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SHAKEN

Shaken (shak'n), p and a. 1 Caused to shake: agitated — 2. Cracked or split; as, shaken timber.

Nor is the wood shaken nor twisted, as those about Cape Town. Barrow's Travels.

Shaker (shak'er).n. 1. A person or thing that shakes or agitates: as,Neptune, the shaker of the earth, —2 A member of a religious Beet founded Ln Manchester about the middle of the eighteenth century; so called popularly from the agitations or movements in dancing which forms part of their ceremonial, but calling themselves the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing. The Shakers teach a system of doctrine founded partly on the Bible and partly on the supposed revelation* of Mother Anne Lee, their tint inspired leader, and her successors. They lead a celibate life.hold their property in common, engage in agriculture, horticulture, and a few simple trades. They believe the millennium has come, that they hold communication with the spirits of the departed, and have the exercise of spiritual gifta Theywearapeculiardress,andabstain from the use of pork as food. They teach the theory of non-resistance as opposed to war and bloodshed. They are now mostly confined to the InitedStates of America. Sometimes called Shaking Quaker—^. A variety of pigeon.

Shake-rag (shiik'rag), n, A ragged fellow; a tatterdemalion.

He was a shake-rag like fellow, and. he dared to say, had gypsy blood in his vein*. Sir IV. Scott.

Shakerism(shak'er-lzm), n. The principles of the Shakers.

Shakiness (ahak'i-nes), n. State or quality of being shaky.

Shako (shak'6), »*. [Fr. schako, borrowed from Hung. csdko (pron. tshako), Pol. tzako, a shako.] A kind of military headdress, in shape somewhat resembling a truncated cone, with a peak in frout and sometimes another behind, and generally ornamented with a spherical orother shaped body rising in front of the crown.

Shaksperlan, Shakspearian (shak-Bpe'nan t, a. Relating to or like Shak*pere. Spelled variously Shakespearean, Shakespearian, Shaksperean, fuu\ Shakspearean.

Shaky (shak T), a. l. Loosely put together; ready to come to pieces. — 2. Full of shakes or cracks; cracked, split, or cleft, as timber. S Disposed to shake or tremble; shaking; as, a shaky hand. [Colloq.)—4. Of questionable integrity, solvency, or ability. Specifically applied at the universities to one not likely to pass his examination. [Colloq.]

Other circumstance* occurred . . . which seemed to 0»o» that our director was—what is not to be found in Johnson's dictionary—rather shaky. Thackeray.

Shale (shal). n. [A form of scale or shell; G. schale, a skin or bark, a shell, a thin layer. See Shell] I. A shell or husk.

Your fair show shall suck away their souls

Leaving them but the shales and husks of men.

Shak.

1 In geol. a species of schist or schistous clay; slate clay: generally of a bluish or yellowish gray colour, more rarely of a dark blackish or reddish gray, or grayish black, or greenish colour. Its fracture is slaty, and ln water it moulders into powder. It is often found fn strata in coal-mines, and commonly bears vegetable impressions. It is generally the forerunner of coal Bituminou« shale is a sub-variety of argillaceous slate, is impregnated with bitumen, and burns with flame. It yields, when distilled at * low red heat, an oil of great commercial importance, to which, from its being rich in paraffin, the name of paraffin-oil has been given. The coal-measures of Linlithgowshire are specially rich in bituminous shales of great value. Alum also is largely manufactured from the shales of Lancashire, Yorkshire, and Lanarkshire. There are sandy, calcareous, purely argillaceous, and carbonaceous shales. Shale (shal). v. t. To peel

Life in iti upper grades was bursting its shell, or was thaJinf on its husk. Is. Taylor.

Shall (thai), originally v.t , now only auxiliary. Pre* I shall, thou shalt, he shall, pL 1.2, and 3 shall; imperf. should, shouldest or thmtld*t, should, pi. should. [Formerly srhal. shal, thttl, pret sholde. shulde; A. Sax. seal, total, I shall, I have to, I ought; pi. souUyn. pret seeolde, scolde, inf. seulan. This is a

Sreteritive present, that is a preterite which is been transformed intoa present, having then acquired a new preterite of its own.

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Similar forms occur throughout the Teutonic tongues, all regarded as from a verb signifying to kill; so that shall originally meant I have killed; hence, I have become liable for the wergild, then I owe, I ought, I shall J l.t As independent verb: (a) to owe; to be under obligation for. 'By that faith I shal to God.' Chaucer. (6) Have to; be called upon; be obliged; must. [In this sense almost the auxiliary]

First tel me whider I shal (jjo) and to what man
Ch a ucer.
Al drery was his chere and his taking1
Whan that he sholde out of the chaiubre go.
Chaucer.

2. As an auxiliary: (a) to express mere futurity, forming the first persons singular and plural of the future tense (including the future perfect), and simply foretelling or declaring what is to take place = am to, are to; as, I or we shalt ride to town on Monday. This declaration simply informs another of a fact that is to take place. Of course there may be an intention or determination in the mind of the speaker, but shall does not express this in the first person, though wUl does, I will go, being equivalent to I am determined to go, I have made up my mind to go. Hence, I will be obliged, or we will be forced, to go is quite wrong. The rest of the simple future is formed by the auxiliary trill; that is to say, the future ln full is. I shall, thou wilt, he will, we shall, you will, they will. In Indirect narrative, however, shall may express mere futurity in the second and third persons in such sentences as, he says or thinks he shall go. (6) In the second and third persons shall implies (1) control or authority on the part of the speaker, and is used to express a promise, command, or determination; as, you shall receive your wages; he shall receive his wages; these phrases having the force of a promise in the person uttering them; thou shalt not kill; he may refuse to

?;o, but for all that he shall go. (2) Or it mplies necessity or inevitability, futurity thought certain and answered for by the speaker.

Sorrow on love hereafter shall attend. Shak. He that escapes me without some broken limb shalt acquit him well. Shak.

(c) Interrogatively, shall I go? shall we go? shall he go? shall they go? ask for direction or refer the matter to the determination of the person aBked. But shall you go? asks rather for information merely as to the future without referring to another's intention. ('/) After conditionals, as if orwhether, and in dependent clauses generally, shall, in all the persons, expresses simple futurity; as,

(I shall say, or we shall say. If-j Thou shalt say. ye or you shall say,

{ He shall say, they shall say.

Whosoever ( = if anyone) therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so. lie shall be called the least. Ace. Mat. v. 19.

(e) Should, though In form the past of shall. Is not used to express simple past futurity; thus, I shall go, means I am to go, but we do not say I should go yesterday, for I was to go or to have gone yesterday. In the indirect speech, however, it is so used; as, I said I should go; I arranged that he should go.

The Parliament resolved that all pictures . . . should be burned. Macaulay.

Should Is very commonly used (1) to express present duty or obligation, as I, we, they should (now and always) practise virtue; or to express past duty or obligation; as, I should \ have paid the bill on de

Thmishouldst I mam1; U was m? duty- vour He should }"dut* hia dut>"to P**the biU ?ou should j °^iddemttIld' but tt wafl not

(2) To express a merely hypothetical case or a contingent future event, standing In the same relation to would that shall does to will; thus, as we say I shall be glad if you trill come, so we say I should be glad if you would come. In such phrases as, if it should rain to-morrow, if you should go to London next week, if he should arrive within a month, it Is to be regarded as the future subjunctive. In like manner should is used after though, grant, admit, allow, Ac. (3) It is often used in a modest way to soften a statement; thus,' I should not like to say how many there are,' is much the same as I hardly like, I do not like: so I shotdd not care if I were at home' = I do not. Similarly, 'It should seem'often is nearly the same as

SHALLOWNESS

'It seems'—but this expression is now less common than 'it would seem.'

He is no suitor then? So it should seem.

B JonSOtt.

Shall and will arc often confounded by inaccurate sneakers or writers, and even writers such as Addison sometimes make a slip. In quoting the following lines from a song in Sir George Etherege's ' She Would if she Could' (1704). Mr. R. Grant White says, * I do not know in English literature another passage in which the distinction between shall and will and would and should is at once so elegantly, so variously, so precisely, and so compactly illustrated.'

How long I shall \ove him I can no more tell.
Than, had I a fever, when I shoit'd be well.
My passion shall kill me before I will show it,
And yet I won'd give all the world he did know it;
Hut oh how I sigh, when I think shou'd he woo me.
1 cannot refuse what I know wou'd \m<\o me.

See also Will.
Shall! (shall!), n. [Connected with shawl;

the same word tischallis.] A kind of twilled

cloth, made from the native goats' hair at

Angora. Simmonds. Shalloon(shal-lOn'). n. [Fr. chalon, a woollen

stuff, said to be from Chdlons, in France.]

A slight woollen stuff.

In blue shalloon shall Hannibal be clad. Swift.

Shallop (shal'lop), n. [Fr. chaloupe, French form of sloop; D. sloep. See Sloop.] 1. A sort of large boat with two masts, and usually rigged like a schooner—2. A small light vessel with a small mainmast and foremast, with lug-sails. 'The shallop flitteth silken-sail'd.' Tennyson.

Shallot (sha-lof), n. [Abbrev. of eschalot (which see). See also Scallion] A plant, the Allium ascalonicum, a species of onion, the mildest cultivated. It grows wild in many parts of Palestine, especially near Ascalon, whence It derives its specific name. The bulb is compound, separating into divisions termed cloves, by which the plant is propagated. It is sufficiently hardy to endure the severest winters of England. The shallot Is used to season soups and made dishes, and makes a good addition in sauces, salads, and pickles.

Shallow (shal16), a. [Probably Bame word as lcel. skjdlgr, wry, oblique, the water being shallow where the beach sinkB obliquely downward; comp. also shoal, shelf. ] 1. Not deep; having little depth; having the bottom at no great distance from the surface or edge; as, shallow water; a shallow trench; a shal low basket.

I had been drowned but that the shore was shelvy and shallow. Shak.

I am made a shallow forded stream,
Seen to the bottom. Drydett.

2. Not intellectually deep; not profound; not penetrating deeply into abstruse sul»jects; superficial; empty; silly; as, a shallow mind or understanding; shallow skill. 'Deep vers'd in books, and shallow in himself." Milton.— 3. Thin and weak of sound; not deep, full, or round. 'The sound perfected and not Bo shallow or jarring.' Bacon. Shallow (shal'16). n. A place where the water Is not deep; a shoal; a shelf; a flat; a sand-bank.

A swift stream is not heard in the channel, but upon shallows of (Travel. Bacon.

There is a tide in the affairs of men.
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;
Omitted, all the voyage of their life
Is bound in shallows and in mi-series. Shak.

Shallow (shal'16), r. (. To make shallow.

In lonjr process of time the silt and sands shall so choak and shallow the sea iu and about it.

Sir T. Browne. That thought alone the state impairs. Thy lofty sinks, and shallows thy profound. Young.

Shallow (shal'16), n. A local name for the fish called also Itudd and Red-eye. See Kl'M>. Yarrell.

Shallow-brained (shaHo-braiid). a. Of no depth of intellect; empty-headed. 'A company of lewd, shalloto-brained huffs.' South.

Shallow-hearted (sbal'lo-hart-ed), a. Incapable of deep or strong feeling or affection. 'Ve sanguine, shallow-hearted boys.' Shak.

O my cousin, shallow-hearted I O my Amy, mine no more! Tennyson.

Shallowly (shal'16-li). adv. In a shallow manner; as, (a) with little depth. (6) Superficially; simply; without depth of thought or judgment; not wisely. Shak.

Shallowness (shalld-nes). n. The state or quality of being shallow; as, (a) want of depth; small depth; as, the shalloicness of

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water, of a river, of a stream. (b) Superflcialness of intellect; want of power to enter deeply into subjects; emptiness; silliness. 'The shallowness and impertinent zeal of the vulgar sort' Howell.

Shallow-pated (shaTlo-pat-ed), a. Of weak mind; silly. Ash.

Slialm, Shalmie (sham, sham'i), n. A musical wind-instrument formerly in use; a shawm (which see).

Shalote (aha-lot'X n. See Eschalot and Shallot.

Shalt (shalt). The second person singular of shall; as, thou shalt not steal.

Shaly (sha'li), a. Partaking of the qualities of shale.

Sham (sham), n. [Perhaps a form of shame; Prov. E. sham, shame; sham, to blush for shame; comp., however, Prov. G. schem, schemen, delusive appearance, phantom; scheme, shade, shadow; O.H.G. sciman, to gleam] One who or that which deceives expectation; any trick, fraud, or device that deludes and disappoints; delusion; imposture; humbug.

Believe who will the solemn sham, not I. Addison. In that year (r68o) our tongue was enriched with two words. Mob and Sham, remarkable memorials of a season of tumult and imposture. Macanlay.

Sham (sham), a. False; counterfeit; pretended; as, a sham fight.

Self-interest and covetousness cannot keep society orderly and peaceful, let sham philosophers say what they will. Kingsley.

—Sham plea, in law, a plea entered for the mere purpose of delay. Sham (sham), v.t. pret. & pp. shammed; ppr. shamming. l.f To deceive; to trick; to cheat; to delude with false pretences.

They find themselves fooled and shammedinto conviction. Sir R. L'Estrange.

2. t To obtrude by fraud or imposition.

We roust have a care that we do not . . . sham fallacies upon the world for current reason.

Sir R. L'Estrange.

3. To make a pretence of in order to deceive; to feign; to imitate; to ape; as, to sham illness. —To sham Abraham, a sailor's term for pretending illness In order to avoid doing duty in the ship, Ac. See Abraham-man .

Sham (sham), v.t. To pre tend; to make false pretences.

Then all your wits that fleer and sham,
Down from Don Quixote to Tom Tram,
From whom I jests and puns purloin.
And sliiy put tnem off for mine. Prior.

Sham-Abram (sham-a'brani), a. Pretended; rnock;sham. See under SHAM, v.t. 'Sham-Abram saints.' Hood.

Shaman (sham'an), n. A professor or priest of Shamanism; a wizard or conjuror, among those who profess Shamanism.

Shaman (sham'an), a. Relating to Shamanism.

Shamanism (sham'an-izm), n. A general name applied to the idolatrous religions of a number of barbarous nations, comprehending those of the Finnish race, as the Ostiaks, Samoyedes, and other inhabitants of Siberia, as far as the Pacific Ocean. These nations generally believe in a Supreme Being, but to this they add the belief that the government of'the world is in the hands of a number of secondary gods both benevolent and malevolent towards man, and that it is absolutely necessary to avert their malign influence by magic rites and spells. The general belief respecting another life appears to be that the condition of man will be poorer and more wretched than the present; hence death is an object of great dread.

Shamanist (sham'an-iat), n. A believer in Shamanism.

Shamble (sham'bl), n. [A. Sax. scamel, a stool, a bench, a form; Dan. skammel, Icel. skemmill, a footstool, a bench, a trestle; Sc. skemmils, shambles; from L. xcamellum, scamillus, dims, of scammum, a stool or bench.] 1. In mining, a niche or shelf left at suitable distances to receive the ore which is thrown from one to another, and thus raised to the top.—2. pi. The tables or stalls where butchers expose meat for sale; a slaughter-house; a flesh market: often treated as a singular. 'To make a shambles of the parliament house.' Shak.

Whatsoever is sold in the shamtlts.lhat eat. tCor.x.as.

Hence—3. A place of indiscriminate slaughter or butchery.

The whole land was converted into a vast human shambles. Prescott.

Shamble (sham'bl), v.i. pret. & pp. shambled; ppr. shambling. [A form of scamblc

(which Bee).] To walk awkwardly and unsteadily, as if the knees were weak.

Shambling(sharu'bl-ing),a. [From shamble. ] Moving with an awkward, irregular, clumsy pace; as, a shambling trot; shambling legs.

Shambling (sham'bl-ing), n. An awkward, clumsy, irregular pace or gait

By that shambling in his walk it should be my rich banker, Gomez, whom I knew at Barcelona. Dryden.

Shame (sham), n. [A. Sax. sceamu, scamu, Icel. skamm, skbmm, Dan. and Sw. skam, G. schaw, O.H.G. seama, shame; probably from a root-verb skiman, to redden; soen also in A. Sax scima, a gleam; £. shimmer.] l. A painful sensation excited by a consciousness of guilt, or of having done something which injures reputation, or by the exposure of that which nature or modesty prompts us to conceal. 'Burns with bashful shame.' Shak.

Hide, for shame, Romans, your grandsires' images. That blush at their degenerate progeny. Dryden. Shame prevails when reason is defeated. Rambler.

2. The cause or reason of shame; that which brings reproach and degrades a person in the estimation of others. 'Guides, who are the shame of religion.' South.

And every woe a tear can claim.

Except an erring sister's shame. Byron.

3. Reproach; ignominy; dishonour; disgrace;

derision; contempt.

Ve have borne the shame of the heathen.

Ezck. xxxvi. 6.

A. The parts which modesty requires to be covered. Is. xlviL S.—For shame! an interjectional phrase signifying you should be ashamed; shame on you!—To put to shame, to cause to feel shame; to inflict shame, disgrace, or dishonour on.

Seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of Cod afresh, and put him to an open shame. Heb. vi. 6.

Shame (sham), v.t. pret & pp. shamed; ppr. shaming. 1. To make ashamed; to cause to blush or to feel degraded, dishonoured, or disgraced. 'Shame enough to shame thee, wert thou not shameless.' Shak.

Who shames a scribbler i Break one cobweb

through. He spins the slight self-pleasing thread anew. Pope.

2. To cover with reproach or ignominy; to disgrace. —3. To mock at; to deride.

Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor. Ps. xlv. 6. Shame (sham), v.i. To be ashamed.

To its trunk authors give such a magnitude, as I shame to repeat. Raleigh.

I do shame to think of it ShaJt.

Shamefaced (sham'fiist), a. ['Shamefaced was once shamefast, shamefaeedness was shamefastness, like steadfast and steadfastness; but the ordinary manifestations of shame being by the face, have brought it to its present orthography.' Trench. See Shamefast.] Bashful; easily confused or put out of countenance.

Conscience is a blushing shamefaced spirit. Shak. Your shamefaced virtue shunn'd the people's praise. Dryden.

Shamefacedly (sham'fast-li), adv. Bashfully; with excessive modesty.

Shamefacedness (sham'fast-nes). n. Bashfulness; excess of modesty.

Shamefast t (shara'fast), a. [A. Sax. sceamfcest.} Shamefaced; modest.

He saw her wise, shamefast and bringing forth children. North.

It is a pity that shamefast and shamefastness . . . should have been corrupted in modern use to shamefaced and shamefacedness. The word* are properly of the same formation as steaafast, steadfastness, soothfast, soothfastness, and those good old English words now lost to us, rootfast. roo/faitttess. As by rootfast our fathers understood that which was firm ana fast by its root, so by shamefast, in like manner, that which was established and made fast by (an honourable) shame. To change this into shamefaced is to allow all the meaning and force of the word to run to the surface, to leave us, ethically, a far inferior word. Trench.

Shamefastness t (sham'fast-nes), n. Shamefacedness; great modesty. 'In mannerly aparell with shamfastnes.' Bible, Tyndale's trans., 1&26.

Shameful (sham'ful). a. 1. Bringing shame or disgrace; scandalous; disgraceful; injurious to reputation.

His naval preparations were not more surprising than his quick and shameful retreat. Arbuthttot.

2. Raising shame in others; indecent 'Phoebus flying so most shameful sight.' Spenser.

Shamefully (sham'ful-li), adv. In a shameful manner; with indignity or indecency; disgracefully.

Shamefulness (sham'fulnes), n. The state

or quality of being shameful; disgracefulness; disgrace; shame.

The king debated with himself
If Arthur were the child of shamefulness.
Or bora the son of Goriois. Tennyson.

Shameless (shanrles), a. 1. Destitute of shame; wanting modesty; Impudent; brazenfaced; immodest; audacious; insensible to disgrace.

To tell thee whence thou earnest, of whom derived.

Were shame enough to shame thee, wert thou not

shameless. Shak.

2. Done without shame; indicating want of shame; as, n shameless disregard of honesty.

The shameless denial hereof by some of their friends, and the more shameless justification by some of their flatterers, makes it needful to exemplify. Raleigh. Shamelessly (sham'les-li), adv. In a shameless manner; without shame; impudently.

He must needs be shamelessly wicked that abhor* not this licentiousness. Sir At. Hate.

Shamelessnesa (shamles-nesX n. The state or quality of being shameless; destitution of shame; want of sensibility to disgrace or dishonour; impudence.

He that blushes not at his crime, but adds shamelessness to shame, has nothing left to restore him to virtue. Jer. Taylor.

Shame - proof (snam'prof), o. Callous or insensible to shame.

They will shame us; let them not approach.
—We arc shame-proof, my lord. Shak.

Shamer (sham'er), n. One who or that which makes ashamed. Beau. <£- Ft

Sham-flght (sham'fit), n. A pretended fight or engagement.

Shammel (sham'l), n. Same as Shamble.

Shammer (sham'er), n. One that shams; an impostor.

Shammy, Shamoy (sham'i, sham'oi), n. [A corruption of chamois, the animal and its prepared skin. ] 1. A Bpecies of antelope, the Antilope rupieapra; the chamois.— 2. A kind of leather originally prepared from the skin of this animal, but much of the article sold under this name is now made of the skin of the common goat, the kid, and even the sheep.

Shamols (shara'oi), n. Same as Shammy.

Shanioying (shain'oi-ing), u. A mode of prepariugleather by working oil into the skin instead of the astringent, or chloride of ammonium, commonly used in tanning.

Shampoo (sham-po7), v. t. [Hind, tshampna, to squeeze.] 1. To rub and percuss the whole surface of the body of, and at the same time to extend the limbs and rack the joints, in connection with the hot bath, for the purpose of restoring tone and vigour— a practice introduced from the East.—2. To wash thoroughly and rub or brush effectively a person's head, using either soap or a soapy preparation.

Shampoo (sham-poO, n. The act or operation of shampooing.

Shamrock (snam'rok), n. [Ir. seamrog, Gael. seamrag, trefoil, white clover.] The name commonly given to the national emblem of Ireland, as the rose is that of England ami the thistle of Scotland. It is a trefoil plant, generally supposed to be the plant called white clover {Trifolium repens), but some think it to be rather the wood-sorrel (Oxali* Acetosella) (which see). The plant sold in Dublin and elsewhere on St. Patrick's Day la the small yellow trefoil {Trifolium minus).

Shan (shan), n. Same as Shanny.

Shan (shan), n. Naut. a defect in spars, most commonly from bad collared knots; an injurious compression of fibres in timber; the turning out of the cortical layers when the plank has been sawed obliquely to the central axis of the tree.

Shand (shand), a. [O.E. schande, schande, A. Sax. scand, sceond, shame, disgrace.] Worthless. [Scotch. ]

Shand (shand). n. Base coin. [Scotch.]

'I doubt Glossin will prove but shand after a', Mistress,' said"jabos. . . . "but this is a gude h^lf-crown ony way. Sir H'. Scrtt.

Shandry, Shandrydan (shan'dri, shan'dridan), n. A one-horse Irish conveyance. 'An ancient rickety-looking vehicle of the kind once known as shandrydan.' Cornhill Mag.

Shandygaff (shan'di-gaf), n. A mixture of beer and ginger-beer.

(Men) slid into cool oyster cellars for iced frinperbeer and shandygaff. G. A. Sala.

Shangie, Shangan (shang'i, shang'an), n A shackle; n stick deft at one end for putting the tail of a dug in by way of mischief, or to frighten him away. [Scotch]

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flhantnp fahaii'ing), n. Same as Shanny.

flh^nh; (shangkX n. [A Sax. scane, seeane, Mcanoa, seeanea, the bone of the leg, the leg. eann $eanea, the arm-bone; Dan. & Sw. tkank; Q. and D. scheukel, the shank. Akin 8c. Attn*, a ihin of beef, and perhaps shin )

1. The whole leg, or the part of the leg from the knee to the ankle; the tibia or shin-bone. 'CrxwkedcrawlingsAanirs.* Spenser

His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank. Shak.

2. In a horse, the part of the fore-ley between the knee and the fetlock.—3. That part of an instrument, tool, or other thing which connects the acting part with a handle or other part by which it is held or moved; as, specifically, (a) the stem of a key between the bow and the bit (b) The stem of an anchor connecting the arms and the stock. <c) The tang or part of a knife, chisel. Ac, inserted in the handle, (d) The straight portion of a hook, (e) The straight part of a nail between the head ana the taper of the point (/)The body of a printing type0;> The eye or loop on a button.—4 That part of a shoe which connects the broad part of the sole with the heel.—5. In metal. a large ladle to contain molten metals, managed by a straight bar at one end and a cross-bar with handles at the other end, by which it is tipped to pour out the metal. 6. In arch, (a) the shaft of a column. (6) The plain space between the channels of the triglyph of a Doric frieze—To ride Shanks' nag or mare, to perform a Journey on foot or on one's lec;s or shanks. [Colloq]

ShAnk (*hangk). Ft. l. To be affected with disease of the pedicel or footstalk; to fall off by decay of the footstalk: often with of

The gennens o( these twelve flowers all swelled. and sltimaieJy six fine capsules and two poor capsules were produced; only four capsules shanking *JJ. Darwin.

2. To take to one's legs. [Scotch] Shank (abangk), v. t [Scotch.] To send off without ceremony.

They think they should be lookit after, and some say ye should baith be shankit aff till Edinburgh castle. Sir IK Scott.

To thank one's self atca', to take one's self off quickly. Sir W. Scott

Sharik-beer(shangk'ber),n> SameMScArnAbeer.

Shanked (shangkt), a. Having a shank.

Shanked (shangkt). p. and a. Affected with disease of the shank or footstalk.

Shanker (shangk'er). n. See Chancre.

Shanklin-sand (sharigkliii-sumlVu. in;...'. another name for lower greensand of the chalk formation: so called from its being conspicuously developed at Shanklin in the Isle of Wight.

Shank-painter (ahangk'pan-ter), n. A'aut a short rope and chain which sustains the shank and flukes of an anchor against the ship's side, as the stopper fastens the ring and stock to the cat-head.

Shanny (shan'ni), n. A small fish allied to the blenny, and found under stones and seaweeds, where it lurks It is the Blennius pholis of Linntcus, and the PhoUs lavis of modern authors. By means of its pectoral fins it ia able to crawl upon land, and when the tide ebbs will often creep upon shore until It finds a crevice wherein it can hide until the tide returns.

Bhanscrit (shan'skrit), n. An old spelling of Sanscrit

8ha'nt (shant). A contraction of Shall Not.

[Colloq,}

Shanty (shan'tiX <*• [A form of jaunty.) Jaunty; gay; showy. [Provincial]

Shanty, Shantee (shan't!), n. [From Ir. sean, »fd, or from «ion, weather, and tig, a house ] A hut or mean dwelling; a temporary building.

Shanty (shan'ti), v.i. To live in a shanty. [Bare)

Shanty-man (shan'ti-man), n. One who lives in a tdianty; hence, a backwoodsman; s lumberer.

Shapable (shap'a-bl), »• 1. Capable of being ih*p*-il: shapeable. — 2. Having a proper shape or form.

I made things round and shapable, which before were filthy thujas indeed to look upon. De Foe.

Shape (ship), v.t pret. shaped; pp. shaped or shapen; ppr. shaping. [A. Sax. sceapan, teapaa, O.Sax. sea pan, Goth- skapan, skapjan, Ice! ska pa, Dan. skate, O.hT.G. scafan, Mod, O. scltajfen, to shape, form, create;

perhaps from same root as ship.} 1. To form or create; to make.

I was shapen in iniquity. Ps. li. 5.

Costly his garb—his Flemish ruff
Fell o'er his doublet, shaped of buff. Sir W. Scott.

2. To mould, cut, or make into a particular form; to give form or figure to; as, to shape a garment

Grace shaded her limbs, and beauty deck'd her face. Prior.

3. To adapt to a purpose; to regulate; to adjust; to direct.

Charmed by their eyes, their manners I acquire.

And shafie my fcwUihneSi to their desire. Prior
To the siitr.ni) ... he shapes his course.

Sir y. Denham.

4. To image; to conceive; to call or conjure up.

Oft my Jealousy
Shapes faults that arc not. Shak.

Shape (shap), v.t To square; to suit; to be adjusted. [Rare.]

Their dear loss
The more of you 'twas felt, the more It sh*>f*d
Vnto my end of stealing thetn. Shak.

Shape (ahap),n. 1. Character or construction of an object as determining its external appearance; outward aspect; make; figure; form; guise; as, the shape of the head, the body, arc.; the shape ol a horse or a tree. * A charming shape.' Addison,

Take any shape but that, and my firm nerves
Shall never tremble. Shak.

2. That which has form or figure; a figure; on appearance; a being.

The other shape
If shape it might be called that shape had none.
Distinguishable in member, joint, or limb. Milton.

3. A pattern to be followed; a model; a mould; as, to cut shapes for ladies' dresses, jackets, etc.—4. In cookery, a dessert dish made of blanc-mange, rice, corn-flour, Ac, variously flavoured, or of jelly, cast into a mould, allowed to stand till it sets or firms, and then turned out to be served.—5. Form of embodiment, as in words; form, as of thought or conception; concrete embodiment or example, as of some quality.

Yet the smooth words took no shape in action.
Froude.

CI A dress for disguise; a guise.

This Persian shape laid by, and she appearing
In a Greckish dress. Massinger,

Shape,t pp. Formed; figured; prepared.
Chaucer.

Shapeable(shap'a-bl), a. 1.Capable of bein<? shaped. 'Soft and shapeabte Into love's syllables.' Ruskin. — 2. Shapely. Spelled also Shapable.

Shapeless (ahaples), a. Destitute of regular form; wanting symmetry of dimensions. 'The shapeless rock or hanging precipice.' Pope.

He is deformed ■ crooked, old and sere,
IU-faced, worse bodied, shapeless everywhere.
Shak.

Shapelessness (shitr/Ies-nesX u. The state of being shapeless; destitution of regular form.

Shapeliche.io. Shapely; fit; likely. Chaucer.

Shapeliness (shapTi-nes), n. The state of )>eing shapely; beauty or proportion of form.

Shapely (shap'li), a. Well formed; having a regular and pleasing shape; symmetrical. 'The ahapcly column. T. Warton.

Shape smith (shap'sniith), n. One that undertakes to improve the form of the body. [Burlesque]

No shapesmith yet set up and drove a trade.
To mend the work that Providence had made.
Garth.

Shapoumet (sha-pbr'net). In her. see ChaPournet.

Shard (shard), n. [Also sherd; A Sax. sceard, from seeran, to shear, to separate; cog. Icel. skard, a notch, a gap; Dan. skaar, an incision, a sherd; akin share] 1. A piece or fragment of an earthen vessel or of any brittle substance; a potsherd; a fragment. 'Shards,flints,and pebbles.' Shak. 'Dashed your cities into shards.' Tennyson,

Thus did that poor soul wander in want and cheerless

discomfort. Bleeding, barefooted, over the shards and thorns

of existence. Longfellow.

2. The shell of an egg or of a snail.—3. The wing-case of a beetle.

They are his shards, and he their beetle. Shak.

4. The leaves of the artichoke and some other vegetables whitened or blanched. 'Shards or mallows for the pot' Dryden,

5. t A gap iu a fence. Stanihurst. 6 t A bourne or boundary; a division. Spenser.

Shard-borne (shardl)drn), a. Borne along by its shards or scaly wing-cases. 'The shard-borne beetle.' Shak.

Sharded (shard'ed). a. Having wings sheathed with a hard cose. 'The sharded beetle.' Shak.

Shardy (shard'i), a Consisting of or formed by a shard or shards; furnished with shards. 'The hornet's shardy wings.' J. II. Drake.

Share (shar), n. [A. Sax. scearu, a portion, a shearing, a division; scear, tcatr, that which divides, the share of a plough, both from seeran, to cut. Akin shear, fhecr, shire, shore, sharp, short, scaur, skirt See SHEAR.] 1. A certain uuantity; a part; a portion; as, a small share of prudence or good sense. — 2. A part or portion of a thing owned by a number in common; that part of an undivided interest which belongs to each proprietor; as, shares in a bank; shares in a railway; a ship owned in ten shares.— 3 The part of a thing allotted or distributed to each individual of a number; portion among others; apportioned lot; allotment; dividend. *My share of fame." Dryden.—4. The broad iron or blade of a plough which cuts the bottom of the furrowslice; ploughshare.

Sharpened shares shall vex the fruitful ground.
Dryden.

—To go shares, to go share and share, to partake, to be equally concerned. [Colloq.]

She fondly hoped that he might be inclined to go share and share alike with Twin junior. Thackeray.

Share (shar), v. t. pret. A pp. shared; ppr. sharing. [From the noun.] 1. To divide in portions; to part among two or more.

The latest of my wealth I'll share amongst you. Shot Suppose I share my fortune equally between my children and a stranger. Swift.

2. To partake or enjoy with others; to seize and possess jointly or in common. 'Who stay to share the morning feast' Tennyson.

Great Jove with C.x-sar shares his sov'reign sway.
Mi/ton.
In vain does valour bleed.
While avarice and rapine share the land. Aft/ton.

3. To receive as one's portion; to enjoy or suffer; to experience. Shak. 4.f To cut; to shear; to cleave.

Scalp, face, and shoulder the keen steel divides.
And the shared visage hangs on equal sides.

Dryden.

Share (shar), v.i. To have part; to get one's portion; to be a sharer.

And think not, Percy, To share with me in glory any more. Shak. A right of inheritance gave every one a title to share in the goods of his father. Locke.

Share-beam (shar'bfim), n. That part of a plough to which the share is applied.

Share-hone (shar'bon), n. The os pubis, the smallest of the three portions of the os iunominatum, which is placed at the upper and fore part of the pelvis.

Share-broker (sharbroker), n. A dealer or broker In the shares and securities of joint-stock companies and the like.

Shareholder (shar'hdld-er), n. One that holds or owns a share or shares in a jointstock company, in a common fund, or in some property; as. a shareholder in a railway, mining, or banking company, &c.

Share-line (shar']In), u. The summit line of elevated ground; the dividing line.

Share-list (shartist), n. A list of the prices of shares of railways, mines, banks, government securities, and the like.

Sharer (shar'er), n. One who shares; one who participates in anything with another, one who enjoys or Buffers in common with another or others; a partaker.

People not allowed to be tharers with their coni

Enions in good fortune will hardly be sharers in d. Sir A. L'Estrange.

Shark (shark), n. [Usually derived from L carcharias,Gr, ka rcharias, a shark, from karcharos, sharp-pointed, with sharp or jagged teeth; but the want of intermediate forms renders this etymology a little doubtfuL Perhaps from A. Sax. seeran, to shear, to cut. Comp. Icel skerthinar,a, shark. The noun and the verb appear to nave been applied to persons as early as to the fish. ] 1. One of a group of elasmobrahchiate fishes, celebrated for the size and voracity of many of the species. The form of the body is elongated, and the tail thick and fleshy. The mouth is large, and armed with several rows of compressed, sharp-edged, and sometimes serrated teeth. The skin is usually very rough, covered with a multitude of little osseous tubercles or placold scales. They are the most formidable

[merged small][graphic]

White Shark {Carcharias vulgaris).

several families, as the Carcharidaj, or white sharks, Laranidie, or basking Bharks, Scymnide, including the Greenland shark, Scyllidee, or dog-fishes, Ac. The basking shark (Selache maxima) is by far the largest species, sometimes attaining the length of 40 feet, but it has none of the ferocity of the others. The white shark {Carcharias vulgaris) is one of the most formidable and voracious of the species. It is rare on the British coasts, but common in many of the warmer seas, reaching a length of over 30 feet. The hammer-headed sharks (Zygiena), which are

[graphic]

Hammer-headed Shark {Zygana malleus).

chiefly found in tropical seas, are very voracious, and often attack man. The shark is oviparous or ovoviviparous, according to circumstances.—2. A greedy, artful fellow; one who fills his pockets by sly tricks; a sharper; acheat. 'Cheaters, KAar£«,and shifting companions.' Bp. Reynolds-—3. Trickery; fraud; petty rapine. 'Wretches who live upon the shark.' South,

Shark (shark), v.i. [Origin doubtful. See the noun. Shirk appears to be a weakened form of this.] To play the petty thief, or rather to live by shifts and petty stratagems; to swindle; to cozen; to play a meanly dishonest or greedy trick. B. Jonson.

That docs it fair and above-board without legerdemain, and neither sharks for a cup or reckoning. Bp. Earle.

To shark out, to slip out or escape by low artifices, [Vulgar. ]

Shark (shark), v.t. To pick up hastily, slily, or in small quantities: with up.

Young Forttnbns, . . .
Hath in the skirts of Norway here and there
Shark'd up a libt of lawless rcsolutes. Shak.

Sharker (shark'er), n. One who lives by sharking; an artful fellow. 'A rengado . . . a dirty sharker.' Wotton.

Shark-ray(shark'ra), n. SeeltHrNOBATir.B.

Sham, (sham), n. The dung of oxen or cows. [Scotch. ]

Sharock (shar'ok), n. A silver coin in India, worth about 1*. sterling.

Sharp (sharp), a. [A. Sax. scearp, from the root of sceran. to shear, to cut; L.O. scharp, D scherq*. Icel. skarpr, G. scharf. See Shark] 1. Having a very thin edge or flue point; keen; acute; not blunt; as, a sharp knife, or a sharp needle; a sharp edge easily severs a substance; a sharp point is easily made to penetrate it 'My cimeter's thorp point.' Skate—2. Terminating in a point or edge; not obtuse; somewhat pointed or edged; ridged; peaked; as, a hill terminates in a sharp peak or a sharp ridge; a sharp roof.—3. Abruptly turned; bent at an acute angle; as, a sharp turn of

54

the road. —4. Acute of mind; quick to discern or distinguish; penetrating; ready at invention; witty; ingenious; discriminating; shrewd; Bubtle. 'The sharpest witted lover in Arcadia.' Sir P. Sidney.

Nothing makes men sharper than want. Addison.

Many other things belong to the material world wherein the sharpest philosophers have not yet obtained clear ideas. Watts.

Hence—5. Subtle; nice; witty; acute: said of things. 'Sharp and subtle discourses.' Hooker.

He pleaded still not guilty and alleged

Many sharp reasons to defeat the law. Shah.

6. Affecting the organs of sense, as if pointed or cutting; as, (a) quick or keen of sight; vigilant; attentive; as, a sharp eye; sharp sight.

To sharp-eyed reason this would seem untrue.
Dryden.

(?>) Affecting the organs of taste like fine points; sour; acid; acrid; bitter; as, sharp vinegar; «Aarp-tasted citrons. 'Sharp physic' Shak. (c) Affecting the organs of hearing like sharp points; piercing; penetrating; shrill; as, a sharp sound or voice.

The sound strikes so sharp as you can scarce endure it. Baton.

7. Keen; acrimonious; severe; harsh; biting; sarcastic; cutting; as, sharp words; sharp rebuke.

Be thy words severe. Sharp as he merits; but the sword forbear. Dryden.

8. Severely rigid; quick or severe in punishing; cruel.

To that place the sharp Athenian law
Cannot pursue us. Shaft.

9. Eager in pursuit; keen in quest; eager for food; as, a sharp appetite.

My falcon now is sharp and passing empty. Shiih.
To satisfy the sharp desire 1 had
Of tasting these fair apples. Milton.

10. Fierce; ardent; fiery; violent; impetuous; as, a sharp contest.

A sharp assault already is begun. Dryden.

11. Severe; afflicting; very painful or distressing; as, sharp tribulation; a sharp fit of the gout. 'A sharp torture.' Tillotson.

Sharp misery had worn him to the bones. Shak.

12. Biting; pinching; piercing; as, sharp air; shatp wind or weather.—13. Gritty; hard; as, sharp sand. —14. Emaciated; lean; thin; as, a sharp visage. —15. Keenly alive to one's own interest; keen and close in making bargains or in exacting one's dues; ready to take advantage; barely honest: of persons; hence, characterized by such keenness: of things.

I will not say he is dishonest, but at any rate he is sharp. Trollope.

Yet there was a remarkable gentleness and childishness about these people, a special inaptitude for any kind of sharp practice. Dickens.

16. In phonetics, applied to a consonant pronounced or uttered with breath and not with voice; surd; non-vocal; as, the sharp mutes p, t,k.—17. In music, (a)raised a semitone, as a note. (&) Too high; so high as to be out of tune or above true pitch.— Sharp is often used adverbially. See separate entry. To brace sharp (naut), to turn the yards to the most oblique position possible that the ship may sail well up to the wind.— Sharp is frequently used in the formation of compounds, many of which are selfexplanatory; as, sharp-cornered, sharpedged, sharp-pointed, sharp-toothed, &c.

Sharp (sharp),n. 1. An acute or shrill sound. 'The lark, straining harsh discords and unpleasiug sharps.' Shak.—2. In music, (a) a note artificially raised a semitone. (6) The sign (%) which, when placed on a line or space of the staff at the commencement of a movement, raises all the notes on that line or space or their octaves a semitone in pitch. When, in the course of the movement, it precedes a note, it has the same effect on it or its repetition, but only within the same bar.— Double sharp, a character (x) used in chromatic music, and which raises a note two Bemi tones above its natural pitch.—3. A sharp consonant. See the adjective.—4. pi. The hard parts of wheat which require grinding a second time. Called also Middlings.—5. t A pointed weapon. Jeremy Collier.—6. A portion of a stream where the water runs very rapidly. C. Kingsley, [Provincial.]—7. A sewing-needle, one of the most pointed of the three grades — blunts, betweens, and sharps.

Sharp (sharp), v.t. 1. To make keen or acute; to sharpen. 'To sharp my sense.' Spenser.—2. To mark with a sharp, in musi

SHARPNESS

cal composition, or to raise a note a semitone. Sharp (sharp), p.t. To play tricks in bargaining; to act the sharper.

Your scandalous life is only cheating or sharping one half of the year and starving the other.

Sir R. L' Estrange.

Sharp (sharp), adv. 1. Sharply.

No ma rvel, though you bite so sharp at reasons. Sha£. Is a man bound to look out sharp to plague himself? Jeremy Collier.

2. Exactly; to the moment; not a minute behind.

Captain Osborne . . . will bring him to the 150th mess at live o'clock sharp. Thackeray.

Sharp-CUt (sharp'kut), a. Cut sharply and clearly; cut so as to present a clear, welldeflned outline, as a figure on a medal or an engraving; hence, presenting great distinctness; well-deflned; clear.

Sharpen (sharp'n), v.t. [From the adjective ] To make sharp or sharper; as, (a) to give a keen edge or fine point to; to edge; to point; as, to sharpen a knife, an axe, or the teeth of a saw; to sharpen a sword.

All the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen every man his share and his coulter, and his axe and his mattock. 1 Sam. xiii. 30.

(&) To make more eager or active; as, to sharpen the edge of industry. Hooker.

(c) To make more intense, as grief, joy, pain, «fcc.

It may contribute to his misery, heighten the anguish, and sharpen the sting of conscience.

South.

(d) To make more quick, acute, or ingenious. 'Quickness of wit, either given by nature or sharpened by study.' Ascham. (e)Torender quicker or keener of perception.

The air sharpen'd his visual ray

To objects distant far. Milton.

(/) To render more keen; to make more eager for food or for any gratification; as, tosharpeniheappetite; to sharpen* deaire.

Epicurean cooks
Sharpen with cloyless sauce his appetite. Shak.

(g) To make biting, sarcastic, or severe. 'Sharpen each word.' Ed. Smith. (A) To render more shrill or piercing.

Iuclosures not only preserve sound, but increase and sharpen it. Bacon.

(i) To make more tart or acid; to make sour;

as, the rays of the sun sharpen vinegar.—

(J) In music, to raise, as a sound, by means

of a sharp; to apply a sharp to. Sharpen (sharp'n), v.i. To grow or become

sharp. 'Now she sharpens Shak. Sharper (sharp'er), n. [See the adjective]

A shrewd man in making bargains; a tricky

fellow; a rascal; a cheat in bargaining or

gaming.

Sharpers, as pikes, prey upon their own kind.
Sir R. L'Estrange.
Who proffers his past favours for niy virtue
Tries to o'crreach me—is a very sharper.

Coleridge.

Sharp-gTOUnd (sharp'ground), a. Whetted till it is sharp; sharpened. 'No sharpground knife.' Shak.

Sharpie (sharp'i), n. Xaut. a long, sharp, flat-bottomed sail-boat. [United States.]

Sharpllng(sharp'ling),n. A flan, the stickleback. [Provincial.]

Sharp-looking (sharp'lqk-mg), a. Having the appearance of sharpness; hungry looking; emaciated; lean. 'A needy, holloweyed, sharp-looking wretch.' Shak.

Sharply (sharp'li), adv. In a sharp or keen manner; as, (a) with a keen edge or a fine point, (b) Severely; rigorously; roughlv. 'Rebuke them sharply.' Tit. i. 13. (c) Keenly; acutely; vigorously; as. the mind and memory sharply exercised, (d) Vio lently; vehemently.

At the arrival of the English ambassadors, the sol diers were sharply assailed with wants. Hayward

(<•) With keen perception; exactly; minutely.

You contract your eye when you would see sharf.'y. Bacon.

if) Acutely; wittily; with nice discernment 'To this the Panther sharply had replied.' Dryden. (ff)Abruptly; steeply; as, the bank rises sharply up.

Sharpness (sharp'nes). n. The state or quality of being sharp; as, (a) keenness of an edge or point; as, the sliarpness of a razor or a dart, (b) Pungency; acidity; as, the sharpfiess of vinegar, (c) Eagerness of desire or pursuit; keenness of appetite, as for food, and the like, (d) Pungency of pain; keenness; severity of pain or affliction; as, the sharpness of pain, grief, or anguish; the sharpness of death or calamity.

And the best quarrels in the heat are curst

By those that feel their sharpness. Shot.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

(#) Severity of language; pungency; satirical i&r -aam; as, the sharpness of satire or rebuke.

some did all folly with just sharpness blame.

Dryden.

CO Acuteness of intellect; the power of nice discernment, quickness of understanding; ingenuity; as, sharpness of wit or understanding, (i/) Quickness of sense or perception; as, the sharpness of sight, (A) Keeuness; severity; as, the sAarpn*>« of the air or weather. (0 Keenness and closeness in transacting business or exacting one's dues; equivocal honesty; as, his practice is characterized by too much sharpness. Sharp-Bet (sharp'set), a. 1. Eager in appetite; affected by keen hunger; ravenous.

The sh.tr/-jrf squire resolves at last.
Whate'er befel hun not to fast. Somsrville.

2. Eager in desire of gratiflcatioa [Familiar in both senses. ]

The town is sharp-set on new plays. Pope.

Sharp-shooter (sharp'shot-er), n. One skilled in shooting at an object with exactness; one skilled in the use of the rifle. In miiit a name formerly given to some of the best shots of a company, who were armed with rifles, and took aim in firing. They are now superseded by the better arms ami organization of modern armies.

Sharp - shooting (sharp'shbt-ing), n. A shooting with great precision and effect, as riflemen. Applied also to a sharp skirmish of wit or would-be wit.

The frequent repetition of this playful inquiry on the part of Mr- Pecksniff, led at last to playful answers on the part of Mr. Montague, but after some little sharpsheeting on both sides, Mr. Pecksniff became grave almost »o tears. Dickens.

Sharp-sighted (sharp'sit-ed), a 1. Having quick or acute sight; as, a sharp-sighted eagle or hawk—2. Having quick discernment or acute understanding; as, a sharprighted opponent; sharp-sighted judgment. •A healthy, perfect, and sharp-sighted mind.' Sir J. Daeies.

Sharp-tail (sharp'tal), n. A passerine bird of the sub-family SynallaxinM, family CerthMie or creepers.

Sharp-visaged (sharp'viz-ajd), a. Having a sharp or thin face.

The Welsh that inhabit the mountains are commonly sharf-visagtd. Sir At. Hate.

Sharp-witted (sharp'wit-ed).o. Having an acute or nicely-discerning mind. 'A number of duLl-sighted, very sharp-witted men.' Wot ton.

Shaaht (shash). n. 1. A sash. Cotton 2. A turban. Fuller.

Sha8ter,Shastnnshas'ter,shas'tra),n. [Skr. shastra, from than, to teach. J A law or book of laws among the Hindus: applied particularly to a book containing the authorized institutes of their religion, and considered of divine origin. The term is applied, in a wider sense,to treatises containing the laws or institutes of the various arts and sciences, as rhetoric.

Shathmont (shath'mont). n. [See ShaftXan ] A measure of 6 inches. [Scotch.]

Shatter (shat'ter), v t. [A softened form of scatter; to shatter is literally to smash into small pieces that scatter or fly apart See Scatter. ] 1. To break at once into many

Eieces; to dash, burst, or part by violence it-> fragments; to rend, split, or rive into splinters; as, an explosion of gunpowder shatters arock; lightning shatters the sturdy oak.

He raised a sigh so piteous and profound.

As it did seem to shatter all his bulk. Shak.

2, To break up; to disorder; to derange; to give a destructive shock to; to overthrow; as. bis mind was now quite shattered.

In the strength of this I rode. Shattering' all evil cmtoms everywhere. Tennyson.

3. t To scatter; to disperse.

I come to pluck your berries harsh and crude,
Au-i with fore'd fingers rude
Shatter your leaver before the mellowing year.
Milton.

11 To dissipate; to make incapable of close and continued application. * A man... of shattered humour.' Sorris. Shatter (shafterX v i. To be broken into fragments; to fall or crumble to pieces by any force applied.

Some shatter and fly in many places. Bacon.

Shatter {shat'ter), n. One part of many into which anything is broken; a fragment: used chiefly in the plural, and in the phrases to break or rend into shatters.

Sbcfc the candle so loose, that it will fall uj>on the F*i» of the sconce, and break it into shatters.

Swiff.

*

Shatter-brain (shat'ter-bran), n* A careless giddy person; a scatter-brain.

Shatter-brained, Shatter-pated (shafter-brand, shat'ter-pat-ed), a. Disordered in intellect; intellectually weak; scatterbrained.

You cannot . . . but conclude that religion and devotion are far from being the mere effects of ignorance and imposture, whatever some shatterbrained and debauched persons would fain persuade themselves and others. Dr. J. Goodman.

Shattery (shat-terT), a. Brittle; easily falling into many pieces; not compact; loose of texture.

A coarse grit-stone ... of too shattery a nature to be used except in ordinary buildings. Pennant.

Shauchle, Shaughle(ahach1)(tJ.i. To walk with a shuttling or shambling gait. [Scotch.]

Shauchle, Shaughle (shach'l), v. t To distort from the proper shape or right direction by use or wear.—Shauahled moon, shoes trodden down on one side by bad walking; applied to a jilted woman. Burns; Sir Scott. [Scotch.]

Shaul (shal), a. Shallow. 'Duncan deep, and Peebles shaitl.* Burns. [Scotch]

Shave (shav), v.t. pret. shaved; pp. shaved or shaven; ppr. shaving. [A Sax. sea/an, to shave, to scrape, to smooth, to plane; common to the Teutonic tongues; iceL scafa, Dan. skave, Sw. skafva, D. tchaaven, Goth. skaban, O. schaben: same root as Gr. skaptti, to dig; L. scabo, to Bcrape.] 1. To cut or pare off from the surface of a body by a razor or other edged instrument; as, to shave the beard, Often with of.

Neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard. Lev. xxi. 5.

2. To pare close; to make smooth or bare by cutting or paring from the surface of; especially, to remove the hair from by a razor or other sharp instrument; as, to shave the chin or head; tu shave hoops or staves.

The bending scythe
Shaves all the surface of the waving green. Cay.

3. To cut in thin slices. 'Plants bruised or shaven in leaf or root.' Bacon.—4. To skim along or near the surface of; to sweep along.

He scours the right-hand coast, sometimes the left; Now shaves with level wing the deep. Milton.

5. To strip; to oppress by extortion; to fleece.—To shave a note, to purchase it at a great discount, or to take interest upon it much beyond the legal rate. [United States colloquialism.]

Shave (Bhav), v.i. 1. To use the razor; to remove the beard or other hair with a razor.

2. To he hard and severe in bargains; to cheat.

Shave (shav), n. [See the verb] 1. The act or operation of Bhaving; a cutting off of the beard.—2. A thin slice; a shaving.—3. An instrument with a long blade and a handle at each end for Bhaving hoops, &c.; also, a spokeshave. —4. The act of passing so closely as almost to strike or graze; an exceedingly narrow miss or escape: often with close or near. [Colloq.]

The next instant the hind coach passed my engine by a shave. Dickens.

'By Jove, that was a near shave I' This exclamation was drawn from us by a bullet which whistled within an inch of our heads. IV. H. Russell.

5. A false report or alarm voluntarily propagated with a view to deceive; a trick. [Slang]

The deep gloom of apprehension—at first a shave of old Smiths, then a well-authenticated report.

IV. H Russell.

Shave-grass (shav'gras), n. A plant of the genus Equisetum (E. hyemale) employed for polishing wood, ivory, and brass. See

EyCISETUM.

Shaveling (shavling), n. A man shaved; hence, a friar or religieux. [In contempt.]

By St. George and the Dragon, I am no longer a shaveling than while my frock is on my back.

Sir IY. Scoff.

Shaver (shav'er), n. 1. One who shaves or wtiose occupation is to shave.—2. One who is close in bargains or a sharp dealer.

This Lewis is a cunning shaver Swiff.

3. One who fleeces; a pillager; a plunderer.

By these shavers the Turks were stripped of all they had. k'noties.

4. A humorous fellow; a wag.—5. A Jocular name for a young boy; a youngster. [Compare as to this last sense Gypsy diavo, a child]

Shavie (shaven. A trick or prank. 'Mony a prank an' mirthfu' shavie? Blackwood's Mag. [Scotch.]

Shaving (shaving), n. 1. The act of one who shaves.— 2. A thin slice pared off with

a shave, a knife, a plane, or other cutting instrument.

Shaving-brush (shav'ing-brush),n. A brush used in shaving, for spreading the lather over the beard.

Shaw (sha), n. [A Scandinavian word; Dan. skov, IceL skdgr, Sw. skog, a wood or grove.] 1. A thicket; a small wood; a shady place. 'Thisgrene shaw.' Chaucer. 'Close hid beneath the greenwood shaw.' Fairfax.—1. A stem with the leaves, as of a potato, turnip, &c. [Now only Scotch or northern English in both Benses.]

Shaw (sha), v.t. To show. [Scotch.]

Shaw-fowl (sha'foul), n. [Shaw here a form of show.) The representation or image of a fowl made by fowlers to shoot at.

Shawl (shal), n. [Fr. chdle, from Ar. and Per. shdl, a shawl.] An article of dress, usually of a square or oblong shape, worn by persons of both sexes in the East, but in the west chiefly by females as a loose body or shoulder covering. Shawls are of several sizes and divers materials, as silk, cotton, hair, or wool; and occasionally they are formed of a mixture of some or all these staples. Some of the Eastern shawls, as those of Cashmere, are very beautiful anil costly fabrics. They are now successfully imitated in Europe. The use of the shawl in Europe, at least of a vestment under that name, belongs almost entirely to the present century.

Shawl (shal), v.t. To cover with a shawl.

Rebecca was shawling herself in an upper apartment. Thackeray.

Shawm, Shalm (sham), n. [O.Fr. chaleinel. Mod. Fr. chalurneau, from calamellus, a dim. of L. calamus, a reed, a reed-pipe.] An old wind-instrument similar in form to the clarionet. Others think it was formed of pipes made of reed or of wheaten or oaten straw.

Shay (sha), n. A chaise. Lamb. [Colloq. vulgarism.]

Shaya (sha'a), n. Oldenlandia umbellata. See Shaya-boot.

Shaya-root (sha'a-rbt), n. The root of the Oldenlandia umbellata, nat. order Cinchonaceae. The outer bark of the roots of this plant furnishes the colouring matter for the

[graphic]

Shaya {Oldenlandia umbellata).

durable red for which the chintzes of India are famous. The plant grows wild on the Coromandel coast, and is also cultivated there. The leaves are considered by the native doctors as expectorant. Written also Chaya-root. She (she), pron. —possessive her or hers, dative her, objective her; nom. pi. they, possessive their or theirs, dative them, objective them. [A. Sax. set. the. that, the nom. fem. of the def. art. Though now used as the feminine corresponding to he, it is not strictly so, having taken the place of heft, the proper feminine, in the twelfth century. It was first used in the northern dialects as a pronoun in the forms sco, sho. The possessive her and the later hers are from the old feminine pronoun hed, genit. hire; whereas, sed had genit thatre] 1. The nominative feminine of the pronoun of the third person, used as a substitute for the name of a female, or of something personified in the feminine; the word which refers to a female mentioned in the preceding or following part of a sentence or discourse.

Then Sarah denied, saying, 1 laughed not; for she was afraid. Gen. xviii. 15.

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