against, to
resist; to oppose; as, one candidate stands
against another at an election. To stand by,
(ā), with by the adverb, (1) to be present
without taking an active part; to be a spec-
tator; to be near.

Now Margaret's curse is fallen upon our heads,
For standing by when Richard stabbed her son.

Shak.
(2) To be placed or left aside; to be ne-
glected or disregarded.

In the meantime we let the command stand by ne. glected,

Dr. H. More. (6) With by the preposition, (1) to support; to defend; to assist; not to desert.

The ass hoped the dog would stand by him if set upon by the wolf.

Sir R. L'Estrange. (2) To rest in; to repose on.

This reply standeth all by conjectures. Whitgift. (3) Naut. to attend to and be prepared for action; thus to stand by a rope is to take hold of it; to stand by the anchor, to prepare to let it go.--To stand fast, to be fixed; to be unshaken, unwavering, or immovable. My covenant shall stand fast with him.

Ps. lxxxix. 28. --To stand for, (a) to espouse the cause of; to side with; to maintain; to support; to defend. “Freedom we all stand for.' B. Jonson. I'll stand to-day for thee and me and Troy. Shak.

(6) To represent; to take the place of.
A face, a leg, a head stood for the whole. Shak.
My will shall stand for law.

Shak. (c) To offer one's self as a candidate.

I heard him swear,
Were he to stand for consul ne'er would he
Appear i' the market place.

Shak.
(d) Naut. to direct the course towards; as, the
enemy stood for the shore.-To stand from
(naut.), to direct the course from.-To stand
in, or stand in for, to direct a course toward
land or a harbour.-To stand in hand, to
be conducive to one's interest; to be ser-
viceable or advantageous. To stand of
to keep at a distance. (6) Not to comply.

Stand no more off. But give thyself unto my sick desires. Shak. (c) To keep at a distance in friendship or social intercourse; to forbear intimacy.

Though nothing can be more honourable than an acquaintance with God, we stand off from it.

Atterbury. (d) To appear prominent; to have relief.

Picture is best when it standeth of as if it were carved.

Wotton. -To stand off and on (naut.), to sail toward land and then from it. To stand or stand in (with personal objects, the person being really in the dative), to cost; as, that coat stood him four pounds.

These wars--I mean the Punic wars-could not have stood the human race in less than three millions of the species.

Burke. -To stand on. (a) See To stand upon. (6) Naut. to continue in the same course or tack-To stand out, (a) to project; to be prominent. Stood out the breasts, the breasts of Helen.' Tennyson.

Their eyes stand out with fatness. Ps. Ixxiii. 7. (6) To persist in opposition or resistance; not to yield or comply; not to give way or recede.

His spirit is come in, That so stood out against the holy church. Shak. -To stand to, (a) to ply; to apply one's self to. Stand to your tackles, mates, and stretch your oars.

Dryden. (6) To remain fixed in a purpose or opinion. I will stand to it, that this is his sense.

Stillingfieet. (c) To abide by; to adhere, as to a contract, assertion, promise, &c.; as, to stand to an award; to stand to one's word. (d) Not to yield; not to fly; to maintain the ground.

Their lives and fortunes were put in safety, whether they stood to it or ran away.

Bacon, (e) To be consistent, or tally with ; as, it stands to reason he could not have done so.

-To stand together, to be consistent; to agree.-To stand to sea (naut.), to direct the course from land.-To stand under, to undergo; to sustain.-To stand up, (a) to rise from sitting; to rise to one's feet; to assume an erect position. (6) To arise in order to gain notice.

Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of such things as I sup. posed.

Acts xxv, 18. (©) To rise to make a claim or a declaration; to rise in opposition, revolt, or the like.

We all stand up against the spirit of Cæsar. Once we stood up about the corn.' Shak. (d) To rise and stand on end; as, his hair stood up with fear. - To stand up against, to place one's self in opposition to; to resist.

He called into his civil pursuits the same energy which enabled him to stand up against so many years of constant, and, to but his own mind, hopeless defeat in the field.

Brougham. -To stand up for, to rise in defence of; to defend; to justify; to support or attempt to support; as, to stand up for the administration. To stand upon, (a)t to concern; to interest.

Does it not stand them upon, to examine upon what grounds they presume it to be a revelation from God?

Locke. (6) To value; to pride. We highly esteem and stand much upon our birth.

Ray. (c) To insist on; to attach a high value to; to make much of. You stand upon your honourl' This fellow doth not stand upon points.' Shak. (d) To depend on. It stood upon the choice of friends.' 'Your fortune stood upon the casket there.' Shak. - To stand with, to be consistent

It stood with reason that they should be rewarded liberally,

Sir 7. Davies. Stand (stand), v.t. 1. To place or set in an erect position; to set up. (Colloq.)

And as concerning the nests and the drawers,' said

Sloppy, after measuring the handle on his sleeve,
and softly standing the stick aside against the wall,
'why, it would be a real pleasure to me.' Dickens.
2. To endure; to sustain; to bear; as, I can-
not stand the cold or the heat. Hence, to
stand it, to be able to endure or bear
something, or to maintain one's ground or
state; as, the expense is so great that we
cannot stand it; she screamed so loud that
he could not stand it.-3. To resist without
yielding or receding: to withstand.

He stood the furious foe. Pope. 4. To await; to suffer; to abide by.

Bid him disband his legions,
And stand the judgment of a Roman senate.

dddison.
5. To be at the expense of; to pay for; as, to
stand treat. [Colloq.)

Asked whether he would stand a bottle of champagne for the company, he consented. Thackeray. -To stand one's ground, to keep the ground or station one has taken; to maintain one's position, in a literal or figurative sense; as, an army stands its ground when it is not compelled to retreat; a man stands his ground in an argument when he is able to maintain it, or is not refuted.

Peasants and burghers, however brave, are unable to stand their ground against veteran soldiers..

Macaulay, -To stand fire, to remain while being shot at by an enemy without giving way.- To stand trial, to sustain the trial or examination of a cause; not to give up without trial. Stand (stand), n. (From the verb.] 1. The state of standing; a cessation of progress, motion, or activity; a stop; a halt; as, to make a stand; to come to a stand, either in walking or in any progressive business. 2. A point or condition beyond which no further progress is made.

Vice is at stand, and at the highest flow. Dryden.

The sea, since the memory of all ages, hath con. tinued at a stand, without considerable variation.

Bentley. 3. A state of hesitation, embarrassment, difficulty, or perplexity.

A fool may so far imitate the mien of a wise man as at first to put a body at a stand what to make of him.

Sir R, L'Estrange. 4. A place or post where one stands, or a place convenient for persons to remain for any purpose; a station; as, his stand was on the top of a hill. -- 5. Rank; post; station ; standing. (Rare.)

Father, since your fortune did attain

So high a stand, I mean not to descend. Daniel 6. A halt made for the purpose of resisting an attack; the act of opposing or resisting; as, the little party made a gallant stand.

We are come off
Like Romans, neither foolish in our stands,
Nor cowardly in retire.

Shak.
7. A young tree, usually reserved when the
other trees are cut; also, a tree growing or
standing upon its own root, in distinction
from one produced from a scion set in &
stock, either of the same or another kind of
tree.-8. A small table or frame, on or in
which articles may be put for support; as, a
candle stand; an umbrella stand; or on which
goods may be exposed for sale; a stall; as, a
fruit stand.-9. In com. & weight of from
24 cwt. to 3 cwt. of pitch.-10. A place or
station in a town where carriages, cabs, and
the like stand ready for hire.-11. The place
where a witness stands to testify in court.
12. An erection or raised platform for spec-
tators at open-air gatherings, such as horse-
races, cricket matches, and the like.-13. A
beer barrel standing on end. This stand
of royal blood shall be abroach, atilt.' Beau.
& FT.-Stand of arms (milit.), a musket or
rifle with its usual appendages, as a bayonet,
cartridge-box, &c.-SYN. A stop, halt, stay,
rest, station, position, interruption, obstruc-
tion, perplexity, difficulty, embarrassment,
hesitation, support, table, frame.
Standage (stand'áj), n. In mining, a space

for retaining water in shafts. Standard (standard),n. [From O.Fr.estandart, estendart, Mod. Fr. étendard, It. stendardo, Sp. estandarte, Pr. estandart, these forms, according to Littré, being from the Teutonic verb to stand, the old standard being a pole or mast set up during a battle; according to Diez, Brachet, &c., from L. ertendere, to extend, to spread out, to display. There is no doubt that in the Teutonic languages the word was looked upon as connected with stand, and several of the meanings in English (as 5 and 8 below) have arisen in this way. Comp. also D. standaard, M.H.G. stanthart, Mod. G. standarte.] 1. In its widest sense, a flag or ensign round which

STANDARD

187

STANZA

men rally, or under which they unite for a stander (stand'ér), n. 1. One who stands. - Called also Black Crottles, and in Shetland common purpose; a flag or carved symboli. 2. In the early church, one of the third or Serottyle. cal figure, &c., erected on a long pole or highest class of penitents. See CONSIS Stang (stang), n. (A. Sax. stæng, steng, a staff, serving as a rallying-point or the like. TENTES.-3. A tree that has stood long. pole; D. steng, stang, G. stange, stenge, Dan, In a more strict sense the term is applied | Stander-by (stand'ér-bi),n. One that stands stang, Icel. stöng, bar, beam, pole; from root to a flag which bears the arms, device, or near; one that is present; a mere spectator; of sting, stick.) 1.A pole, rod, or perch; a motto of the owner, long in proportion to a bystander.

measure of land.-2. A long bar; a pole; a its depth, tapering towards the fly, and, ex When a gentleman is disposed to swear, it is not

shaft.-To ride the stang, to be carried on a cept when belonging to princes of the blood. for any standers-by to curtail his oaths. Skak. pole on men's shoulders, in derision: a punroyal, slit at the end. The so-called British

ishment inflicted in former times on wife or royal standard is more correctly a banner, Stander-grass, Standard-grass (stand' |

husband beaters and the like. (Provincial.] er-gras, stand'ård-gras), 16. A name given being a square flag, and having its whole feld

Stang (stang), n. A sting. (Scotch.) covered solely by the national arms. The by the old botanists to some species of

Stang (stang), v.t.
Orchis, as 0. mascula.

To sting. (Scotch.) cavalry standards are also, properly speakStander-up (stand'ér-up), n. One who takes

Stang (stang), v.i. To shoot with pain. ing, banners, and are of small size, of a col

(Local.) a side. our corresponding to the regimental facings,

Stang-ball (stang'bal), n. A projectile conand charged with the cipher, number, in

Standers-up for their country, and for the liberties

sisting of two half-balls connected by a bar; ... of the subject.

South, signia, and honours of the regiment. The

a bar-shot. infantry corresponding flags are called col

Standing (stand'ing), p. and a. 1. Estab. Stanhope (stan'hôp), n. A light two-wheeled ours.--2. That which is capable of satisfy lished, either by law or by custom, &c.; con carriage without a top: so called from the ing certain defined conditions fixed by the tinually existing; permanent; not tempo gentleman Stanhope, for whom it was conproper authorities; especially that which is rary; as, a standing army, that is, a regular trived. established by competent authority as a rule army in constant service, as distinct from the

The vehicle was not actually a gig, neither was it or measure of quantity; the original weight militia. -2. Lasting; not transitory; not lia

a stanhope.

Dickens. or measure sanctioned by government, ble to fade or vanish; as, a standing colour.

Stanhope - lens (stan_hop-lenz), 1. 3. Stagnant; not flowing; as, standing water. and committed to the keeping of a magis.

A lens

of small diameter with two convex faces of trate, or deposited in some public place, to

4. Fixed; not movable; as, a standing bed :

distinguished from a truckle bed.-5. Reregulate, adjust, and try weights and mea

different radii, and inclosed in a metallic

tube. sures used by particular persons in traffic; maining erect; not cut down; as, standing

Stanhope-press (stan'hôp-pres), n. (After as, by the burning of the House of Commons corn. - Standing orders, the orders made

the inventor, the Earl of Stanhope.) A kind in 1834 the standards were destroyed; the by either house of parliament, or other

of printing-press. imperial yard is the standard of lineal meadeliberative assembly, respecting the man

Staniel (stan'yel). n. Same as Stannel. sure in Britain; the pound troy is the stanner in which business shall be conducted

Stanielry (stan'yel-ri), n. The act or pracdard of weight. See MEASURE, WEIGHT. in it. --Standing rigging (naut.), the cord

tice of hawking with staniels; ignoble fal3. That which is established as a rule or age or ropes which sustain the masts and

conry. model, by the authority of public opinion, or remain fixed in their position. Such are

Stanium (stā'ni-um ), n. A strong cloth of by respectable opinions, or by custom or genthe shrouds and stays.

a superior quality worn during the Angloeral consent; that which serves as a test or Standing (stand'ing), n. 1. The act of stop

Norman period. Also called Stamfortis. measure; as, writings which are admitted to ping or coming to a stand; the state of be- |

Stank, t a. See STANCK. be the standard of style and taste; to have a ing erect upon the feet; stand.-2. Continu

Stank (stangk), v.i. (Sw. stanka, to sigh.] low standard by which to judge of morality. ance; duration or existence; as, a custom of

To sigh. [Provincial.) The court, which used to be the standard long standing.-3. Possession of an office,

Stank (stangk), old pret. of stink. Stunk is of propriety and correctness of speech. character, or place. “A patron of long

now used. Swift.

standing.' Dryden.

Stank (stangk), n. (O. Fr, estang, Pr. estanc, When people have brought right and wrong to a

I wish your fortune had enabled you to have con

It. stagno, from L. stagnum, a piece of standfalse standard, there follows an envious malevolence. tinued longer in the university, till you were of ten

ing water, a pool. See STAGNATE.) A pool; Sir R. L'Estrange. years' standing.

Swift. A disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve,

a pond; a ditch. (Scotch.) 4. Station; place to stand in. taken together would be my standard of a states.

Stannary (stan'a-ri), a. (L. stannum, tin. man. Burke. I will provide you with a good standing to see his

See STANNUM.) Relating to the tin-works; entry.

Bacon, 4. In coinage, the proportion of weight of

as, the stannary courts in Devonshire and fine metal and alloy established by autho5. Power to stand.

Cornwall, for the administration of justice rity.

I sink in deep mire, where there is no standing. among those connected with the tin-mines. That precise weight and fineness, by law appro.

Ps. Ixix. 2.

Stannary (stan'a-ri), n. (See the adjective) priated to the pieces of each denomination, is called

6. Condition in society; relative position; A tin-mine; tin-works. The term is now the standard. Locke. rank; reputation; as, a man of good stand

used as including by one general designaThe standard of gold coins in Britain is ing or of high standing among his friends.

tion the tin-mines within a particular disat present 22 carats, that is, 22 parts of Standish (stan'dish), n. (Stand and dish.)

trict, the tinners employed in working them, fine gold and 2 of alloy; and the sovereign A case for pen and ink. A standish, steel

and the customs and privileges attached to should weigh 123 274 grains troy. The and golden pen.' Pope.

the mines and to those employed in them. standard of silver coins is 11 ounces 2 dwts. Stand-pipe (stand'pip).n. 1. A vertical pipe

The great stannaries of England are those of pure silver and 18 dwts. of alloy, making erected at a well or reservoir, into which

of Devon and Cornwall. together 1 lb. troy; and the shilling should water is forced by mechanical means, in or

Stannate (stan'āt), n. [L. stannum, tin. weigh 87.272 grains. – 5. In hort. a tree or der to obtain a head pressure sufficient to

See STANNARY, a.) A salt of stannic acid. shrub which stands singly, without being convey it to a distance. -2. Also, a small pipe

Stannel (stan'el), n. (Probably a corruption attached to any wall or support; also, a inserted into an opening in the water-main

of stand-gale, which name the bird has from shrub, as a rose, grafted on an upright stem. in a street.

its habit of sustaining itself in one position, 6. In ship-building, an inverted knee placed | Stand-point (stand'point). n. (A modern

always with its head to the wind, by a rapid upon the deck instead of beneath it, with

word probably based on G. standpunkt.) A motion of its wings. From this peculiarity its vertical branch turned upward from that fixed point or station;

it has its synonym wind-hover.) The keswhich lies horizontally.-7. In bot. the upper a basis or fundamen

trel, a species of hawk, called also Stone-gall. petal or banner of a papilionaceous corolla. tal principle; a posi

Written also Staniel, Stanyel, Stannyel. See & In carp. any upright in a framing, as the tion from which

KESTREL. quarters of partitions, the frame of a door, things are viewed,

Stannic(stan'ik), a. (L. stannum, tin.) Perand the like.-9. A candlestick of large and in relation to

taining to tin; procured from tin; as, the size, standing on the ground, with branches which they are com

stannic acid (Sn H, 0,), a hydrate obtained for several lights. pared and judged; as,

from stannous oxide, which unites with bases Standard (standard), a. 1. Having a per he looked at every

to form the salts called stannates. manent quality; capable of satisfying certain thing from the stand

Stanniferous(stan-if'er-us), a. (L. stannum, conditions fixed by competent authority; point of a philoso

tin, and fero, I bear. ) Containing or affording fixed; settled; as, a standard work; a stand

pher. and measure; standard weight, &c. Stand-rest (stand'.

Stannine (stan'in), n. (L. stannum, tin.) In comely rank call every merit forth; rest), n. A kind of

A brittle, steel-gray or iron-black ore of tin, Imprint on every act its standard worth. Prior. stool which supports

of metallic lustre, consisting of tin and sul2 In hort. not trained on a wall, &c.; standa person behind while

phur, with some copper and iron, and genering by itsell; as, a standard pear-tree; standing almost in an

ally zinc, found in Cornwall; tin pyrites. standard roses. - Standard stars, a name upright position at a Stand-rest.

Called also from its colour Bell-metal Ore. given by astronomers to those stars which desk, an easel, &c.

Stannotype (stan'ō-tip), n. (L. stannum, are best known and best adapted for ob

Stand-still (stand'stil), n. Act of stopping; tin, and Gr. typos, impression.) In photog. a servation.

state of rest; a stop; as, to come to a stand picture taken on a tin plate. Standard-bearer (standard-bår-ér), n. An

still,

Stannous (stan'us), a. Of, or pertaining to, officer of an army, company, or troop that

Stand - up (stand' up), a. In pugilism, a or containing tin; as, stannous oxide, or bears a standard. term applied to a fair boxing-match, where

protoxide of tin (Sno). And if my standard-bearer fall, as fall full well he

the combatants stand manfully to each stannum(stan'um), n. (Originally stagnum, may ..

other, without sham or false falls; as, a fair a mixture of silver and lead. This word was Press where ye see my white plume shine, amidst the stand-up fight.

probably influenced in its ultimate form ranks of war.

Macaulay. If it should be pitted ... for a stand-up fight, .. (stannum) and sense of tin (which it assumed Standardize (standard-iz), v.t. To bring its best friends would have most reason to deplore about the fourth century) by the Cornish up to or to recognize as a standard.

the inevitable results.

Times newspaper,

word staen, tin Tin. Stand-crop (standkrop), n. A plant, the Stane (stán), n. A stone. (Scotch. ]

Stannyelt (stan’yel), n. Same as Stannel. Crassula minor.

Stane- raw, Staney-rag (stän'ra, stan'i. Stant. For Standeth. Chaucer. Standelt (stand'el), n. 1. A tree of long rag), n. (Scotch. Perhaps=stain-rag.) A Stantientt (stan'shent), n. A stanchion. standing. Fuller,-2. In law, a young store foliaceous lichen of the genus Parmelia (P. Stantion (stan'shun), n. Same as Stemson. oak-tree, twelve of which were to be left in saxatilis), used by Highland peasants to Stanza (stan'za), n. [It., a stanza; properly every acre of wood at the felling thereof. make a brown dye for domestic purposes. an abode, a lodging, a stop, a stanza, from L.

[graphic]

tin.

STANZAIC

188

STAR

stans, stant is. ppr. of sto, to stand. The stanza has its name from its being, as it were, a complete period at the end of which a stop or pause in the versification is made.] 1. In poetry, a number of lines or verses connected with each other, and properly ending in a full point or pause; a part of a poem containing every variation of measure in that poem. A stanza presents in metre, rhymes, and the number of its lines a combination which repeats itself several times in the course of the same poem. Astanza is variously termed ter. zina, quartetto, sestina, ottava, &c., according as it consists of three, four, six, or eight lines.

Horace confines himself to one sort of verse or stanza in every ode.

Dryden. 2.In arch, an apartment or division in a building; a room or chamber. Stanzaic (stan-zālik), a. Consisting of or re

lating to stanzas; arranged as a stanza. Stanze,t Stanzo t (stanz, stan'zo), n. A

stanza. Shak. Stapedial (sta-pe' di-al), a. (See below.) Stirrup-shaped; as, the stapedial bones of the ear. Stapedius (sta-pē'di-us), n. (From L. stapes, a stirrup] A small muscle of the internal ear inserted into the neck of the stapes or stirrup, which it draws obliquely upwards. Stapelia (sta-pēli-a), n. (Named by Linnæus after Boderus Stapel, a physician of Amsterdam, and commentator on Theophrastus.) An extensive and curious genus of plants, nat. order Asclepiadaceæ, or milk-weeds. Most of the species are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. They are succulent plants, without leaves, frequently covered over with dark tubercles, giving them a very grotesque appearance. In most instances the flowers give off a very unpleasant odour, like that

Staphylinus (staf-i-li'nus). n. A genus of coleopterous insects, with short wingsheaths, the type of the family Staphylinidae; the rove · beetles. The species are usually found under dead leaves, stones, dung, &c. The S. olens, common in this country, has received the name of the cock-tail beetle

Staphylinus olens (Fetid ordevil's coach

Rove-beetle). horse. It is of a dead black, thickly punctured, and covered with short hairs. Staphyloma (staf-1-16'ma), n. (Gr. staphylē, a grape.) A name given to different tumours of the anterior surface of the globe of the eye. Dunglison. Called also Staphylosis. Staphyloplastic (staf'il-ő-plas"tik), a. Of

or relating to staphyloplasty. Staphyloplasty (staf'il-o-plas-ti), n. (Gr. staphylė, the uvula, and plassó, to form. ) In surg. the operation for replacing the soft palate when it has been lost. Staphyloraphy (staf-i-lor'a-fi), n. [Gr. sta. phyle, the uvula, and raphë, a suture, from rapto, to join by sewing. I In surg. the operation of uniting a cleft palate. Staphylosis (staf-i-lo'sis), n. Same as Sta

phyloma. staphylotome (staf'il-o-tom). n. (See STAPHYLOTOMY.) In surg. a knife for operating upon the uvula or palate. Staphylotomy (star-i-lot'o-mi), n. (Gr. sta. phylē, the uvula, and tomē, a cutting, from temnő, to cut.] In surg. amputation of the uvula. Staple (stā'pl), n. (A. Sax. stapel, a prop, trestle, also a step; D. stapel, a stem, support, the stocks for a ship, heap, staple; G. stapel, a post, prop, stocks, heap, emporium; so also Sw. stapel, Dan. stabel. The root is that of stamp and step. The development of meanings, that which stands or rests firmly, prop, support, heap, wares heaped up or accumulated, &c., does not present much difficulty. In some of the above meanings it resembles stock; comp. the stocks of a ship, a stock of goods. In meaning 6 it may be rather from stop; comp. stopple.] 1. According to old usage, a settled mart or market: an emporium: a town where certain commodities are chiefly taken for sale. In England, formerly, the king's staple was established in certain ports or towns, and certain goods could not be exported without being first brought to these ports to be rated and charged with the duty payable to the king or public. The principal commodities on which customs were levied were wool, sking, and leather, and these were originally the staple commodities.

Bruges ... was the great staple for both Mediter. ranean and northern merchandise. Hallam, Hence-2. The principal commodity grown or manufactured in a country, district, or town, either for exportation or home consumption, that is, originally, the merchandise which was sold at a staple or mart; as, cotton is the staple of several of the southern states of America.

As I told you before, the whale is the staple of this island.

Marryatt. 3. The principal element of or ingredient in anything; the chief constituent; the chief item; as, politics were the staple of his conversation.

He has two very great faults, which are the staple of his bad side.

Dickens. 4. The material or substance of anything; raw or unmanufactured material.-5. The thread or pile of wool, cotton, or flax; as, wool of a coarse staple or a finestaple; cotton of a short staple, long staple, fine staple, &c.-6. A loop of iron, or a bar or wire bent and formed with two points to be driven into wood to hold a hook, pin, bolt, &c. Massy staples, and corresponsive and fulfilling bolts.' Shak.-7. In coal-mining, a small underground pit sunk from the workings on an upper seam to those of a lower one for the purpose of promoting ventilation. Tomlinson.-8.1 A district granted to an abbey. Camden. --Staple of land, the particular nature and quality of land. Staple (stä'pl), a. 1. Pertaining to or being a mart or staple for commodities; as, a staple

town.-2. Mainly occupying commercial en. terprise, established in commerce; as, a staple trade. – 3. According to the laws of commerce; marketable; fit to be sold. Will take off their ware at their own rates, and trouble not themselves to examine whether it be staple or no.' Swift. (Rare. )-4. Chief; principal, regularly produced or made for market; as, staple commodities. Staple (stá'pl), v.t. pret. & pp. stapled; ppr. stapling. To sort or adjust the different staples of, as wool. Stapler (stå'pl-ér), n. 1. A dealer in staple commodities. The staplers of Hamburgh.' Howell.-2. One employed in assorting wool according to its staple. Star (stär), n. (A word common to all the Indo-European languages. A. Sax. steorra, Sc. starn, Icel. stjarna, Goth. stairno, D. ster, 0.D. sterne, G. stern; cog. L. stella (for sterula, also astrum), Gr. astër, Armor, and Corn, steren, Per satarah, Skr. tard (for stârá). Vedic Skr. stri, pl. staras-star. Probably from root of E streu, Skr. stri, to strew, from the heavenly bodies scattering or sprinkling light.] 1. In a popular sense, any celestial body whatever except the sun and moon; but, in astron. the term is usually restricted to one of those self-shining bodies constituted like the sun, situated at im. mense distances from us, and doubtless, like our sun, the centres of systems similar to our own. Stars are distinguished from planets by remaining apparently immovable with respect to one another, and hence they were called fixed stars, although their fixity has been disproved in numerous cases, and is no longer believed in regard to any. The principal points which form the subjects of astronomical inquiries regarding the stars are their apparent and relative magnitudes, their distribution, their number, their distances. motions, and nature. In order to distinguish the stars one from another the ancients divided the heavens into different spaces called constellations, which they supposed to be occupied by the figures of animals and other objects, as a lion, a bear, a man, a lyre, &c. (See CONSTELLATION.) The stars are divided, according to their brightness, into stars of the first, second, third, &c., magnitudes; but no magnitude, in the proper sense of the word, has yet been observed in any star All the stars beyond the sixth or seventh magnitude are called telescopic stars, as they cannot be seen without the aid of the telescope. The gradations of magnitude among the telescopic stars are continued by astronomers from the eighth down to the sixteenth. The stars are very irregularly distributed over the celestial sphere. In some regions scarcely a star is to be seen, while in others they seem crowded together, especially in the Milky Way, where they appear, when viewed through a powerful telescope, to be crowded almost beyond imagination. Of the stars visible to the naked eye at any one time the number probably does not exceed a few thousands, but in the telescope their number is so great as to defy all calculation; and, besides, there is every reason to believe that there are countless hosts which lie beyond the reach of the most powerful telescopes. The distances of the fixed stars from the earth are very great. The nearest yet found, that of a Centauri, a double star in the southern hemisphere, being calculated at 20 billions of miles, so that light takes 34 years to travel from it to our earth. Many stars have been observed whose light appears to undergo a regular periodic increase and diminution of brightness, amounting, in some instances, to a complete extinction and revival. These are called variable and periodic stars. It is found that some stars, formerly distin. guished by their splendour, have entirely disappeared, others have shone forth with extraordinary brilliancy, and, after a longer or shorter period, have gradually died away and become extinct. These are called temporary stars. Many of the stars are found. when observed with telescopes of high magnifying power, to be composed of two, and some of them of three or more stars in close juxtaposition. These are termed double and multiple stars. The appearances known as nebulæ are, in many cases at least, agglomerations of stars, separated from our system and from one another by unfathomable starless intervals. See NEBULA.- Binary stars, sidereal systems composed of two stars revolving abont each other in regular orbits. -Falling or shooting stars. See FALLINGSTAR.–Pole-star, a bright star in the tail of

Stapelia variegata.

of rotten flesh, insomuch that the name of carrion-flower has been given to some of these plants. They are, nevertheless, cultivated on account of their singular and beautiful flowers. Stapes (stâ'pēz), n. (L., a stirrup.) In anat. the innermost of the small bones of the ear: so called from its form resembling a stirrup. Staphisagria (staf-i-sä'gri-a), n. (L. and Gr. staphis, stavesacre, and Gr. agria, fem. of agrios, wild.) Stavesacre (Delphinium Staphysagria). Staphyle (staf'i-lē), n. (Gr. staphylë, a bunch

of grapes.) In anat. the uvula. Staphylea (staf-i-lē'a), n. (From Gr. staphyle, a bunch, the flowers and fruits being disposed in clusters. The Greek name was staphylodendron.) Bladder-nut, a genus of plants, group Staphyleaceæ. The species, which are few, are dispersed over the tem. perate regions of the northern hemisphere. S. pinnata, or common bladder-nut, is a native of central and eastern Europe, and is sometimes cultivated in shrubberies. It has pinnate leaves, white pendulous racemose flowers, and large inflated capsules. The wood is used for various kinds of turning. Staphyleaceae (sta-fil'é-å"sē-ė), n. pl. A small group of plants belonging to the nat. order Sapindaceae. The species are shrubs, with opposite pinnate leaves, and small white stipulate flowers, arranged in panicles or racemes. There are only three genera belonging to the group, which inhabit the warmer and temperate parts of the earth. Only one species is found in Europe, the Staphylea pinnata. The seeds of all contain a mild oil, which may be expressed. Staphyline (staf'i-lin), a. (Gr. staphylë, a bunch of grapes.) In mineral. having the form of a bunch of grapes; botryoidal. Staphylinidæ (staf-i-lin'i-dē), n.pl. A family of coleopterous insects, of which the genus Staphylinus is the type.

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