Imágenes de páginas




scholars who first translated the Old Testament into Greek. So called from their number or approximate number. See SHP


Sever (sev'er), v.t [O.Fr. sevrer, severer, to separate; Mod. Fr. sevrer, to wean; from L. separare, to separate. See SEPARATE ] 1. To part or divide by violence; to separate by cutting or rending; as, to sever the body or the arm at a single stroke.-- 2. To part from the rest by violence, cutting, or the like; as, to sever the head from the body.— 3. To separate; to disjoin, referring to things that are distinct but united by some tie; as, the dearest friends severed by cruel necessity. —4. To separate and put in different orders or places.

The angels shall come forth and sever the wicked from among the Just, Mat. xiii. 49

6. To disjoin; to disunite: in a general sense, but usually implying violence.

Our state can not be severed; we are one.


C. To keep distinct or apart

And I will sever in that day the land of Goshen, in which my people dwell, that no swarm of flics shall be there. Ex. viii. 12.

1. In law. to disunite; to disconnect; to part possession; as, to sever an estate in jointtenancy. Blackstone.

Sever (sev'er), Pi. 1. To make a separation or distinction; to distinguish.

The Lord will sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt. hx. ix. 4.

2. To suffer disjunction; to be parted or rent nBunder.

Her lips are sever'd z% to speak. Tennyson.

Severable (sev'fer-a-bl), a. Capable of being severed.

Several (sev'er-al), a. [O.Fr. several, from severer. See SEVER.] 1. Separate; distinct; not common to two or more: now mainly used in legal phraseology; as, a several fishery; a several estate. A several fishery is one held by the owner of the soil, or by title derived from the owner. A several estate is one held by a tenant in his own right, or a distinct estate unconnected with any other person.

Each mieht his several province well command.
Would all but stoop to what they understand.

Pope. We may assume that the Germans in their own country had no distinct ideas of several property in land. Brougham.

2. Single; individual; particular.

Each several ship a victory did jjain. Dryden.

3. Different; diverse; distinct

Divers sorts of beasts came from several parts to

drink. Baton.

Four several armies to the field are led, Dryden.

4. Consisting of a number; more than two, but not very many; divers; as, several persons were present when the event took place.— A joint and several note or bond, one executed by two or more persons, each of whom is bound to pay the whole amount named in the document.

Several (sever-al), n. 1. A few separately or individually; a small number, singly taken: with a plural verb.

Several of them neither rose from any conspicuous family, nor left any behind them. Addison.

It A particular person or thing; a particular.

Not noted is't.
But of the finer natures? by some severals
Of head-piece extraordinary r Shak.

There was not time enough to hear . . .

The severals. Shak.

3.t An inclosed or separate place; specifically, a piece of inclosed ground adjoining a common field; an inclosed pasture or field, as opposed to an open field or common.

They had their several for heathen nations, their I several for the people of their own nation, their several for men, their several for women. Hooker,

There is no beast, if you take him from the common, and put him into the several, but will wax fat. Bacon.

—In several.f in a state of separation or partition. 'Where pastures in several be.' Tusser.

SeveraUtyt (sev-6r-al'i-ti), «, Each particular singly taken; distinction. Bp. Hall.

Severallzet (sev'er-al-iz), v.t. pret. <fc pp. severalized; ppr. severaliziag. To distinguish. Bp. Hall.

Severallt (sev'er-al), adv. Severally; asunder. Spenser.

Severally (sev'er-al-li), adv. Separately; distinctly; apart from others; as, call the men severally by name.

Others were so small and close together that I

could not keep my eye steady on them severally so as to number them. Newton.

—To be jointly and severally bound in a contract, is for each obligor to be liable to pay the whole demand, in case the other or others are not able.

Severalty (sev'er-al-tl), n. A state of separation from the rest, or from all others. — Estate in severalty, an estate which the tenant holds in his own right without being joined in interest with any other person. It is distinguished from joint-tenancy, coparcenary, aud common.

The rest of the land in the country, however, was not possessed in severalty, but by the inhabitants of each district in common. Brougham.

Severance (sev'er-ans), n. The act of severing or state of being severed; separation; the act of dividing or disuniting; partition.

No established right of primogeniture controlled the perpetual severance of every realm, at each succession, into new lines of kings. Mittnan.

—The severance of a jointure. In law, a severance made by destroying the unity of interest Thus when there are two jointtenants for life, and the inheritance is purchased by or descends upon either, it is a severance. So also when two persous are joined in a writ and one is non-suited; in this case severance is permitted, and the other plaintiff may proceed in the suit. Severe (se-ver'), a. [Fr. severe, from L. severus, serious, severe.] 1. Serious or earnest in feeling or manner; exempt from levity of appearance; sedate; grave; auBtere; not light, lively, or cheerful. 'With eyes severe and beard of formal cut' Shak. Your looks must alter, as your subject does, From kind to fierce, from wanton to severe. Waller.

2. Very strict In judgment, discipline, or government; not mild or indulgent; rip nous; harsh; rigid; merciless; as, severe criticism; severe punishment.

Come, you are too severe a moraler. Shak. Let your zeal, if it must be expressed in anger, be more severe against thyself than against others.

jter. Taylor.

3. Strictly regulated by rule or principle; exactly conforming to a standard; rigidly methodical; hence, not allowing or permitting unnecessary or florid ornament, amplification, and the like; not luxuriant; as, a severe style of writing; the severest style of Greek architecture; the severe school of German music. 'Restrained by reason and severe principles.* Jer. Taylor. 'The Latin, a most severe and compendious language.' Dryden.—4. Sharp; afflictive; distressing; violent; extreme; as, severe pain, anguish, torture; severe cold; a severe winter. — 5. Difficult to be endured; exact; critical; rigorous; as, a severe teat; a severe examination.

Severely (sfi-ver'll), adv. In a severe manner; gravely; rigidly; strictly; rigorously; painfully; fiercely. 'Kept severely from resort of men.' Shak. 'A pence we may severely repent' Swift. 'Fondly or severely kind.' Savage.

More formidable Hydra stands within.

Whose Jaws with iron teeth severely grin. Dryden.

Seyerenesa (se-veYnes), n. Severity. Sir W. Temple.

Severiail (se-ve'ri-an), n. Ercles. one of the followers of Severing, a Mow.iphysite, who held, in opposition to the Juliaiiists, that the Saviour's body was corruptible.

Severity (Bg-ver'i-ti), n. [L. severitas. See Severe.j The quality or state of being severe; as, (a) gravity or austerity; extreme strictness; rigour; harshness; as, the severity of a reprimand or reproof; severity of discipline or training; severity of penalties. 'Strict age and sour severity. MUton.

It is too general a vice, and severity must cure it. Shak.

(6) The quality or power of afflicting, distressing, or paining; extreme degree; extremity; keenness; as, the severity of pain or anguish; the severity of cold'or heat, (c) Extreme coldness or Inclemency; as, the severity of the winter, (d) Harshness; cruel treatment; sharpness of punishment; as. severity practised on prisoners of war. (e) Exactness; rigour; niceness; as, thmtevenfyofatest. (/)Strictness; rigid accuracy. 'Confining myself to the severity of truth.' Dryden. Severy t (sev'er-i), n. [Also written civery, and supposed to be a corruption of ciborimn] In arch, a bay or compartment in a vaulted roof; also, a compartment or division of scaffolding. Oxford Glossary.

Sevocatlont (se-v&ka'shon), n. (From L. sevoco, sevocatum se, apart, and voco, to call] A calling aside. Bailey. Sevoela (sev-o-aTia), H. A Mexican plant, the Stenanthium frigidum. It possesses acrid and poisonous qualities, and is used as an anthelmintic.

Sevres Ware (sa-vr war), n. A kind of porcelain wore, unsurpassed for artistic design and brilliancy of colouring, manufactured at Sevres, in France. Sewt (su). v.t (See Sue.] 1. To pursue; to follow. Spenser.— 2. To bring on and remove meat at table; to assay or taste, as meats and drinks, before they are served up, or in presence at the table. Sew (s6), v.t. [A. Sax. siwian, teowian, tuwan, O.H.G. and Goth, siujan, O.Fris. tia, Dan. sye, Icel. syja; cog. L. sua, Skr. no, to sew. Seam is from this stein.] To unite or fasten together with a needle and thread.

They seired fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. Gen. ni. 7.

—To sew up, (a) to inclose by sewing; to inclose in anything sewed.

Thou servest up mine iniquity. Job xiv. 17.

If ever I said loose-bodied gown sew me up in the skirts of it. Shah.

(ft) To close or unite by sewing; as, to sew up a rent.— To be sewed up, (a) naut. to rest upon the ground, as a ship, when there is not sufficient depth of water to float her. A ship thus situated is said to be sewed up by as much as is the difference between the surface of the water and her floating-mark or line. (&) To be brought to a standstill; to be dead beaten; to be ruined or overwhelmed. Dickens. [Colloq.] (<•) To be Intoxicated. [Slang.)

Sew (so), v.i. To practise sewing; to join things with stitches. 'Or teach the orphan girl to sew.' Tennyson.

Sewt (su), v.t [O.Fr. essiter, Fr. essuyer, now to wipe dry, but originally to draw off moisture or water; from L. exsucare, to extract the juice—L. ex, out, and sueus, succtis, juice; hence, sewer, sewage.] To let off the water from; to drain a pond for taking the fish.

Sew (su), v.i. To ooze out [Provincial.] A viand; a kind of pottage. Gower.

Sewage (su'aj), n. [From tew, to drain, perhaps directly from sewer.] l. The matter which passes through the drains, conduits, or sewers, leading away from human habitations singly, or from houses collected Into villages, towns, and cities. It is made up of excreted matter, solid and liquid, the water necessary to carry such away, and the waste water of domestic operations, together with the liquid waste products of manufacturing operations, and generally much of the surface drainage water of the area in which the conveying sewers are situated.—2. A systematic arrangement of sewers, drains, Ac, in a city, town, etc.; the general drainage of a city, etc., by sewers; sewerage (which see).

Sewel (su'el), «. [Probably for shewcll or showell. from shew, Mote] In hunting, a scarecrow, generally made of feathers, hung up to prevent deer from entering a place.

Sewer (suer),n. [Fromww,todrain;O.Fr. rsstiier.essvyer, a drain, a conduit] A subterranean channel or canal formed in cities, towns, and other places to carry off superfluous water, soil, and other matters. In England, Courts of Commissioners tfSewerg are temporary tribunals with authority over all defences, whether natural or artificial, situate by the coasts of the sea, all rivers, water-courses, etc., either navigable or entered by the tide, or which directly or indirectly communicate with such rivers.

Sewer t (su'er), n. [From sew, to follow, to bring on and remove meats at table; O.Fr. sewer, squire. J An officer who serves up a feast and arranges the diBhes, and who also provides water for the hands of the guests.

Clap me a clean towel about you, like a sruer. and bareheaded march afore it with a good confidence. B. yonson.

Sewer (so'Sr), n. One who sews or uses the needle.

Sewerage (su'6r-aj), n. 1. The system of sewers or subterranean conduits for receiving and carrying off the superfluous water and filth of a city; as, the sewerage of the city of London. See SEWEK. — 2. The matter carried off by sewers. Called also Sewage.—Sewerage is generally applied to the system of sewers, and Sewage to the matter carried off.


Sewln, Sewen (su/in, sii'en). n. A fish which has often been regarded as a variety of the salmon trout, salmon peal, or bull trout, but is regarded by Couch as a distinct species, the silver salmon (Saltno cambrieus). Sewing (so'ing). n. 1. The act or occupation of sewing or using the needle.—2. That which is sewed by the needle.—3. pi. Compound tlireads of silk wound, cleaned, doubled, and thrown, to be used for sewing. Sewing -machine (sd'iiig-ma-shen), n. A machine for sewing or stitching cloth, etc., now in extensive use.and largely superseding sewing by hand Sewmg-machinesareof several classes; as, (a) those in which the needle ii passed completely through the work, as in hand-sewing; (6) those making a chainMitch, which U wrought by the crotchet hook, or by an eye-pointed needle and auxiliary hook; (c) those making a fair stitch on one side, the upper thread being interwoven by another thread below; (d) those making the lock-Hitch, the same on both aides The modifications, improvements, and additions made to the sewing-machine since its introduction are very numerous. It has now been adapted to produce almost all kinds of stitching which can be doue by the hand.

Be wing-needle (sd'ing-ue-dl), n. A needle used in sewing. Sewster t (sd'ster), n. A woman that sews; a seamstress. B. Jonson, Sex (sek.H). n. [Fr. sexe, from L. texus (for sectus), a sex, from seco, to cut, to separate. J L The distinction between male and female, or that property or character by which an animal is male or female. Sexual distinctions are derived from the presence and development of the characteristic generative organs—tcatti and ovary—of the male and female respectively.—2. One of the two divisions of animals formed on the distinction *jf male and female. * Which two great sexes animate the world.' Milton.— 3, In bot. the structure of plants which corresponds to sex in animals, as stamlnate or pistillate; also, «>ne of the groups founded on this distinction. See Sexual. —4. By way of emphasis, womankind; females: generally preceded by the definite article the.

Unhappy text whose beauty is your snare. Dryden. Shame is hard to be overcome; but if the sex once get the better of it, it gives tbem afterwards no more trouble. Garth,

Sex (seks). A Latin prefix signifying six. Sexagecuple (sek-saj'e-ku-pl), a. Proceeding by sixties; as, a sexagecuple ratio.

Pop. £nry.

Sexagenarian (seksVje-na"ri-an), n, [See below J A person aged sixty or between sixty and seventy.

Sexagenarian (sekB/a-Je-na"ri-an), o. Sixty years old; sexagenary.

I count it strange, and hard to understand.

That nearly all young poets should write old;

That Pope was tcx<i£cn.irian at sixteen.

And beardless Byron academical. E. />'. Browning.

Sexagenary(sek-saj'en-a-ri), a. [L. sexagenarius, from sexaginta sixty, from sex, six] Pertaining to the number sixty; composed of or proceeding by sixties.— Sexagenary arithmetic, that which proceeds according to the number sixty See Sexagesimal.

Sexagenary (sek-saj'en-a-ri), n. 1. A sexagenarian.

The lad can be as dowff as a jexn^Miiry like myself. Str IV, Scott.

1 A thing composed of sixty parts or containing sixty.

Sexageslma (seks-a-jes'l-ma). n, [L. sexagenmut, sixtieth.] The second Sunday before Le nt. so called as being about the sixtieth day before Easter.

Sexagesimal (seks-a-jes'i-mal), n. A sexagesimal fraction. SeeunderSKXAQESiMALa.

Sexagesimal (seks-a-jes'i-mal), a. Sixtieth; pertaining to the number sixty.—Sexagesimal or sexagenary arithmetic, a method of computation by sixties, as that which is osed in dividing minutes into seconds.— Sexagesimal fractions, or sexagesimals, fractions whose denominators proceed in the ratio of sixty; as, A. ,As. Vt/bti- The denominator is sixty or its multiple. These fractions are called also astronomical fractions, because formerly there were no others used in astronomical calculations. They are still retained in the division of the circle, and of time, where the degree or hour is divided into sixty minutes, the minutes into sixty seconds, and so on.

Sexailatry (seks'a-na-ri), a. Consisting of six or sixes; sixfold [Rare.]


Sexangle (seks'ang-gl), n. In geom. a figure having six angles, and, consequently, six sides; a hexagon.

Sexangled, Sexangular(seks'ong-gld, seksang/gu-ler), a. Having six angles; hexagoual.

Sexangularlv (seks-ang'gu-ler-li), adv. With six angles; hexagonally.

Sexdedmal (seks-des'i-mal). a. [L. sex, six, and decern, ten. ] In crystal, having sixteen faces: applied to a crystal when the prism or middle part has six faces, and the two summits taken together ten faces, or the reverse.

Sexdlgitlsm (Beks-dij'i-tizm), n, (L sex. six, &nt\aigitus, a finger or toe. J The state of having six fingers on one hand or six toes on one foot

Sexdlgltlst (seks-dij'i-tist), n. One who has six fingers on one hand or six toes on one foot

Sexduodeclmal (seks'du-6-des"i-roaI), a. [L. sex, six, and duodecim, twelve.] In crystal, having eighteen faces: applied to a crystal when the prism or middle part has six faces, and two summits together twelve faces

Sexed (sekst), a. Having sex: used in composition. 'Gentle sexed.' Beau, d: Fl.

Sexenary (seks'e-na-ri), a. Proceeding by Bixes: applied specifically to an arithmetical system whose base is six.

Sexennial (sek-sen'ni-al), a. [I. sex, .-i\. and annus, year.] Lastfng six years, or happening once in six years.

Sexennlally (sek-sen'nl-al-li), adv. Once in six years.

Sexfid, Sexlfid (seks'fld, seks'i-fld), a. [L. sex, Bix, and findo, fidi, to divide.] In bot. six-cleft; as, a sexfid calyx or nectary.

Sexfoll (seks'foil), ?i. [L. sex, six, and folium, a leaf.] A plant or flower with six leaves.

Sexhlndman (Beks-hind'manX n. In early Eng. hist one of the middle thanes, who were valued at 6009.

Sexillion (sek-sirii-on), n. Sextillion.

Sexisyilable (seks'i sil-la-bl), n. [L. sex, six, and K. syllable.] A word having six syllables

Sexlvalent (sek-siv'a-lent).a. In chem, having an equivalence of six; capable of combining with or becoming exchanged for six hydrogen atoms.

Sexless (seks'Ies), a. Having no sex; destitute of the characteristics of sex. Shelley.

Sexlocular (seks-lok'u-ler), a. [L. sex, six, and loculus, a cell.] In bot. six-celled; having six cells for seeds; as, a sexlocular pericarp.

Sexfy t (seksli), a. Belonging to a characteristic of sex; sexual.

Should I ascribe any of these things to my texly weaknesses I were not worthy to live.

Queen Elizabeth.

Sext, Sexte (sekst, seks'ti), n. [I. sextus, sixth.] In the R. Cath. Ch. one of the canonical hours of prayer, usually recited at noon; the sixth hour of the day. Sextain (seks'tan), n, [From L. sex, six.] A stanza of six lines.

Sextans (seks'tanz). n. [L ] 1. In Rom. antiq. a coin, the sixth part of an as.—2. In astron. the sextant

Sextant (seks'tant), n. [L. sextans, sextantis. a sixth part ] 1. In math, the sixth part of a circle. Hence — 2, An improved form of quadrant, capable of measuring angles of 120s. It consists of a frame of metal, ebony, Ac, stiffened by cross-braces, and having an arc embracing 60* of a circle. It has two mirrors, one of which is fixed to a movable index, and various other appendages. It is capable of very general application, but it is chiefly employed as a nautical instrument for measuring the altitudes of celestial objects, and their apparent angular distances. The principle of the sextant, and of reflecting instruments in general, depends upon an elementary theorem in optics, viz. if an object be seen by repeated reflection from two mirrors which are perpendicular to the same plane, the angular distance of the object from its image 7s double the inclination of the mirrors. The annexed figure shows the usual construction of the sextant. QPis the graduated arc, Bl the movable Index, B mirror fixed to the index, A mirror (half-silvered, half-transparent) fixed to the arm, Qg' coloured glasses, that may be interposed to the sun's rays. To find the angle between two stars hold the instrument so that the one is seen directly through telescope T and the unsilvered portion of the mirror, and

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angle required; half decrees being marked as degrees, because what is measured by the index is the angle between the mirrors and this is half that between the objects. • Box sextant, a surveyor's instrument for measuring angles, and for filling in the tietails of a survey, when the theodolite is used for the long lines, and laying out the larger triangles. — 3. In astron. a constellation situated across the equator and south of the ecliptic.

Sextary (seks'ta-ri), n. [L. sextarius, from sextus, sixth, from sex, Bix.] An ancient Roman dry and liquid measure containing about a pint

Sextary t (seks'ta-ri), n. The same as Sacristy. Sextary land, land given to a church or religious house for maintenance of a sexton or sacristan. Also written Sextery.

Sextet, Sextetto (seks'tet, seks-tet'td), ». Same as Sestet.

Sextile (seka'til), a. [L. sextus, sixth, from sex, six.] Denoting the aspect or position of two planets when distant from each other 60 degrees or two signs. This position is marked thus s|c

The moon receives the dusky light we discern in its textile aspect from the earth s benignity.

GLittville. I'sed also as a noun.

Sextillion (seks-tll'li-on), n. [From L. sex, six, and E. million.) According to English notation, a million raised to the sixth power; a number represented by a unit with thirtysix ciphers annexed; according to French notation, by a unit with twenty-one ciphers annexed. Spelled also Sexillion.

Sexto (seks'to).n. pi. Sextos (seks'toz). [L.] A book formed by folding each sheet into six leaves.

SextO-decimo (seks-td-des'i-m6), n. [L. sextus decimus, sixteenth — sextus, sixth, and decimus, tenth.] A book, pamphlet, or the like, folded so that each sheet makes sixteen leaves; the size of the book thus folded. Usually indicated thus, 16rao, 16*. Used also adjectively. Called also Sixteenmo.

Sexton (seks'ton), n. [Contr. from sacristan (which see) ] An under officer of the church, whose business, in ancient times, was to take care of the vessels, vestments. Arc, belonging to the church. The greater simplicity of Protestant ceremonies has rendered this duty one of small importance, and in the Church of England the sexton* duties now consist in taking care of the church generally, to which is added the duty of digging and Ailing up graves in the churchyard. The sexton may be at the same time the parish clerk.

Sextonryt (seks'ton-rl), n. Sextonship. Berners.

Sextonship (seks'ton-ship), n. The office of a sexton.

Sextry t (seks'trl), n. Some as Sacristy.

Sextuple (seks'tu-pl), a. [L.L. sextuplus, from L. sex, six.] 1. Sixfold; six times as much.—2. In miwtc.applied to music divided into bars containing six equal notes or their equivalents, generally considered a sort of compound common time.

Sextuplet (seks'tu-plet), n. In music, a double triplet, aix notes to be performed in the time of four.

Sexual (seks'u-al),a. [L. sexualis (Fr. wxuet), from sexus, sex.] Pertaining to sex or the sexes; distinguishing the sex; denoting what is peculiar to the distinction and office of male and female; pertaining to the genital organs; as, sexual characteristics; sexual diseases; sexual intercourse, connection, or commerce.—Sexual system. In bot. a system of classification; the method founded on the distinction of sexes in plants, as male and

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female. Called also Artificial System, Linmean System. See Linn.kan.

Sexual! st (seks'u-al-ist), n. One who believes and maintains the doctrine of sexes in plants; or one who classifies plants by the sexual system.

Sexuality (seka-u-al'i-ti), n. The state or quality of being distinguished by sex.

Sexualize (seka'u-al-iz), v.t. To give sex to; to distinguish into sexes. 'SexuaUzing, as it were, all objects of thought* Whitney.

Sexually (seks'u-al-li),adtf. In asexual manner or relation.

Sey (sy), n. [Fr. saye.] A sort of woollen cloth; say. [Scotch]

Sey (si), n. The opening in a garment through which the arm passes; the seam in a coat or gown which runs under the arm. [Scotch]

Bey (sy). v.t. [L. G sijen, A. Sax. sthan, scon, to strain; Icel. sia, to filter.] To strain, as milk. [Scotch.]

Seye,t pret of we. Saw. Chaucer.

'Sfoot (sfut), interj. An imprecation abbreviated from God's foot

'Sfoot, 111 learn to conjure and raise devils. Shak.

Sforzando, Sforzato (sfor-tsan'do. sfor-tsii't&). [It, forcing, forced] In music, a term written over a note or notes to signify that they are to be emphasized more strongly than they would otherwise be in the course of the rhythm. Generally contracted sf.

Sfregazzl (sfra-gat'si), n. [It. qfreggare, to rub—L. ex, and/ rub.] In painting, a mode of glazing adopted by Titian and other old masters for soft shadows of flesh, Ac, and which consisted in dipping the finger in the colour and drawing it once along the surface to be painted with an even movement. Fairholt.

Sfumato (sfu-ma'td), a. [It, smoky.] In painting, a terra applied to that style of painting wherein the tints are so blended that the outline is scarcely perceptible, the whole presenting an indistinct misty appearance.

SgraffittO (sgraf-fS'to), a. [It, scratched.] Applied to a species of painting In which the ground is prepared with dark stucco, on which a white coat is applied; this is afterwards chipped away, so aa to form the design from the dark ground underneath.

Shabt (shab), ».*. [See Shabby.] To play mean tricks; to retreat or skulk away meanly or clandestinely. [Old cant]

Shab (shab). v. t. [See Shabby. ] To rub or scratch, as a dog or cat scratching itself.

Shab (shab), n. [See Shabby] A disease incident to sheep; a kind of itch which makes the wool fall off; scab.

Shabbed t (shab'ed), a. Mean; shabby.

They mostly had short hair, and went in a shabbed condition, and looked rattier like prentices.


Shabbily (shab'i-li). adv. In a shabby manner; as,(a) with threadbareorwornclothes; as, to be clothed shabbily. (6) Meanly; in a despicable manner.

Shabbiness (shab'i-nes), n. The quality of being shabby; the state of being threadbare or much worn; meanness; paltriness.

Shabble (shab'l), n. [A form of sabre, D. mi fir I, G. mi I'd, a sabre. ] A crooked sword or hanger; a cutlass. [Scotch.]

Shabby (shab'i), a. [A softened form of scabby; Prov. E. shabby, itchy, mangy, from shab, itch; A Sax. sceah, a scab, sceabig, scabby, mangy. See SCAB.] L Bagged; threadbare; torn or worn. 'The necessity of wearing shabby coats and dirty shirta.' Macaulay.—

2. Clothed with threadbare or much-worn garments. 'The dean was so shabby.' Stoi/t.

3. Mean; paltry; despicable; aa, a shabby fellow; shabby treatment.

You're shabby fellows—true—but poets still.
And duly seated on the immortal lull. Byron.

Shabrack (Bhab'rak), n. [G. sthabrackv, Fr. chabraquc. Hung, csabrdg, Turk, tsht'tprdk.] The cloth furniture of a cavalry officer's charger.

Shack (shak), n. [In meanings 1 and 2 from tthake: in 3 more probably a form of shag.} 1. Grain shaken from the ripe ear, eaten l>y bogs, <ftc., after harvest [Provincial English ]—2. Beech, oak, <vc, mast for swfne's food. [Provincial English.]—3. A liberty of winter pasturage. — Common nf shack, the right of persons occupying lands lying together in the same common field, to turn out their cattle after harvest to feed promiscuously in that field.—i. A shiftless fellow; a sturdy beggar; a vagabond. [Provincial English.]

Shack (shak),t>. i. [Prov. E. and 8c., to shake. See above. ] 1. To be shed or fall, as corn at harvest—2. To feed in stubble, or upon the waste corn of the field. —3. To rove about, as a stroller or beggar. [A provincial word.)

Shackatory t (ahak'a-to-ri), n. [For shake a Tory] An Irish hound. Dekker.

Shack-bolt (Bhak'bolt), n. In her. a fetter such as might be put on the wrists or ankles of pri sonera

Shackle (shakl), n. [Generally used in the plural] [A. Sax. scacttt, sceacul, a shackle, from scacan, sceacan, to shake; D. schakel, a link of a chain. It probably meant originally a loose, dangling fastening.] 1. A fetter, gyve, handcuff, or something else that confines the limbs so as to restrain the use of them or prevent free motion. 'Bolts and shackles.' Shak.—2. That which obstructs or embarrasses free action.

The shackles of an old love straiten'd him.

Tennyson. It is when Milton escapes from the shackles of the dialogue, when he is discharged from the labour or uniting two incongruous styles, when he is at liberty to indulge his choral raptures without reserve, that he rises even above himself. Macaulay.

3. Naut. (a) a link in a chain-cable fitted with a movable bolt, so that the chain can be separated, (b) A ring on the port through which the port-bar is passed to close the port-hole effectually.—1 A link for coupling railway-carriages, Ac. [American.]—5.t A fetter-like band or chain worn on the legs or arras for ornament

He told me . . . that they had alt ear-rings made

of gold and %o\d-shaci/es about their legs and arms. Dampicr.

6. The hinged and curved bar of a padlock by which it is hung to the staple. Shackle (shnk'l). v.t pret A pp. shackled; ppr. shackling. 1. To chain; to fetter; to tie or confine the limbs of, so as to prevent free motion.

To lead him shackled and exposed to scorn
Of gathering crowds. J. Philips.

% To bind or confine so aa to obstruct or embarrass action.

You must not shackle him with rules about indifferent matters. Locke.

3. To join by a link or chain, as railway-carriages. [American.]

Shackle (shak'l),n. [See Shack, n.J Stubble. [Provincial English.]

Shackle-bar (shackl-barl, n. The United States name for the coupling bar or link of a railway carriage.

Shackle-bolt (shak'l-bdH), n. A shackle; a gyve; a shack-bolt

'What device does he bear on his shield T* asked Ivanhoe.—' Something resembling a bar of iron, and a padlock painted blue on the black shield.'—'A fetterlock and shackle-bait axvac' said Ivanhoe; 'I know not who may bear the device, but well I ween it might now be mine own.' Sir IV. Scott.

Shackle-bone (shakl-bonX « [Lit. the bane on which shackles are put; L.G. shake bein.] The wrist. [Scotch.]

Shaddock t (shaklok), n. A shackle-bolt; a sort of shackle. W. Browne.

Shack! y (shak'l-i), a. Shaky; ricketty. [T'nitea States.]

Shad (shad), n. sing, and pi. [Prov. G. schade, a shad; comp. Arm. sgaaan, W. ysgadan, a herring.] A teleostean fish of the genus Alosa, family Clupeidas, which inhabits the sea near the mouths of large rivers, and in the spring ascends them to deposit its spawn. It attains a length of 3 feet, and Is distinguished by the absence nf sensible teeth, and by an irregular spot behind the gills. Two species of shad are found off the British coast, the Twaite (.1. vulgaris) and the Allice shad (A.Jinta), but their flesh is dry and not much esteemed here. In the United States a species of shad, plentiful in the Hudson, Delaware, Chesapeake, and St. Lawrence, is much esteemed and is consumed in great quantities in the fresh state.

Shad-bush (shad'bush), n. A name of a shrub or small tree common in the Northern United States (Amclanchier canadensis), so called from its flowering in April and May when the shad ascend the rivers. The fruit is edible and ripens in June, whence the name June-berry. Called also Service-berry.

Shaddock (shad'dok), n. [After Captain Shaddock, who first bronght it to the West Indies, early in the eighteenth century.] A tree and its fruit, which is a large species of orange, the produce of the Citrus decumana, a native of China and Japan. The fruit weighs sometimes from 10 to 20 lbs., Is

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Shaddock Tree [Citrns decumana).

Shade (shadX n. [A. Sax. sceadu, shade, shadow. See Shadow.] 1. A comparative obscurity caused by the interception, ratting off, or interruption of the rays of light; dimness or gloom caused by interception of light Shade differs from shadow, as it implies no particular form or definite limit; whereas a shadow represents in form the object which intercepts the light Hence. when we say, let us resort to the shade of a tree, we hare no thought of form or size, aa of course we have when we speak of measuring a pyramid or other object by its shadow.

The f.iinty knights were scorched, and knew not

where To run for shelter, for no shade was near. Dryden.

2. Darkness; obscurity. In this sense used often in the plural. 'Solemn shades of endless night' Shak.

The shades of night were falling fast. Longfellow.

3. A shaded or obscure place; a place sheltered from the sun's rays, as a grove or close wood; hence, a secluded retreat

Let us seek out some desolate shade, and there Weep our sad bosoms empty. Shak.

4. A screen; something that intercepts light, heat, dust, dsc; as, (a) a coloured glass in a sextant or other optical instrument for solar observations, (b) A hollow conic frustum of paper or raetal surrounding the flame of a lamp, in order to confine the light within a given area, (c) A hollow globe of ground glass or other translucent materia], used for diffusing the light of a lamp, gas jet. Ac (a*) A hollow cylinder perforated with holes, used to cover a nightlight

She had bronght a rushlight and shade, which. with praiseworthy; precaution against fire, she had stationed in a basin ou the floor. Dickens.

(e) A hollow glass covering for protecting ornaments, Ac., from dust. 'Spar figures under glass shades.' Mayhew. (J) A device for protecting the eyes from the direct raya of the sun or artificial light.—6. Protection; shelter; cover.—6. In painting, the dark part of a picture; deficiency or absence of illumination.

'Tis every painter's art to hide from sight.
And cast in shades, what seen would not delight.

7. Degree or gradation of light

White, red. yellow, blue, with their several degrees or shades and mixtures, as green, come only m by the eyes. Locke.

s. A small or scarcely perceptible degree or amount; as, coffee is a shade lower. 'Blender shade of doubt' Temtyeon.—Q. A shadow. * Since every one hath, every one, one cAarfe.' Shak. [Poetical. ]

Envy will merit, as its shade, pursue. Pofe.

10. The soul, after its separation from the body: so called because the ancients supposed it to be perceptible to the sight, not to the touch; a spirit; a ghost; as, the shade* of departed heroes.

Swift as thought the flitting shade
Through air his momentary journey made.



11. pi The abode of spirits; the inrisible world of the ancients; hades: with the.

Virgil, who represents him in the shades surrounded by a crowd of disciples. IV. Mure.

Shade (shad), v.t. pret. A pp. shaded; ppr. shading. 1. To shelter or screen from light by intercepting its rays; to shelter from the light and heat of the snn; as, a large tree shades the plants under its branches; shaded vegetables rarely come to perfection.

I went to crop the sylvan scenes.
And shade our altars with their leafy greens.
Dry den.

2. To overspread with darkness or obscurity; to obscure. 'Bright orient pearl, alack, too

ttiuely shaded.' Shale.

Thou shad's!
The full blaze of thy beams. Milton.

X To shelter; to hide. 'Sweet leaves, shade folly.' Shak. 'Ere In onr own house 1 do shade my head.' Shak. —4. To cover from injury; to protect; to screen.

Leave not the faithful side That cave thee being, still shades thee and protects. Milton

5. In drawing and painting, (a) to paint in obscure colours; to darken. (6) To mark with gradations of colour. —6. To cover with a shade or screen; to furnish with a shade or something that Intercepts light, heat, dust, etc.

He was standing with some papers m his hand by a table with thaded candles on it. Dickens.

Shade-Ash (shad'Ash), n. See Maigrk. Shadeful (shad'ful), a. Shady. Drayton. Shadeless (shadles), a. Without shade.

A gap in the hills, an opening

SMadeless and shelterless. Wordsworth.

Shader (shad'erX n. One who or that which shades.

Shad-frog (*had'frog).n. A very handsome species of American frog, liana Halecina, so named from its making its appearance on land at the same time the shads visit the shore. It is very active and lively, making leaps of from 8 to 10 feet in length.

Shadily (sha'di-li), adv. In a shady manner; umhrageously.

ShadinesB (dia'di-nes), n. The state of being shady; umbrageousness; as, the shadinee* of the forest.

Shading (shad'ing), n. 1. The act or processor making a shade; interception of light; obscuration.— 2. That which represents the effect of light and shade in a drawing; the filling up of an outline.

Shadoof, Shaduf (sha-duf), n. A contrivance extensively employed in Egypt for raising water from the Nile for the purpose of irrigation. It consists of a long stout rod suspended on a frame at about one-fifth of


Raising water by Shadoofs.

its length from the end. The short end is weighted so as to serve as the counterpoise of a lever, and from the long end a bucket of leather or earthenware is suspended by a rope The worker dips the bucket in the river, and, aided by the counterpoise weight. empties ft into a hole dug on the bank, from which a runnel conducts the water to the lands to be irrigated. Sometimes two shadoofs are employed side by side. When the waters of the river are low two (or more) shadoofs are employed, the one above the other. The lower lifts the water from the


river and empties it into a hole on the bank, the upper dips into this hole, and empties the water Into a hole at the top of the bank, whence it is conveyed by a channel to its destination.

Shadow (shad'6), n. [A. Sax. .scadv. sceadu, a shadow; O Sax. scado, Goth, skadus, D. schaduw, O.H.G. scato, Mod. G. schatten— shade, shadow, from a root ska. skad, Skr. chhad, to cover; comp. Or. skotos, darkness.] 1. Shade within defined limits; the figure of a body projected on the ground, Ac., by the Interception of light; obscurity or deprivation of light apparent on a plane, and representing the form of the body which intercepts the rays of light; as, the shadow of a man, of a tree, of a tower. Shadow, in option, may be defined a portion of space from which light is intercepted by an opaque body. Every opaque object ou which light falls is accompanied with a shadow on the side opposite to the luminous body, and the shadow appears more intense in proportion as the illumination is stronger. An opaque object illuminated by the sun, or any other source of light which is not a single point, must have an infinite number of shadows, though not distinguishable from each other, and hence the shadow of an opaque body received on a plane is always accompanied by & penumbra, or partial shadow, the complete shadow being called the umbra See PENUMBRA.— 2. Darkness; shade; obscurity.

Night's sable shadows from the ocean rise.

Sir jf. Denhatn.

S. Shade; the fainter light and coolness caused by the interception of the light and heat of the sun's rays.

In secret shadow from the sunny ray

On a sweet bed of lilies softly laid. Spenser

4. Shelter; cover; protection; security.

He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty. Ps. xci. i.

5.t Obscure place; secluded retreat 'To secret shadows I retire.' Dryden.—6. Dark part of a picture; shade; representation of comparative deficiency or absence of light.

After great lights there must be great shadows.

7. Anything unsubstantial or unreal, though having the deceptious appearance of reality; an image produced by the imagination.

* What shadows we are and what shadows we pursue.' Burke.

Shadows to-night Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard Than can the substance often thousand soldiers. Shah.

8. A spirit; a ghost; a shade. 'If we shadows have offended.' Shak. 'A shadow like an angel/ Shak —9. An imperfect and faint representation; adumbration; a preflgurntion; a foreshowing; a dim bodying forth.

The law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never. &c. Heb. x. i. In the glorious lights of heaven we perceive a shadow of hut divine countenance. Raleigh.

10. Inseparable companion; that which follows or attends a person or thing like a shadow. 'Sin and her shadow, Death.' Milton. 11. Type; mystical representation.

* Types and shadows of that destin'd seed.' Hilton —12. Slight or faint appearance. * No variableness, neither shadow of turning.' Jam. i. 17.—18. A reflected image, as in a mirror or in water; hence, any image or portrait.

Narcissus so himself himself forsook.

And died to kiss his shadow in the brook. Shah.

14. An uninvited guest, introduced to a feast by one who is invited: a translation of the Latin umbra.

I must not have my board pester'd with shadows. That under other men's protection break in Without invitement. Massingtr.

—Shadow of death, approach of death or dire calamity; terrible darkness. Jobiii. 5. Shadow (shad'6), v.t. 1. To overspread with obscurity or shade; to intercept light or heat from; to shade.

The warlike elf, much wonder'd at this tree,
So fair and great, that shadow'd nil the ground.

2. To cloud; to darken; to obscure; to throw a gloom over. * The shadow'd livery of the burnish'd sun.' Shak.

I roust not see the face I love thus shadow'd.
Beau &■ Ft.

3. To conceal; to hide; to screen. [Rare]

Let every soldier hew him down a bough.

And bear't before him; thereby shall we shadow

The number of our host. Shah.


4. To protect; to screen from danger; to shroud. 'Shadowing their right under your wings of war. 'Shak.— 6. To mark with slight gradations of colour or light; to shade. Peacham. 6. To paint in obscure colours.

1 Void spaces which are deeply shadowed.' Dryden.—7. To represent faintly or imperfectly; to body forth.

Augustus is shadowed in the person of /Enea ...

8. To represent typically; as, the healing power of the brazen serpent shadoweth the efficacy of Christ's righteousness. In this sense the word is frequently followed by forth; as, to shadow forth the gospel dispensation.—9. To follow closely; to attend as closely as a shadow, especially in a secret or unobserved manner.

Shadowiness (shad'6-i-nes), n. State of being shadowy or unsubstantial.

Shadowing (shad'o-ing), n. 1. Shade or gradation of light and colour; shading.

More broken scene made up of an infinite variety of inequalities and shadowines that naturally arise from an agreeable mixture of hills, groves, and valleys. Addison.

2 In painting, the art of correctly representing the shadows of objects.

Shadowish (ahad'&ish), a. Shadowy. 'Our religion being that truth whereof theirs was but a shadowish prefigurative resemblance.' Hooker. [Eare.] Shadowless (shad'6-les), a. Having no shadow. R. PoUok.

Shadowy (shad'6-i), a. [A. Sax. sceadwig.

See Shadow.] 1. Full of shade; causing

shade; accompanied by shade; dark; gloomy.

'Shadowy forests.' Shak. 'This shadowy

desert, unfrequented woods.' Shak.

Tell them, that by command, ere yet dim night

Her shadowy cloud withdraws, I am to haste.


2. Faintly representative; typical. * Those shadowy expiations weak, the blood of bulls and goats.' Milton.—3. Unsubstantial; unreal. 'His (the goblin's) shadowy Hail,' Milton.

Milton has brought into his poems two actors of a shadowy and fictitious nature, in the persons of Sin and Death. Addison.

4. Dimly seen; obscure; dim.

And summons from the shadowy past

The forms that once have been. Longfellow.

6. Indulging in fancies or dreamy imaginations.

Wherefore those dim looks of thine,
Shadowy dreaming Adeline! Tennyson.

Shadrach (sha'drak), n. [From Shadraeh, one of the three persons on whose bodies the fiery furnace had no power, mentioned in Dan. ill 26,27.] A mass of iron in which the operation of smelting has failed of its intended effect

Shady (sha'di), a. 1. Abounding with shade or shades; casting or causing shade. 'And Amaryllis fills the shady groves.' Dryden.

2. Sheltered from the glare of light or sultry heat.

Cast it also that you may have rooms shady for summer and warm for winter. Bason.

3. Such as cannot well bear the light; of doubtful morality or character; equivocal; as, a shady character; a shady transaction. [Slang.]

Our newspapers have not yet got the length nf sending an emissary to the Treasury to ask Mr. Gladstone iT he does not think the Eweime appointment a shady business. Sat. Rev.

Shafflet (shaf'ft), t.i [A form of shuffle.\ To hobble or limp.

Shafflert (shaf'fl-er),n, A hobbler; one that limps.

Shaflites(shaf'i-its),n.j>r [From the founder, called Al-shafei.] One of the four sects of the Sunnites or orthodox Mohammedans.

Shaft (shaft) /t. [6. schacht, Dan. skakt, the shaft of a mine; comp. Sc. sheugh, a trench, a shaft, ns in coal-sheuyh. As to change from guttural to labial comp. laugh.] In mining, a narrow deep pit or opening made into the earth as the entrance to a mine or coal-field, by which the workers descend, and through which the mineral is brought to the surface. Shafts are also formed to allow the passage of pure air into a coal-mine, or for drawing up through them the foul air from the workings. The former is named a downcast shaft, the latter an upcast.

Shaft (shaft), n. [A. Sax. sceaft, a dart, an arrow, a spear, a pole; Icel. skaft, skapt, an arrow or dart, a handle; Dan. skaft, a handle or haft, a column; D. and O. schaft, a shaft, pole, handle. Usually regarded as lit. the thing shaped or smoothed by shaving or scraping, from A. Sax. scafan, to shave.

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to scrape; but this is doubtful. Com]). L scapus, a shaft, scipio, a staff; Or. $kaptron, skiptron, a staff.] 1. An arrow; a missile weapon. 'Shaft* of gentle satire, kin to charity.' Tennyson.

So lofty was the pile, a Parthian bow
With vigour drawn must send the sfutft below.

2. A body of a long cylindrical shape; astern, ■talk, trunk, or the like; the columnar part of anything; specifically, in arch, (a) the body of a column between the base and the capital; the fust or trunk. It always diminishes in diameter, sometimes from the bottom, sometimes from a quarter, and sometimes from a third of its height, aud sometimes it has a slight swelling, called the entasis, in the lower part of its height. In the Ionic and Corinthian columns the difference of the upper and lower diameters of the shaft varieB from a fifth to a twelfth of the lower diameter. See Column. (6) The spire of a steeple, (c) The part of a chimney which rises above the roof, (rf) In middle-age architecture, one of those small columns which are clustered round pillars, or used in the jambs of doors and windows, in arcades, &c.—& The interior space of a blastfurnace. —4. The stem or stock of a feather or quill.—5. The handle of certain tools, utensils, instruments, or the like; as, the shaft of a hammer, axe, whip, Ac—6. A long lath at each end of the heddles of a loom.—7. In mach. (a) a kind of large axle; as, the shaft of a fly-wheel; the shaft of a steamer's screw or paddles; the shaft or crank-axle of a locomotive. (6) A revolving bar or connected bars serving to convey the force which is generated in the engine or other prime mover to the different working machines, for which purpose it is provided with drums and belts, or with cog-wheels — 8. One of the bars between a pair of which a horse is harnessed to a vehicle; a thill; also, the pole or tongue of a carriage, chariot, &c. —To make a shaft or a bolt on't, a proverbial expression put by Shakspere into the mouth of Slender {Merry Wires, iii. 4) signifying to take the risk come what may. The shaft was the arrow of the long-bow, the bolt that of the cross-bow.

Shaft-alley (shaft'al-li), n. A passage in a screw steamer between the after bulk-head of the engine-room and the shaft-pipe around the propeller shaft, and allowing access thereto.

Shaft-bender (shaffbend-er), n. A person who bends timber by steam or pressure.

Shaft-coupling (shaft'kup-ling), n. A device for connecting two or more lengths of shafting together. See Coupling.

Shafted (shaffed), a. 1. Having shafts; ornamented with shafts or small clustering pillars

The lordly hall itself is lighted by a fine Gothic window of shafted stone at one end. Sir IV. Scott.

2. Having a handle: a term used in heraldry to denote that a spear-head has a handle to it.

Shaft-horse (shaf t'hors), n. The horse that goes in the shafts or thills of a cart, chaise, or gig.

Shafting (Bhaft'ing), n. In mach. the system of shafts connecting a machine with the prime mover, and through which motion is communicated to the former by the latter. See Shaft.

Shaftment, t ShaftmanKshaf t'ment.shaft'man), n. [A. Sax. sctrfttnund scaft, a shaft, and mund, a hand.] A span, a measure of about 6 inches.

The thrust mist her, and in a tree it stroke
And entered in the same a shaftman deepe.


Shag (shag), n. [A. Sax. sceacga. a brush of coarse hair; probably allied to Icel. skegg, Dan. skiarg, a beard, and perhaps connected with Icel. skaga, to stand out. to be prominent; skagi, a promontory] 1. Coarse hair or nap, or rough woolly hair. 'True Witney broadcloth, with its shag unshorn.' Gag—2. A kind of cloth having a long coarse nap.— 3. The green cormorant or crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax cristatus). At the commencement of spring there rises on the middle of the head a fine tuft of outspread feathers, about 14 inch high, capable of erection, and in that state presenting a toupet or large plume. On the occiput also are ten or twelve rather long Biibulate feathers—4. A kind of tobacco cut into fine shreds.

Shag (shag), a. Hairy; shaggy. 'Fetlocks shag and long' Shak Shag tobacco. See SHAO, 4.

Shag (shag), v.t 1. To make rough or hairy.—2. To make rough or shaggy; to deform.

Brigand* who live in mountain caverns shagged with underwood, Fraser's Mag.

Shag-bark (shag'bark), n. In the United States, a popular name for Carya alba, a kind of hickory. Some call it Shell-bark.

Shag-eared (shag'erd), a. Having shaggy


Thou liest, thou shag-ear'd villain '. Shak,

[Some editions read here (Macbeth, iv. 2) shag-hair'd, an epithet occurring also in II Henry VI. Hi. 1.]

Shagged (shag'ed), a. 1. Rough with long hair or wool.

Lean are their looks, and shagged is their hair.

2. Rough as with wood; rugged. Shagglness, Shaggedness (shag'i-nes,

shag'ed-nes), n. The state of being shaggy;

roughness with long loose hair or wool. Shaggy (shagl), a. 1. Rough with long hair

or wooL

A lion's hide he wears,
About his shoulders hangs the shaggy skin.


2 Rough; rugged; as, the shaggy tops of the hills. Milton.

Shag-haired (shagTiard), a. Having long shaggy hair. Shak.

Shagreen (sha-gren'), n [Fr. chagrin, Venetian, sagrtn, from Turk, eagri. Per. saghri, Bhagreen] 1. A species of leather prepared without tanning, from horse, ass, and camel skin, its granular appearance being given by imbedding in it, whilst soft, the seeds of a species of chenopodium, and afterwards shaving down the Burface, and then by soaking causing the portions of the skin which had been indented by the seeds to swell up into relief. It is dyed with the green produced by the action of sal ammoniac on copper filings- It is also made of the skins of the shark, sea-otter, seal, Ac. It was formerly much used for watch, spectacle, and instrument cases.— 2. t Chagrin. See Chagrin.

Shagreen, Shagreened (sha-gren', shagrend'). a. Made of the leather called shagreen. 'A shagreen case of lancets.' T. Hook.

Shah (sha), n. [Per., a king, a prince (hence chew).} 1. A title given by European writers to the monarch of Persia, but in his own country he is designated by the compound appellation of Padishah. Shah A'ameh [Per., the Book of Kings], the title of several Eastern works, the most ancient and celebrated of which is the poem in the modern Persian language by the poet Firdousi. It contains the hiBtory of the ancient Persian kings.—2. A chieftain or prince.

Shahl (slia'hi), u. A Persian copper coin of the value of Jd.

Shaik (shak), n. See Sheik.

Shailt (shaf), v.t. [Allied to L.G. schelen, G. shielen, Dan. skiele, to squint, to be oblique.] To walk side wise.

You must walk straight, without skiewing and shailtng to every step you set. SirJi. L'Estrange.

Shake (shak), v.t. pret. shook; pp. shaken (shook obs. or vulgar); ppr. shaking. [A. Sax. scacan, sceacan, pret. sede, sceoc, pp. scacen; Icel. and Sw. skaka, to shake; allied to D. schokken, to shake, to jog; O. schaukeln, to swing. See also Shock.] 1. To cause to move with quick vibrations; to move rapidly one way and the other; to make to tremble, quiver, or shiver; to agitate; as, the wind shake* a tree: an earthquake shakes the hills or the earth.

I shoot my lap, and said, So Cod shake out every man from his house and from his labour, that performeth not this promise, even thus be he shaken out and emptied. Neh. v. 13.

The rapid wheels shake heavens basis. Milton.
Sound the pipe, and cry the slogan—
Let the pibroch shake the air. Aytoun.

2. To move or remove by agitating; to throw off by a Jolting, jerking, or vibrating motion; to rid one's self of: generally with an adverb, as away, off, out, Jtc.

Shake off the golden slumber of repDse. Shak. At sight of thee my heart shakes off its sorrows. Addison.

3. To move from firmness; to weaken the stability of; to endanger; to threaten to overthrow.

When his doctrines grew too strong to be shook by his enemies, they persecuted his reputation.


4. To cause to waver or doubt; to impair

the resolution of; to depress the courage of.

Hts fraud is then thy fear: which plain infers

Thy equal fear, that my firm hope and love

Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced. Milton.

5. To give a tremulous or vibrating sound to; to trill; as, to shake a note in music. — C. To rouse suddenly and with some degree of violence; as. to shake one from a trance. Thomson. In this sense usually with up.

The coachman shook uf his horses, and carried them along the side of the school close. Hughes.

—To shake hands, a phrase which, from the action of friends at meeting and parting, sometimes signifies, (a) to make an agreement or contract; to ratify, confirm, or settle; as, to shake hands over a bargain. (b) To take leave; to part.

Nor can it be safe for a king to tany among them who are shaking hands with their allegiance.

Etkon Basiiikf.

To shake a loose leg, to live a roving, unsettled life. [Vulgar ]

Shake a loose leg at the world as long as you can. If. H. Ainrxvrth.

—To shake off the dust from the feet, to disclaim or renounce solemnly all intercourse with a person or persons.

And whosoever will not receive you, . . . shake off the t-ery dust from your feet for a testimony against them. Lu ix. 5.

—To shake the head, to express disapprobation, reluctance, dissent, refusal, negation, reproach, disappointment, and the like.

For how often I caught her with eyes all wet.
Shaking her head at her son and sighing.


Shake (shak), v.t. To be agitated with a waving or vibratory motion; to tremble; to shiver; to quake; to totter; as, a tree shakes with the wind; the house shakes in a tempest

The foundations of the earth do shake. Is, xxiv. 18.
Under his burning wheels
The steadfast empvrcan shook throughout,
All but the throne itself of God. Milton.

—To shake down, to occupy an improvised
bed; to betake one's self to a shake-down.
'An eligible apartment in which five or six
of Ub shook down for the night.' W. H. Rus-
sell. [Colloq.]— To shake together, to be on
good terms; to get along smoothly together;
to adapt one's self to another's habits, way
of working. &c. 'The rest of the men had
shaken well together.' Macniitlan's Mag.
[Colloq.]—To shake up, same as to shake
I can't shake uf along with the rest of you.

//'. Collins.

Shake (shak),n. 1. A vacillating or wavering motion; a rapid motion one way and the other; a shock or concussion; agitation; tremor.

The great soldiers honour was composed
Of thicker stuff which could endure a shake.


2. A brief moment; an instant [Colloq.]—

3. In music, (a) a rapid reiteration of two notes comprehending an interval not greater than one whole tone nor less than a semitone; a trill, (b) The sign (tr., abbreviation of trill) placed over a note indicating that it is to be shaken or trilled—4. A crack or fissure in timber, produced by great heat, strain of wind, rapid drying, seasoning, or the like. —5. A fissure in the earth. [Provincial.]—6. Tire staves and heading of a cask, ready for Betting up, and packed in small bulk for convenience of transport—7. pL A trembling fit; specifically, ague; intermittent tever.—Shake rf the hand, a friendly clasp of another's hand.

Our salutations were very hearty on both sides, consisting of many kind shakes of the hand.


—JVb great shakes, lit no great windfall; hence, nothing extraordinary; of little value; little worth. [Colloq]

I had my hands full, and my head too, just then, so it (his drama of ' Marino Faliero') can be no great shakes. Byron.

Shake-dOWll (shak'doun), n. A temporary substitute for a bed, as that funned on chairs or on the floor. The term Is probably

derived from straw being

7 UBe(* *° 'orm the rough beds of early times. Shakee (sha-kfi'), n. An Eiist Indian coin of the value of about 3d. sterling.

Shake-fork (shak'forkX n. A fork to toss hay about In her. the shakefork is in form like the

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pall, but the ends do not touch the edges of the shield, and have points in the same manner as the pile.

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