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Suppliantly (sup'li-ant-liV adv. In a suppliant manner; as a suppliant.

SuppliantneSB (supli-ant-nes), n. Quality of being suppliant.

Supplicuncy (sup'li-kan-si), n. The act of supplicating: supplication; suppliance.

Supplicant (sup'li-kant), a. [L. supplicant See Supplicate! Entreating; asking submissively. Bp. Bull.

Supplicant (sup'li-kant), n. One who supplicates or humbly entreats; a petitioner who asks earnestly and submissively; a suppliant. Atterbunj.

Supplicantly (sup'li-kant-li), adv. In a supplicant manner.

Supplicat (8up'll-kat),n. [L.,hesupplicateB.] In English universities, a petition; particularly, a written application with a certificate tliat the requisite conditions have been complied with.

Supplicate (sup'li-kat), v.t. pret & pp. supplicated; ppr. supplicating. [L. mpplico, supplicatum, from supplex, humbly begging, suppliant — sub, under, and plico, to fold. See Ply, v.t) 1. To entreat for; to seek by earnest prayer; as, to supplicate blessings on Christian efforts to spread the gospel.—2. To address in prayer; as, to supplicate the throne of grace. 'Shall I brook to be supplicated? Tennyson.—8YN. To entreat, beg, petition, beseech, implore, importune, solicit, crave.

Supplicate (sup'li-kat), v.i. To petition with earnestness and submission; to implore; to beseech.

A man cannot brook to supplicate or bey. Bacon. Did they hear me, would they listen, did they pity me supplicating! Tennyson.

Supplicatingly (supli-k&t-ing-li), adv. In a supplicating manner; by way of supplication.

Supplication (sup-li-kii'shon), n. [L. supplicatio. See Supplicate] 1. The act of supplicating; entreaty; humble and earnest prayer in worship.

Now therefore bend thine ear
To supplication; hear his sighs, though mute.
Milton.

2. Petition; earnest request.

Are your supplications to his lordship! Let me see them. Shak.

8. In ancient Rome, a religious solemnity or thanksgiving to the gods decreed when a great victory had been gained, or in times of public danger or distress.— Supplications in the quill, written supplications. Shak. [Other explanations are also given.]—Syn. Entreaty, prayer, petition, solicitation, craving.

Supplicator (sup'li-kat-er). n. One who supplicates; a supplicant. lip. Hall.

Supplicatory (sup'li-ka-to-ri), a. Containing supplication; humble; submissive; petitionary. 'A more exquisite model of supplicatory devotion.' Bp. Hall.

Supplicavlt (sup-li-ka'vit). [L ] In law, a writ formerly issuing out of the King's (Queen's) Bench or Chancery for taking the surety of the peace against a man.

Supplle.t v.t. To Bupplicate. Chaucer.

Supplier (sup-pli'er), n. One who supplies.

Supply (sup-pli'), v.t. pret. & pp. supplied; ppr. supplying. [Fr. supplier, to supply, to fill up, from L, supplcre, to fill up — sub, under, and pleo, to fill, whence also supplement, complete, replete, accomplish, replenish, plenary, Ac., the root being that of E. full.] 1. To furnish with what is wanted; to afford or furnish a sufficiency for; to make provision for; to provide: with with before that which is provided; as, to supply the daily wants of nature; to supply the poor with bread and clothing; to supply the navy with masts and spars; to supply the treasury with money; the city is well supplied with water.

Yet, to supply the ripe wants of my friend
I'll break a custom. Shak.

Clouds, dissolved, the thirsty ground supply.

Dryden.

2. To serve instead of; to take the place of; to fill: especially applied to places that have become vacant; to fill up. 'When these sovereign thrones are all supplied.' Shak. 'The chairs of justice supplied with worthy men." Shak.

In the world I fill up a place which may be better supplied when I have made it empty. Shak.

Burning ships the banish'd sun supply. Walter.
The sun was stt, and Vesper, to supply
His absent beams, had lighted up the sky.

Dryden.

3. To give; to grant; to afford; to bring or furnish in general.

I wanted nothing fortune could supply. Dryden.

Nearer care . . . supplies Sighs to my breast, and sorrow to my eyes. Prior.

4. To gratify the desire of; to content. Shak.

5. To fill up as any deficiency occurs; to strengthen with additional troops; to reinforce. Spenser; Shak. Syn. To furnish, provide, afford, administer, minister, contribute, accommodate, fill up.

Supply (sup i»li ), n. 1. The act of supplying; a furnishing with what is wanted; relief of waut; cure of deficiencies.

That, now at this time your abundance may be a supply tor their want, that their abundance also may be a supply for your want. a Cor. viii. 14.

2. That which is supplied; sufficiency of things for use or want; a quantity of something furnished or on hand; a stock; a store; as, a supply of food, fuel, clothes, or liquor; a supply of cotton—3. Especially, the provision necessary to meet the wants of an army or other great body of people; necessaries collected; stores: used chiefly in the plural; as, the army lost its supplies.—4. A grant of money provided by a national assembly to meet the expenses of government The right of voting supplies in Britain is vested in the House of Commons, and the exercise of this right is practically a law for the annual meeting of Parliament for redress of grievances. But a grant from the Commons is not effectual in law without the ultimate assent of the sovereign and the House of Lords. Sir E. May.—h.\ Additional troops; reinforcements; succours: used both in singular and in plural in this sense. Shak. Commissioners of supply. See Commissioner.

Supplyantt (sup-pli'ant), a. Auxiliary; suppletory; furnishing a supply.

With those legions
Which I have spoke of, whereunto your levy
Must be supplyant. Sluik,

Supplymentt (sup-pli'ment), n. A furnishing an additional assistance or a continuance of supply.

I will never fail
Beginning or supplymtnt. Shak.

Support (sup-porf). v.t. [Fr. supporter, to Bupport, bear, endure, &c, from L. supporto, to carry, bring, convey — sub, under, and porto, to carry, whence export, import, report, &c.) 1. To bear; to sustain: to uphold; to prop up; to keep from falling or sinking; as, a prop or pillar supports a structure; an abutment supports an arch; the stem of a tree supports the branches.

The palace built by Picus, vast and proud.
Supported by a hundred pillars stood. Dryden.

2. To endure without being overcome; to bear; to endure; to undergo; as, to support pain, distress, or misfortunes.

I a heavy interim shall support
By his dear absence. Shak.

This fierce demeanour and his insolence.
The patience of a God could not support.

Dryden.

3. To uphold by aid. encouragement, or countenance; to keep from fainting, sinking, failing, or declining; as, to support the courage or spirits. —4. To represent in acting on the stage; to act; as, to support the character of King Lear; to support the part assigned.—5. To be able to supply funds for or the means of continuing; as, to support the annual expenses of government—C. To be able to carry on; to be able to continue; aB, to support a war or a contest; to support an argument or debate. —7. To maintain with the necessary means of living; to provide for; to supply a livelihood to; as, to support a family; to support a Bon at college; to support the ministers of the gospel.—8. To keep up by nutriment; to sustain; to keep from failing; as, to support life; to support the strength by nourishment.—fl. To keep up in reputation; to maintain; as. to support a good character. 'In the most exact regard support the worships of their name.* Shak. 10. To verify; to make good; to substantiate;

. as, the testimony is not sufficient to support the charges; the evidence will not support the statements or allegations. —11. To assist; to further; to forward; to second; to aid; to help: as, to support a friend or a party.— 12. To vindicate; to maintain; to defend successfully; as, to be able to support one's own cause—13. To accompany as an honorary assistant; to act as the aid or attendant of; as, the chairman of the meeting was supported by, Ac.—14. To second, as a proposal or motion at a public meeting; as, the amendment was Btrongly supported by other speakers. — To support arms (mUit), to carry the rifle vertically at the left shoulder,

supported by having the hammer rest nn the left forearm, which is passed across the breast—Syn. To bear, bear up, uphold, sustain, prop, endure, undergo, maintain, verify, substantiate, countenance, patronize, help, assist, back, second, succour, favour, nourish, cherish, shield, defend, protect Support (sup-port7), n. 1. The act or operation of supporting, upholding, sustaining, or keeping from falling; sustaining effect or power.

Two massy pillars
That to the roof gave main supfai t. Miltsn.

2. That which upholds, sustains, or keeps from falling; that upon which another thing is placed; a base; a basis; a prop, a pillar. a foundation of any kind—3. That which maintains life; sustenance; the necessaries of life.

Clinging infants ask support in vain. Shenctour.

4. Maintenance; subsistence; livelihood

A thousand pound a year, annual support.
Out of his grace he adds. Shak.

6. The act of forwarding, assisting, maintaining, vindicating, &c; as, to speak in support of one's opinion.— 6. The maintenance, keeping up, or sustaining of anything without suffering it to fail, decline, or terminate; as, the support of health, spirits, strength, or courage; the support of reputation, credit, <fcc. — 7. That which upholds or relieves; aid; help; succour; assistance.—8. In law, the right of a person to have his buildings or other landed property supported by his neighbour's hou&e or land. Points of support, in arch, see Point.—Syn. Prop, stay, strut, maintenance, subsistence, assistance,favour, countenance, encouragement, aid, help, succour, sustenance, food. Supportable Oup-port'a-bl), a. 1. Capable 01 being supported, upheld, or sustained —

2. Capable of being borne, endured, or tolerated; bearable; endurable; as, the pain is supportable, or not supportable; patience renders evils supportable; such insults are not supportable.

A healthy, rich, jolly, country gentleman. if miserable, has a very supportable misery. Thackeray

3. Capable of being supported, maintained, or defended; as, the cause or opinion is supportable.

Supportableness (sup-port'a-bl-nes), n The Btate of being supportable. Supportably (sup-p6rt'a-bli),adr. Inaanpportable manner.

Supportauce (sup-port'ans). n. l_t That which keeps from tailing or sinking: a prop; a Bupport. 'Some supportanee to the bending twigs.' Shak.— 2t That which keeps up and preserves from failing: an upholding. 'The supportanee of his vow" Shak.—3. In Scott tow, assistance rendered to enable a person, who Jb otherwise incapable, to go to kirk or market, so as to render valid a conveyance of heritage made within sixty days before death.

Supportattont (suppor-ta'ahon), n. Maintenance; support 'The firm promises and supportations of a faithful God.' Bp. Hall Supported (sup - port'ed), p. and a. In her a term applied to an ordinary that has another under it by way of support; as, a chief supported. Supporter (sup-port'er), n. 1. One who BupporteormaJnUins;as,(a)one who gives aid or helps to carry on; a defender; an advocate; a vindicator; as, the supporters of the war; the supporters of religion, morality, justice, Ac 'Worthy supporters of such a reigning impiety." South. (5) An adherent; one who takes part; as, the supporter of a party or faction, (c) One who accompanies another on some public occasion as an aid or attendant; one who seconds or strengthens by aid or countenance. (rf) A sustainer; a comforter.

The saints have a companion and supporter- m all their miseries. South.

2. That which supports or upholds; that upon which anything is placed; a support, a prop, a pillar. &c. * A building set upon supporters.' Mortimer. Specifically, (a) in ship-building, a knee placed under the cat-head. Also, same as Bibb, (ft> In her. a figure on each side of a shield of arms, appearing to support the shield. They consist usually of animals real or fabulous, as the lion and the unicorn in the arms of

A, A chief. B. A bar supporting it

SUPPORTFUL

260

SUPRAMUNDANE

Britain; also, of men in armour, and some* times of naked men. The origin of supporters is not well ascertained, but the most probable opinion seems to be that they are a comparatively modern Invention or ornamental addition by painters and limners. Supporters are used by all peers of the realm, knights of the Garter, knights

fraud crosses of the Bath, by many Nova cotia baronets, and the chiefs of Scottish clans. They nave been granted also to municipalities, and to the principal mercantile companies of the city of London. (e)In surg. a broad, elastic, or cushioned band or truss for the support of any part or organ, as the abdomen.

Supportful t (sup-port'fnl), a. Abounding with support.

Upon the Kolian gods' support/ul winffS,
With chearful shouts they parted from the shore.
Mir. for Mags.

Supportless (sup-pdrtles), a. Having no

support. Supportmentt (sup-p6rt'ment), n. Support.

Milton. Supposable (sup-p6z'a-bl), a. Capable of

being supposed or imagined to exist; as,

that is not suppf>sctble. Supposal(sup-p6z'al), n. The supposing of

something to exist; supposition; belief;

opinion. 'Holding a weak supposal of our

worth. * Shak.

Interest with a Jew never proceeds but upon gupposalat least of a firm and sufficient bottom. South,

Suppose (sup-poz'). v.t. pret. & pp. supposed; ppr. supposing. [ Fr. supposcr— prefix sup for sub, under, and poser, to place. (See Pose.) In last meaning from L. suppono, suppositum. See Suppositious.]

1. I'o lay down without proof, or state as a proposition or fact that may exist or be true, though not known or believed to be tine or to exist; or to imagine or admit to exist for the sake of argument or illustration; to assume to be true; to assume hypothetically; to advance by way of argument or illustration; as, let us suppose the earth to be the centre of the system, what would be the consequence?

When we have as great assurance that a thing is, as we could possibly, supposing it were, we ought not to doubt of its existence. Tillotson.

2. To imagine; to be of opinion; to presume; to think to be the case; to Burmise.

Let not my lord suppose that they have slain all the young men, the king s sons; for Amnon only is dead. a Sam. xiii. 32. I suppose your nephew fights In neit day's tourney. Tennyson.

3. To imagine; to form in the mind; to figure to one's self.

More rancorous spite, more furious raging broils. Than yet can be imagined or supposed. Shak.

4. To require to exist or be true; to imply; to involve by inference; as, the existence of tilings supposes the existence of a cause of the things.

This jupposetft something without evident ground. Sir M. Hale. One falsehood supposes another, and renders all you say suspected. Charlotte Lennox.

6.t To put, as one thing by fraud in the place of another.—Syn. To imagine, think, believe, conclude, judge, consider, view, regard, conjecture, surmise, guess, presume, imply, involve. Suppose (sup-poa/). v.i. To make or form a supposition; to think; to imagine.

For these are not drunken, as ye suppose.

Acts ii. 15.

Suppose* (sup-poxO, n. Supposition; position without proof; presumption; opinion. 'We come short of our suppose.* Shak.

Supposed (sup-pdzd'), /'. and a. Laid down or imagined as true; imagined; believed; received as true. — Supposed bass, in music, any bass note in an inverted chord, as contradistinguished from the real bass, root, or generator, as the bass notes E or G in the inverted common chord of C.

Supposer(sup-p6z'er), n. One who supposes.

Supposition (sup-pd-zish'on). n. 1. The act of supposing; the act of laying down a hypothesis; reasoning by hypothesis; as, to argue by supposition. — 2. That which is supposed or assumed hypothetical^; an assumption; hypothesis.

This is only an infalliliility upon supposition, that if a thing be true it is impossible to be false.

Tillotson.

3 A surmise; a conjecture; a guess; an opinion; as, I thought it was he, but that wnt, a mere supposition.—4. An imagination; a conceit. .Shak.

Suppositional (sup-po-zish'on-al), a. Founded or based on supposition; hypothetical; supposed. 'Knowledge of future things . . . not absolute but only suppositional.' South.

Supposititious (sup-poz'i-tish"uB), a. [L. supposititius, false, fraudulently substituted, from suppono, supiiositum, to place under, to substitute fraudulently — sub, under, and pono, to place. In meaning 2 the word has been influenced by suppose.] 1. Put by trick in the place or character belonging to another; not genuine; counterfeit; as, & supposititious 1 ;hild; ^supposititious writing.

There is a L.itm treatise among the supposititious pieces ascribed to Athanasius. Bp. II aterland.

2.t Founded on supposition; hypothetical; supposed.

Some alterations in the globe tend rather to the benefit of the earth and its productions than their destruction, as all these supposititious ones manifestly would do. If'oodward.

SupposititiouBly(Bup-poz'i-tish"us-li),atft>.

1. In a supposititious manner; spuriously. 2- Hypo the tically; by supposition. Sir T. Herbert.

SupposltitiOUsne8S(8up-poz'i-tiBh"u3-ne8), n. The state of being supposititious.

Suppositive (sup-poz'i-tiv), a. Supposed; including or implying supposition. *A suppositive intimation and an express prediction.' Bp. Pearson.

Suppositive (sup-poz'i-tiv). n. A word denoting or implying supposition, as if, granted, provided, and such like.

The suppositives denote connexion, but assert not actual existence. Harris.

Suppositively (sup-poz'i-tiv-li), adv. "With, by, or upon supposition.

The unreformed sinner may have some hope sup. positively if he do change and repent; the honest penitent may hope positively. Hammond.

Suppository (sup-poz'i-to-ri), n. In ined. (a) a body introduced into the rectum, there to remain and dissolve gradually in order to procure stools when clysters cannot be administered, (b) A plug to hold back hemorrhoidal protrusions.

Supposuret (sup-poz'ur), n. Supposition; hypothesis. Hudwras.

Suppress (sup-pres'). v.t. [L. supprimo, suppressurn—sub, under, and pre mo, pressum, to press.] 1. To overpower and crush; to subdue; to put down; to quell; to destroy; as, to suppress a revolt, mutiny, or riot; to suppress opposition.

Every rebellion, when it is suppressed, makes the subject weaker and the government stronger.

Sir y. Davits.

2. To keep in; to restrain from utterance or vent; as, to suppress sighs.

Well didst thou, Richard, to suppress thy voice. Skat.

3. To retain without disclosure; to conceal; not to tell or reveal; as, to suppress evidence.

She suppresses the name, and this keeps him in a pleasing suspense. W. Browne.

4. To retain without communication or making public; as, to suppress a. letter; to suppress a manuscript.—5.To hinder from circulation; to stop; to stifle; as, to suppress a report.— 6. To stop by remedial means; to restrain; as, to suppress a diarrhoea, a hemorrhage, and the like.—Syn. To repress, crush, subdue, quell, put down, overthrow.overpower.overwhelm, restrain, retain, conceal, stifle, stop, smother.

Suppressor (sup-pres'erX n. One that suppresses; a suppressor.

Suppressible (sup-pres'i-bl). a. Capable of being suppressed or concealed.

Suppression (sup-pre'shon), Ti. [L. suppressio, suppressions. See SUITRESS.] 1. The act of suppressing, crushing, or destroying, or the state of being suppressed, destroyed, quelled, and the like; as, the suppression of a riot, insurrection, or tumult. 'A magnificent society for the suppression of vice.' Carlyle.—2. The act of retaining from utterance, vent, or disclosure; concealment; as, the suppression of truth, of reports, of evidence, and the like. 'The suppression or Bubtle hinting of minor details. Dr. Caird. 3 The retaining of anything from public notice; as, the suppression of a letter or any writing.

You may depend upon a suppression of these verses.

Pope.

4. The stoppage, obstruction, or morbid retention of discharges; as, the suppression of urine, of diarrhoea, or other discharge.—

5, In gram, or composition, omission; ellipsis; as, the suppression of a word or words

in a sentence, as when a person says, 'This is my book,' instead of Baying 'This book is my book.'

Suppressive (sup-pres'iv), a. Tending to suppress; subduing; concealing.

Johnson gives us expressive and oppressive, but neither impressive nor suppressive, though proceeding as obviously from their respective sources.

Seward.

Suppressor (Bup-pres'er), n. [L.] One who suppresses; one who subdues; one who prevents utterance, disclosure, or communication.

Suppurate (sup'pu-rat), v.i. pret A pp. suppurated; ppr. suppurating. [L. suppuro, suppuratuin—sub, and pus, puris, matter] To generate pus; as, a boil or abscess suppurates.

Suppurate (sup'pu-rat), v.t. To cause to suppurate. Arouthnot. [Rare.]

Suppuration (sup-pu-ra'shon), n. L. suppuratio. See Suppurate] 1. The process of producing purulent matter, or of forming pus, as in a wound or abscess.—2. The matter produced by suppuration.

Suppurative (sup'pu-rat-iv), a. [Fr. suppuratif. See SUPPURATE] Tending to Buppurate; promoting suppuration.

In different cases, inflammation will bear to be called adhesive, or serous, or hemorrhagic^ or suppurative. Dr. p. M. Latham.

Suppurative (sup'pu-rat-iv), n. A medicine that promotes suppuration.

If the inflammation be gone too far towards a suppuration, then it must be promoted wilh suppuralives, and opened by incision. ll'isetnan.

Supputatet (sup'pu-tat), v.t [See below.] To reckon; to compute.

SupputaUont (aup-pu-ta'shon), u. [L. supputatio, supputationis, from supputo, to reckon — sub, under, and puto, to reckon.] Reckoning; account; computation. 'The supputation of time.' Holder.

Supputet (sup-piif). v.t. [ft. supputer. See above.] To reckon; to compute; to impute. 'Stand freein>mthiisupputedshame.' Drayton.

Supra- (supra). A Latin preposition signifying above, over, or beyond, and used as a prefix much in the same way as super.

Supra-axillary (su-pra-aks'il-la-n). a. In bot. growing above the axil; inserted above the axil, as a peduncle. See Si.tkafoliaCeous.

Supraciliary (su-pra-siri-a-ri), o. [L. supra, above, over, and ctlium, eyebrow. ] Situated above the eyebrow.

Supra-costal (su-pra-kos'tal), a. [Prefix supra, and costal.] Lying above or upon the ribs; as, the supracostal muscles, which raise the ribs.

Supra-cretaceous (su'pra-kre-ta"8hus), a. In geol. a tenn applied to certain deposits lying above the cretaceous formation, or of more recent origin than the chalk.

Supra - decompound (su' pra - de - kom"pound),a. More than decompound; thrice compound. — A supra-decompound leaf, in bot. a leaf in which a petiole, divided several times, connects many leaflets, each part forming a decompound leaf.

Suprafoliaceous (su'pra-f6-li-a"shu3), a. [L. supra, above, over, and folium, a leaf ] In bot. inserted into the stem above the leaf or petiole, or axil, as a peduncle or flower.

Suprafollar (su-pra-fo'li-er), a. [L. supra, above, &rtd folium, a leaf.] In bot. growing upon a leaf.

Supralapsarian (su'pra-lap-Ba"ri-an). n. [I., supra, above, over, and lapsus, a fall.] In theol. one who maintains that God, antecedent to the fall of man or any knowledge of it, decreed the apostasy and all its consequences, determining to save some and condemn others, and that in all he does he considers his own glory only.

Supralapsarian (sii pra-lap-sa"ri-an), a. Of or pertaining to the Supralapsorions or to their doctrines.

Supralapsarianism (su'pra-lap-sa"ri-anizm), n. The doctrine or system of the Supralapsarian B.

Supralapsary (su-pra-lap'sa-ri), n. and a. Supralapsarian.

Supralunar (su-pra-lu'ner), a. [L. supra, above, and luna, the moon.] Lit. beyond the moon; heuce, very lofty; of very great height.

Supramundane (su-pra-niun'dan), a. [L. supra, above, and mundus, the world. ] Being or situated above the world or above our system; celestial. 'In the form of God, clothed with all the majesty and glory of the supramundane life.' II ally mil.

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Supranaturalisin (su-pra-uat'u-ral-izm).

See SUFEIINATURAUSH.

Supranaturalist (su-pra-nafu-ral-ist). See

SUFKRNATl 'HAMST.

Supraoccipital (su'pra-ok-sip"it-al), a. In anat. above the occiput

Supra-orbital (su-pra-or/bit-al),a. In anat. being above the orbit of the eye.—Supraorbital artery, an artery Bent oh* by the ophthalmic, along the superior wall of the orbit.

Supra-orbitary, Supra-orbitar (su-praor bit-a-ri, su-pra-or'bit-er), a. Same as Supra-orbital.

Supraprotest (su-pra-pr6'test), n. In law, an acceptance of a bill by a third person, after protest for non-acceptance by the drawer.

Suprarenal (su-pra-re'nal), a. [L. supra, above, over, and rcn, renes, the kidneys.] In anat. situated above the kidneys.—Suprarenal capsules, two minute, yellowish, triangular, glandular bodies which exist, one at the front portion of the upper end of each kidney. Their exact functions are as yet uncertain.

Supras capulary, Suprascapular (su-praskap'u-la-ri, su-pra-skap'u-ler),a. [L. supra, above, over, and scapula, the shoulder.] Being above the scapula.

Supraspinal (su-pra-spi'nal). a. In anat. («) situated above the spine. (6) Above the spine or ridge of the scapula or shoulderblade.

Supra vision t (su-pra-vi'zhon). n. Supervision. 'A severe supra vision, and animadversion." Jer. Taylor.

Supra vulgar (su-pra-vul'ger), a. Being above the vulgar or common people. [Rare]

Supremacy (su-prem'a-si), n. [See Sol'KKME.] The state of being supreme or in the highest station of power; highest authority or power; as, the supremacy of the king of Great Britain; the supremacy of parliament.

But as we. under heaven, are supreme head. So under Him that great supremacy. Where we do reign we will alone uphold. Skak. 1 am ashamed that women are so simple . . . To seek for rule, supremacy, and sway. When they are bound to serve, love, and obey. Shah. Papal supremacy, the authority, legislative, judicial, and executive, which the pope exercised over the churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland until the middle of the sixteenth century, when it was abolished, and which still continues to be more or less recognized in all countries whose inhabitants are in communion with the Church of Rome.—licgal supremacy, the authority and jurisdiction which the sovereign of England exercises over the Church of England, as being the supreme head on earth of that church. This authority is not legislative, but judicial and executive only, and the most familiar form in which it appears is in the nomination to bishoprics and archbishoprics. Henry VIII. was first acknowledged supreme head of the church in 1528; and this supremacy was confirmed by parliament to him, his heirs, and successors, kings of this realm, in 1534.—Oath of supremacy, in Great Britain, an oath denying the supremacy of the pope in ecclesiastical or temporal affairs in this realm. It was by many statutes required to be taken, along with the oath of allegiance and of abjuration, by persons in order to qualify themselves for office, &c; but a greatly modified and simpler form of oath has now superseded them.

Supreme (su-prem*), a. [L. sitpremus, from superus, al>ove, upper, higher, from super. See SUPER ] 1. Highest in authority; holding the highest place in government or power. 'Sin which is the highest degree of treason against the supreme Guide and Monarch of the whole world.' Hooker.

My soul aches To know, when two authorities are up.

Vly soul i

itnoritic! Neither supreme, how soon confusion May enter 'twixt the gap of both. Shak.

2. Highest or most extreme, as to degree; greatest possible; utmost; as, supreme love or wisdom: sometimes joined to words with a bad sense; as, supreme folly or baseness.

The lower still I fall; only supreme

In misery. Milton.

No single virtue we could most commend,

Whether the wife, the mother, or the friend;

For she was all in that supreme deyree.

That, as no one prevailed, so all was she. Dryden.

3. In hot. sitnated at the highest part or point. — The Supreme, the most exalted of

beings; the sovereign of the universe; God. —Supreme Court of Judicature, in England, the court constituted in 1»75 by the union and consolidation together of the following courts, viz. the Courts of Chancery,of Queen's Bench, of Common Pleas, of exchequer, of admiralty, probate, and of divorce and matrimonial cases — such supreme court consisting of two permanent divisions, called the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal.

Supremely (su-prem'li). adv. 1. With the highest authority; as, he rules supremely.— 2. In the highest degree; to the utmost extent. 'The starving chemist in his golden views supremely blest.' Pope.

Sur- (sen. A prefix from the French, contracted from L. super, and signifying over, above, beyond, upon. It is sometimes merely intensive. See Super.

Sura(sb'ra), n. [Ar. ] A chapter of the Koran.

These chapters were, it is asserted, (riven forth sometimes as a whole, sometimes in driblets, and often in single verses. Such driblets Mohammed, it is said, directed his amanuensis to enter 'in the rura which treated of such and such a subject.' If this tradition beauthentic.it would indicate that Mohammed wished the Koran to be arranged according to its matter, and not chronologically; and hence the difficulty of assigning dates to each sura, or portion of a sura, is indefinitely increased. Brand* <S* Cox.

Suradannl (so-ra-dan'ni), n. A valuable kind of wood growing in Demerara, much used for timbers, rails, naves and fellies of wheels, and the like.

Suraddltlont (ser-ad-di'shon), n. [Prefix sur, on or upou, and addition.] Something added or appended, as to a name.

He served with glory and admired success,

So gained the suraddition Leonatus. Shak,

Sural (su'ral), n. [L. sura, the calf of the leg.] Being in or pertaining to the calf of the leg; as, the sural artery. Wiseman.

Surancet (shor'ans), n.
Assurance. Shak.

Sur-ancree (ser-an'kre).
[Fr.] In her. a term ap-
plied to a cross wiLh
double anchor flukes at
each termination.

Surat(sb-rat'),n. Coarse short cotton grown in the neighbourhood of Sural, in the Bombay presidency.

Surbase (ser'bas), n. [Prefix sur, and base. ] In arch, the crowning moulding or cornice of a pedestal; a border or moulding above the base, as the mouldings immediately above the base of a room, Langhorne.

Surbased (ser'bast), a. In arch, having a surbase, or moulding above the base.— Surbased arch, an arch whose rise is less than hah* the span.

Surbatet (ser-baf),«.f. pret. <ft pp. surbated; ppr. surbating. [Fr. solbattre, pp. solbatu, from Bole, L. solea, a sole, and Ft. battre, to beat] 1. To make sore the soles by walking; to bruise or batter by travel.

Chalky land surbates and spoils oxen's feet.

Mortimer.

2. To fatigue by marching.

Their march they continued ail that night, the horsemen often alighting that the foot might ride, and others taking many of them behind them; however, they could uot but be extremely weary and surbated. Clarendon.

Surbeat t (ser-bet'), v.t Same as Surbate.

Surbed (ser-bed1), v.t pret & pp. surbedded; ppr. surbedding. [Prefix sur, and bed.] To set edgewise, as a stone; that is, in a position different from that which it had in the quarry.

Surbett (sorbet'), pp. and a. Surbated; bruised. 'A traveller with feet surbet.' Spenser.

Surcease (ser-seB'), v.i. pret. surceased; ppr. surceasing. [Formerly written surcesse, sursease, and baaed directly on Fr. surseoir, pp. sursis, 'to surcease, pawse, intermit, leave off" (Cotgravc), from prefix sur, and seoir, to sit, from L. sedeo, to sit; whence also surseance, a surceasing, a giving up. But the latter portion of the word was early confounded with cease, Fr. cesser, to cease; hence the modern spelling.] To cease; to stop; to be at an end; to leave off; to refrain finally. [Obsolete or poetical.]

To fly altogether from God . . . under that pretence to surcease from prayers, as bootless or fruitless offices, were to him no less injurious than pernicious to our own souls. Hooker, Nor did the British squadrons now surcease To gall their foes overwhelmed. A. Philips.

[graphic]

Cross svnvancree.

Surceaset (series'), v.t To stop; to put an end to; to cause to cease.

All pain hath end, and every war hath peace,
but mine nor price nor prayer may surcease.

Spenser.

Surcease (ser-seV), n. Cessation; stop. 'Time that there were an eud and surcease made of this immodest . . . manner of writing.' Bacon. [Obsolete or poeticaL]

Eagerly I wished the morrow; vainly I had sought

to liorrow From my books surcease of sorrow—sorrow for the

lost Lcnore. Pot.

Surcharge (ser-charjO, v.t pret. & pp, surcharged; ppr. surcharging. [Prefix *wr. over, and charge.] 1. To overload; to overburden; as, to surcharge a beast or a ship; to surcharge a cannon.

Your head reclined, as hiding grief from view.
Droops like a rose surcharged with morning dew.
Drvden.

2. In law, (a) to overstock; especially, to put more cattle into, as a common, than the person has a right to do, or more than the herbage will sustain, (ft) In equity, to show an omission In, as in an account, for which credit ought to have been given. Story.—

3. To overcharge; to make an extra charge upon.

Surcharge (ser'charJX *■ 1 A charge or load above another charge; hence, an excessive load or burden; a load greater than con be well borne.

For that the air, after it hath received a charge. doth not receive a surcharge, or greater charge, with like appetite as it doth the first. Bacen.

2. In law,{a) an extra charge made Ity aste*sors upon such as neglect to make a due return of the taxes to which they are liable. (b) In equity, the showing of an omission in an account for which credit ought to have been given. —Surcharge and falsifies ticm. In taking accounts in the Court of Chancery a sure/targe is applied to the balance of the whole account, and supposes credit* to be omitted which ought to be allowed; and a falsification applies to some item in the debits,and supposes that the item is wholly false or in some part erroneous. —3. An overcharge beyond what is just and right.—Surcharge of forest, the putting of more cattle into a forest, by a commoner, than be has a right to do.

Surcharger (ser-charj'er), n. 1. One that overloads or overstocks.—2. Surcharge of forest (which see).

Surcingle (ser'sing-gl), n. [O Fr. sursangle, prefix sur( = L. st/p^upon), and L. cingulum, a belt] 1. A belt, band, or girth which passes over a saddle, or over anything laid on a horse's back, to bind it fast, — 2. The girdle with winch clergymen of the Church of England bind their cassocks. Surcingle (ser-sing'gl), v.t To furnish with a surcingle; to bind or attach with a surcingle. 'Each homely groom . . „ surcingled to a galled hackney's hide.' Bp. Hall. Surclet (ser'kl), n. [L. surculus, a young twig or branch.] A little shoot; a twig; a sucker. 'Boughs and surcles of the some shape.' Sir T. Broivne. Surcoat (ser'kot), n. [Prefix *«r=L. super, over, and L. coat.) 1. The name given to on outer garment worn in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and even later, by both sexes, and showing a great variety of forms, short or long.— 2. A kind of loose sleeveless wrapper formerly worn over a coal of mail to protect it from wet ltwasopen in front, usually reached to the mid-leg.and was girt to the waist by the swordbelt. In late examples surcoats were often emblazoned with the wearer's arms, but were originally of one colour, or simply variegated.

Surcoats seem to have originated with the <ra

[graphic]

Surcoat.—Monument of William I.oiigespee, Salisbury Cathedral.

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[blocks in formation]

Surcrewt (ser'krft), n. [Preflx sur, over, and Ft. erne, a growth.] Additional collection; augmentation. 'Returning with a tttrcrew of these splenetic vapours that are called hypochondriacal.' Wotton.

Surculatet (serTtu-lati,v.t [L. surcuio, fturculatiun, from surculus, a young twig or shoot] To prune.

Surculation t (ser-ku la'ahon), n. Act of pruning. Sir T. Browne.

Surculose. Surculous (serTcu-lds, serTtulus), a. [See below. J In bat. being full of shoots or twigs.

SurculUB (ser'ku-lus), n. pi. Surcull (serTculi). [h ] In hot. any little branch or twig; applied by Linnnma particularly to the stem of mosses, or the shoot which bears the leaves.

Surcurrent (ser-ku'rent), a. In hot a term applied to a leafy expansion running up the stem: the opposite of deeurrent

Surd (serd), o. [L. surdtts. deaf] l.t Not having the sense of hearing; deaf. 'A surd and earless generation of men, stupid unto all instruction.' Sir T. Browne.—2.1 Unheard. 'Surd modes of articulation.' Kenrick. 3. In math, not capable of being expressed in rational numbers; as, a turd expression, quantity, or number. See the noun.

4. In phofietics, uttered with breath and not with voice; devoid of proper vocality; not sonant: toneless; specifically, a term applied to the hard mute consonants of the alphabet See the noun.

Surd (aerd), n. 1. In math, an irrational quantity; a quantity which is incommensurable to unity. Or, a surd denotes the root of any quantity, when that quantity is not a complete power of the dimension required by the index of the root Hence, the roots of such quantities cannot be expressed by rational numbers. Thus the square root of 2 (or VI), the cube root of 4 (v^4), the fourth root of 7 (\/f), Ac, are surds, for they cannot be expressed by rational numbers.— 2 In phonetics, a consonantal sound uttered with breath and not with voice; a nonsonant consonant; a hard check; as, p, f, s, t, k, as opposed to b, v, z, d, g, which are called soft checks, flats, or sonants.

Surdalt (serMal), a. Surd

Surdtny t (serMi-ni), n. A corrupt form of Sardine.

He that eats nothing but a red-herring to-day Nh;UI ne'er be broiled for the devil's rasher; a pile her, signor; a surdiny, an olivet that I may be a philosopher first, and immortal afterwards. Bean. e> Ft.

SurcUta8(ser'di-tasXn, [L. SecSrjRD.] Deafness; hardness of hearing.

SurcUtvt (ser'di-U), n. Deafness.

Sure (snor), a. [Fr. sur, O.Fr. seur, seur, Pr. segur, from L. securus, unconcerned, secure —se, apart, and euro, care. This is therefore the same word as secure] 1. Perfectly confident or uudoubting; certainly knowing and believing; implicitly trusting; unquestioning; having no fear of being deceived, disappointed, or of being found at fault; certain of one's facts, position, or the like; fully persuaded.

Friar Laurence met them both;
Him he knew well, and guess'd that it was she;
But being maslc'd he was not surt of it. Shak.
Be silent always when you doubt your sense;
And speak, though surt, with seeming diffidence.

Pope.

2. Certain to And or retain; as, to be sure of success; to be sure of life or health.—3. Fit or worthy to be depended on; capable of producing the desired effect or of fulfilling the requisite conditions; certain not to disappoint expectation; not liable to failure, loss, or change; unfailing; Arm; Btable; Bteady; secure; certain; infallible.

The testimony of the Lord Is sure. Ps. xix. 7.
I wish your horses swift and surt of foot. Shak.

Virtue, dear friend, needs no defence;

The surest guard is innocence. Roscommon.

l Out of danger; secure; safe.

Fear not: the forest Is not three leagues off;
If wc recover that, we are surt enough. Shak.

5. t Betrothed; engaged to marry.

The king was surt to Datnc Elizabeth T-ucy, and her husband before God. Sir T. Afore.

—To be sure or be sure, without doubt; certainly; as, will you go? To be sure, J -lull [Colloq. ]— To make sure, (a) to make certain; to secure so that there can be no failure of the purpose or object

Give diligence to make your calling and election surt. 3 Pet L 10.

He bade me make sure of the bear, before I sell his skin. Sir Jt. L'Estrange.

A peace cannot fail, provided we make surt of Spain. Sir W. TtmjU.

(6)t To make fast by betrothal; to betroth. 'She that's made sure to him she loves not well.' Cotgrave.—Sureasagun,unfailingly or absolutely certain. [Colloq.]—Syn. Certain,unfailing, infallible, Arm, stable,steady, secure, safe, confident, positive. Sure (slibr), adv. Certainly; without doubt; doubtless.

Surt, upon the whole, a bad author deserves better usage than a bad critic. Pofe.

*Tis pleasant, surt, to see one's name In print.
Byron.

Surebyt (shor/bi), n. Same as Suresby.

Surefooted (BhbYfut-ed), a. Not liable to stumble, slide, or fall; having a firm, secure tread; as, a surefooted horse. 'Surefooted griefs, solid calamities.' O. Herbert.

Surely (shorli), ado. 1. Certainly; infallibly; undoubtedly.

In the day that thou catest thereof, thou shalt surety die. Gen. iL 17.

And surely as I live, I am a maid. Shak.

He that created something out of nothing, surely can raise great things out of small. South.

2. Firmly; stably; safely; securely. 4That I may surely keep mine oath.' Shak.

He that walketh uprightly walketh surely.

Pro*, a. o.

Surely is often used with a certain intensive force uot easy to define, but sometimes nearly equivalent to an interrogative clause; as, surely you do not think so (= you do not think so, do you?); or expressing a doubt in the mind of the speaker; as, surely he cannot have been so wicked. It is often nearly equivalent to verily, of a truth.

Surety, I think you have charms. Shak. Surely, surely, slumber is more sweet than toil, the

sin ire Than labour in the deep mid-ocean, wind and wave

and oar. Tennyson.

Surement,t ». Security for payment Chaucer.

SurenesB (shorties), n. The state of being sure or certain; certainty.

He diverted himself with the speculation of the Seed of coral; and for more sur rues s he repeats it. (foodward,

Suresbyt (shorz'bl), n. [From «ure,on type of rudesby. ] One who may be surely depended on. 'Old suresbyes to serve for all turns." Coryat

Suretiship (shortf-ship), n. Same as Suretyship.

He that haieth suretiship is sure. Prov. si. 15.

Surety (shorti), n. [Fr. sureU. See SURE. ]

1. Certainty; indubttableness.

Know of a surety, th.it thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs. Gen. xv. 13.

2. Security; safety.

Yet for the more surety they looked round about. Sir P. Sidney.

3. That which makes sure, firm, or certain; foundation of stability; ground of security.

Myself and all the angelic host . . . our happy state
Hold, as you yours, while our obedience holds;
On other surety none. Atiiton.

4. Evidence; ratification; confirmation.

She call'd the saints to surety That she would never put it from her finger, Unless she gave it to yourself. Shak.

5. Security against loss or damage; security for payment.

There remains unpaid A hundred thousand more, in surety of the which One pa,rt of Aquitain is bound to us. Shak.

6. In law, one bound with and for another who is primarily liable, and who is called the principal; one who enters into a bond or recognizance to answer for another's appearance in court, or for his payment of a debt or for the performance of some act, and who, in case of the principal's failure. Is compellable to pay the debt or damages; a bondsman; a bail.

He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it. Prov. si. 15.

Hence—7. A substitute; a hostage.— Surety of the pence, the acknowledgment of a bond to the sovereign, taken by a competent judge of record, for keeping the peace. A magistrate or a Justice of the peace may bind all those to keep the peace who make affray, or contend together with hot and

angry words, or go about with unlawful weapons or attendance to the terror of the people. So if a private man has just cause to fear that another will burn his house, or do him a corporal injury, or will procure others to do so, he may demaud Burety of the peace against such person, and every justice of the peace is bound to grant it if satisfied that the person liaa good grounds for the application.

Burety (aborti), v.t To guarantee; to be bail or security for.

The jeweller that owes the ring Is sent for
And lie shall surety me. Shak.

Suretyship (shbYti-ship), n. The state of being surety; the obligation of a person to answer for the debt, fault, or non-performance of another, and to nmke good any loss occasioned thereby.

Surf (serf), n. [Origin doubtful. Perhaps from O.Fr. surfiot, the rising of billow upon billow — sur, above, and fiot, a wave. In meaning 2 the origin is no doubt different.]

1. The swell of the sea which breaks upon the shore, or upon sandbanks or rocks. —

2. In agri. the bottom or conduit of a drain. [Local]

Surface (seYffts),n. [Fr. surface, from sur, upon, and face, or directly from L. sujterficies.] l.The exterior part of anything that has length and breadth; one of the limits that terminates a solid; the superficies; outside; as, the surface of the earth; the surface of the sea; the surface of a diamond; the surface of the body; the surface of a cylinder; an even or an uneven surface. Popularly, surface is often used to signify, not merely the outside or exterior boundary of any substance, but also a certain thickness of the exterior material part. In this way we speak of the surface of the earth, the surface of the soil, of taking off the surface of anything, Ac.—2. lu geom. a superficies; that which has length and breadth only, and so distinguished from a line, which has length only, and from a solid, which has length, breadth, and thickness. The extremities of a surface are lines, and the intersections of one surface with auotherare also lines.—A plane surface is that in which any two points being taken the straight line between them lies wholly in that surface. —A surface which may be cut by a plane through any given point, so that the line of common section of the plane and surface may be a curve, is called a curved surface; as the surface of a Bphere, cylinder, or cone. Surfaces are distinguished algebraically by the nature and order of their equations. Thus, we have surfaces of the Bret order, or plane surfaces, and surfaces of the second order, or curved surfaces. Surfaces are also distinguished by their mode of generation; thus the surface of a sphere is generated by the revolution of a semicircular arc about the diameter, which remains fixed. In physics, a surface is supposed to be composed of a number of material particles, placed together side by side, without any opening or interstice between them. Such a surface, therefore, cannot be said to be absolutely destitute of thickness, but may be regarded as a film of matter whose thickness is indefinitely small.—Tabular surface, a surface generated by a circle of a given radius, which moves with its centre on a given curve, and its plane at right angles to the tangent of that curve. — Ruled surface, a surface described by the motion of a straight line, which neither remains parallel to a given line nor always passes through a given point, as conoidal surfaces. —Developable surface, a surface that can be unwrapped in a plane without any doubling of parts over one another, or separation, as the surfaces of the cylinder and cone.— Undevelopable surface, a surface that cannot be developedln the plane.—3. Outward or external appearance; what appears on a slight or casual view or without examination; as, this arrangement, on the surface, was very advantageous.—4. In fort, that part of the side which is terminated by the flank prolonged, and the angle of the nearest bastion. Surface (sertas), a. Of or pertaining to the Burface; external; hence, superficial; specious; insincere; as, mere surface politeness or loyalty.

Surface (ser'fas), v.t. pret A pp. surfaced; ppr. surfacing. 1. To put a surface on, or give a surface to; specifically, to give a fine surface to; to make plain or smooth.—2. To work over the surface of, as ground, in searching for gold.

SURFACE-CHTJCK

STJRMARK

Surface-chuck (ser'fas-chuk), n. A faceplate chuck in a lathe to which an object is fixed fur turning.

Surface-condenser (ser/fas-kon-den-scr),n. In steam-engines, an apparatus by which steam from the cylinder Is condensed. It usually consists of a large number of brass tubes united at their ends by means of a pair of Hat steam-tight vessels, or of two sets of-radiating tubes. This set of tubes is inclosed in a casfug, through which a sufficient quantity of cold water is driven. The steam from the exhaust pipe is condensed as it passes through these tubes, and is pumped away by the air-pump.

Surface-gauge (ser'fas-gaj), n. An instrument fur testing the accuracy of plane surfaces.

Surface-grub (ser'fas-grub), n. The caterpillar of the great yellow underwing moth {Triphoena pronuba). When full grown it is nearly 1} inch long, pale green with a brownish tinge, black dots, three pale lines down the back. It is frequently destructive to the roots of grass, cabbages, and turnips.

Surface-Joint (serTas-joint), n. A joint uniting the ends or edges of metallic sheets or plates. They are generally formed by laps or flanges, soldered or riveted. E. II. Knight.

Surfaceman (ser'fas-man), n. In rail, a person whose duty it is to keep the permanent way in order.

Surface - printing (ser'fas-print-ing), n. Printing from an inked surface, in contradistinction to plate-printing, in which the lines are filled with ink, the surface cleaned, and the ink absorbed from the lines by pressure on the plate. Books, newspapers, woodcuts, and lithographs are examples of surface-printing. E. II. Knight,

Surfacer (ser'fas-er), n. 1. A machine for planing and giving a surface to wood.— 2. One who digs for gold in the surface soil.

Surface-roller (ser'fas-rol-er), n. The engraved cylinder used in calico-printing. E. II. Knight.

Surface-water (ser'fas-wa-ter), n. Water which collects on the surface of the ground, and usually runs off Into drains, sewers, and the like.

Surface-working (serTas-werk-ing),*!. The operation of digging for gold or other minerals on the top soil.

Surf-boat (serf hot), n. A peculiarly strong and buoyant boat capable of passing with safety through surf.

Surf-duck (serf duk), n. A species of scoter (Oidtmia pergpiciilata), about the size of a mallard, rarely seen on the British coasts, but frequent on the coasts of Labrador, Hudson's Bay. and other parts of North America. It dives so swiftly that it is extremely difficult to shoot except when on the wing. Called also Surf-scoter,

Surfeit (ser'ftt), n. [O.Fr. surfait, excess— sur, over, and fait, pp. otfaire, L. facere, to do. See Fact, Feat] 1. Excess in eating and drinking; a gluttonous meal by which the stomach is overloaded and the digestion deranged.

Now comes the sick hour that his tur/eit mnde. Shak.

2. Fulness and oppression of the system, occasioned by excessive eating and drinking.

Too much a surfeit breeds, and may our child annoy:

These fat and luscious meats do but our stomachs

cloy. Drayton.

3. Disgust caused by excess; satiety; nausea.

Matter and argument have been supplied abundantly, and even to surfeit, on the excellency or our own government. Burke.

Surfeit (ser'flt), v.t [From the noun.] l.To feed so as to oppress the stomach and derange the functions of the system; to overfeed so as to produce sickness or uneasiness; to overload the stomach of.

The surfeited grooms
Do moclc their charge with snores. Shak.

2. To All to satiety and disgust; to cloy; as, he surfeit* us with his eulogies. Surfelt(ser'(ltX v.i. To be fed till the system is oppressed, and sickness or uneasiness ensues.

They are as sick that surfeit with too much, as they that starve with nothing. Shak.

Surfeiter (ser'nt-er), n. One who surfeits or riots; a glutton; a reveller. 'This amorous surf titer.' Shak,

Surfeit-swelled (ser'ftt-sweld), a. Swelled or tumefied with a surfeit or excessive eating and drinking or other overindulgence. Shak.

Surfeit-water (ser'flt-wa-ter), n. Water for

the cure of surfeits. Locke. Surfel.t Surflet (ser'fD.r t. Towash, as the

face, with a cosmetic supposed to have been

prepared from sulphur.

She shall no oftener powder her hair, rttrfle her cheeks . . . but she shall as often gaze on my picture. Fork.

Surf-scoter (serf'skd-ter), n. See SurfDuck.

Surfy (ser'fi), a. Consisting in or abounding with surf; resembling surf; foaming.

Scarce had they cleared the surfy waves
That foam around those frightful caves.

Af<x>re.

Surge (serj), n. [O.Fr. surgeon, sourgcon, a spring, a spouting up, from L. surgere, to rise. See Source ] l.t A spring; a fountain; a source of water—2. A large wave or billow; a great rolling swell of water.

He flies aloft, and with impetuous roar.

Pursues the foaming surges to the shore. Dryden.

3. A swelling or rolling prominence; an undulation.

At what seemed its northern extremity, the hills of Arqua rose in a dark cluster of purple pyramids . . . two or three smooth surges of inferior hill extended themselves about their roots. Ruskin,

4. The act of surging, or of heaving in an undulatory manner.— 5. In ship-building, the tapered part in front of the whelps, between the chocks of a capstan, on which the messenger may surge.

Surge (serj), v.t. Saut. to let go a portion of a rope suddenly; to slack a rope up suddenly when it renders round a pin, a winch, windlass, or capstan.

Surge (serj), v.i. pret surged; ppr. surging. [See the noun.] 1. To swell; to rise high and roll, as waves.

The surging waters like a mountain rise. S/enser.

2. Saut. to slip back; as, the cable surges.

Surgeful (serjTul). o. Full of surges. 'The surgeful tides.' Drayton.

Surgeless (serj'les), a. Free from surges; smooth; calm.

Surgent (ser'jent), a. [L. surge ns, surgentis, ppr. of surgo, to arise, to mount up.] Lit. mounting up. In geol. appellative of the fifth of Prof. H. Roger's divisions of the palaeozoic strata in the Appalachian chain, corresponding to a certain extent with the middle Silurian.

Surgeon (Ber'jun), n. [O.Fr. surgien, contr. for chirurgien, O.E. chirurgeon, from L.cAt"ruraxa, Gr. cheirourgos, a surgeon, an operating medical man—Gr. cheir, the hand, and ergon, work.] One who practises surgery; in a limited sense, one whose profession or occupation is to cure diseases or injuries of the body by manual operation. In a more general sense, one whose occupation is to cure disease or injury, whether by manual operation or by medical appliances employed externally or internally. See SurGery.Royal College of Surgeons of England, an institution for the training, examination, and licensing of practitioners of medicine, dating its origin from the year 14C0. The buildings of the college, which include a museum, library, and lecture theatre, are situated in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London.

Surgeon-apothecary (ser'jun-a-poth"e-kari), n. One who is both surgeon and apothecary.

Surgeoncy (ser'jiiu-si), n. The office of surgeon, as in the army or navy.

Surge on-dentist (serjun-den-tfot), n, A dental surgeon; a qualified dentist.

Surgeon-fish (ser'jun-flsh),?!. An acanthopterygious or spine-finned fish of the genus AcanthuniB (A. chirurgus), so called from a lance-like spine on each side near the tail.

Surgeonryt (seVjun-ri). n. The practice of a surgeon; surgery; a Burgery.

Surgery (s£r'jer-f). n. [For surgeonry] 1. Ihe operative branch of medicine; that branch of medical science and practice which involves the performance of operations on the human subject, whether with or without instruments, as in the curing of wounds or lesions, the removal of injured parts or morbid growths, the reducing of dislocations, Ac The department of surgery is distinguished from that of physic inasmuch as the latter is concerned mainly with the treatment of disease by the administration of drugs or other substances; but the two departments are apt to run together at certain points, and a strict line of demarcation between surgery and physic cannot be easily traced. They are based on the same ultimate principles, and the exer

cise of their different branches requires the same fundamental knowledge.— 2. A place where surgical operations are performed, or where medicines are prepared.

Surglant (ser'ji-ant). a. In her. the same as Rousant or Rising (which see).

Surgical (Ber'jik-alX a. Pertaining to surgeons or surgery; done bymeansof surgery; as, surgical instruments; surgical operation.

Surgy (scVji),a. Rising in surges or billows; full of surges; produced by surges, 'O'er the surgy main.' Pope. 'The surgy murmurs of the lonely sea.' Keats.

Suricate (su'ri-kat), n. [Native South African name.] The Ryzaena Capensis, or Suricata Zenik, a carnivorous animal found in South Africa, bearing some resemblance to the common polecat and ferret. It is somewhat smaller than the domestic cat, and when tamed is a useful inmate of a house, extirpating rats, mice, and other vermin. Called also Zenik.

Surinam Bark (so-re-nam' bark), n. The bark of the Andira inermis, or cabbagebark tree, a leguminous plant of the West

[graphic]

Surinam Bark {Andira inermis).

Indies, with alternate pinnate leaves and terminal panicles of reddish lilac flowers. It is also called IForm-oar*. and is used in medicine, especially as an anthelmintic

Surinamine (so-re-nam'in), n. An alkaloid obtained from Surinam bark. It is crystallizable. and forms crystallizable salu.

Surinam-toad (bo-re-nam'tod), n. A veryugly batrachian reptile of the section Pipi die, infesting houses in Guiana and Surinam. See Pipa.

Surlntendant (ser-ln-ten'dant), n. A superintendent. C. Richardson. [Rare.]

Surlily (serTI-li), adv. In a surly morose manner.

Surliness (serli-nes), n. The state or quality of being surly; gloomy moroseness; crabbed ill-nature; as, the surliness of a dog. 'To prepare and mollify the Spartan surliness with his smooth songs and odes.' Milton.

Sur ling' (seizing), n. A sour morose fellow. * These sour svrlings.' Camden.

Surloin (serloiu). See Sirloin.

Surly (Ber'li), a. [Old form sirly or syrhj: probably, as Wedgwood thinks, for sir-tike - magisterial, arrogant] l.t Arrogant; haughty. 'To grow proud, to take a surly state upon him.' Cotgrate. 2. Gloomily morose; crabbed; snarling; sternly sour; with churlish ill-nature; cross and rude; as, a surly fellow; a surly dog.

It would have galled his surly nature. Skat.

3. Ungracious; churlish: said of things.

It (Jude-t) would have lain in exile from the great human community, had not the circulation of commerce embraced it. and self-interest secured it a surly and contemptuous regard. J. M.tritneaH.

4. Rough; dark; tempestuous. *Nowsoften'd into joy the surly storm.' Thomson.

5. Gloomy; dismal. 'That surly spirit. Melancholy.' Shak.

When I am dead
Then you shall hear the surly sullen bell. Sfusk

Surmark (seVniark), n. In ship-butiding, (a) one of the stations of the rib-bands and harpings which are marked on the timbers. See Ribband-line, (ft) A cleat temporarily placed on the outside of a rib to give a hold

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