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(or rent, possessory actions, dfce., in which cases there is an appeal from the decision of the sheriff-substitute to the sheriff, and from him to the Court of Session. He has ilso a summary Jurisdiction in small debt esses, where the value is not more than £11 In criminal cases the sheriff has jurisdiction in all offences the punishment for which it not more than two years' imprisonment. He has also jurisdiction in bankruptcy cases to any amount.

Sheriffalty (gher'if-al-ti), n, A sheriffship; a shrievalty.

Sheriff-clerk (sher'if-klark),n. In Scotland, the clerk of the sheri ff's court, who has charge nl the records of the court He registers the judgments of the court, and issues them to the proper parties.

Sheriff-geld (sher'if-geld), n. A rent formerly paid by a sheriff.

Sheriff-officer (sher'if-of-ns-er), n. In Scotland, an officer connected with the sheriffcmirt, who is charged with arrests, the serving of processes, and the like.

Sheriffship (sher'if-ship), n. The office or jurisdiction of a sheriff; a shrievalty.

Sheriff-tooth (sher'if-ttfth), n, A tenure by the service of providing entertainment for the iheriff at his county courts; a common tax formerly levied for the sheriff's diet Wharton.

Sheriffwick (aher'If-wik> Same as Sherifftkip,

Sherria,t Sherris-sack t (sherls, sher'issakX "■ Sherry.

Your sherris warms the blood. Skak.

But. all his vast heart sherris-wzrmed,
He flashed his random speeches. Tennyson.

Sherry (sher'ri), n. A species of wine, so called from Xercs in Spain, where it is made. The highest class of the many varieties ore those that are technically called 'dry,' that is. free from sweetness, such as the Amontillado, Montilla, Manzanilla. <&c. It is much used in this country, and when pure it agrees well with most constitutions. Genuine and unadulterated sherry, however, brings a very high price, and is rarely to be had, inferior Cape wines, <fcc, being extensively scild under this name. Written formerly 8urrfs.

Sherry-cobbler (sher-ri-kol/ler), n. Sherry and iced water sucked up through a straw.

Sherry-vallies (sher'ri-val-iz), n. pL [Corrupted from Fr. chevalier, a horseman] Pantaloons of thick cloth or leather, worn buttoned round each leg over other pantaloon* when riding. [United States.]

Sherte.t n. A shirt; also, a skirt or lap. Chancer.

She-slip (she'slip), n. A young female scion, branch, or member. 'The slight slictiipi of loyal blood.' Tennyson.

She-society (slie-s6-si'e-ti), n. Female society. Teimysvn.

Shete,* v.t. or i. To shoot. Chaucer.

Shette.t Shet.t v.t To close or shut Chaucer.

Sheugh (sbueh or shuch), n. [See SHAFT (of smineV] A furrow; a ditch; a gulf. [Scotch.]

Shew, Shewed, Shewn (shd, shod, sh&n> See Saow, Showkii, Shown.

Shew-bread (sh6'bred> See Show-breap.

Shewel, t Sheweile, t ». An example; something held up to give warning of danger (Sares); a scarecrow (Trench).

So are these bog-bean of opinions brought by great dcarkes into the world, to serve as shrwel/es, to keep th«n from thrase faults whereto else the vanitie of the world and wc&kaeste of senses might pull them.

Sir P. Sidney.

Shewer (sho'er), n. One that shows. In Sc-oim laic she wers in jury causes are the persons named by the court, usually on the ■uggestton of the parties, to accompany the six jurors when a view is allowed. See Viewers.

She-world (she'werld), n. The female inhabitants of the world or of a particular portion of it 'Head and heart of all our Uir the world.' Tennytton.

Sheytan (shA'tan), 71. An Oriental name f»r the devil or a devil.

ShUh, n. See Shiite.

Shibboleth (shit/bo leth), n. [Heb., a stream or flood, from $hdbai, to go, to flow copiously ] X. A word which was made the criterion by which to distinguish the Ephraimites from the Gileadites. The Ephraimites not being able to pronounce the letter t?. *K pronounced the word sibboleth. See Jndg lii. Hence—2. The criterion, test, or watchword of a party; that which distinguishes one party from another; usually,

some peculiarity in things of little importance.

But what becomes of Benthamism, shorn of its shibboleth its pet phrase, 'greatest happiness of greatest Humbert' Quart. Rev.

Shidder (shid'er). See Hiddeh.

Shlde (fillid), n, [ A. Sax. nctdc, a billet of wood; IceL skith, G. scheite; from verb to divide—A. Sax. sceddan. Or. ache Ulan, Goth. skaidan (cog. L. teindo, Gr. schizo, to split). See also Shed, v.t ] A piece split off; a piece; a billet of wood; a splinter. 'Shides ofokes, with wedgesgreat they dive.' Phaer. [Old and provincial.]

Shle, Shy (ahi), v.t rLit. to toss obliquely; A Sax. sceoh, I eel. skeifr, askew; Dan. skiev, oblique; tkieve, to slant, slope, swerve. See Skew.] To throw; to toss obliquely; to throw askance; as,tos/tieastone. [Familiar]

Shlel (shel), v.t To take out of the husk; to shell. [Scotch.]

Shiel (shel), n. Shieling; hut; shelter. * The swallow Jinkin' round my shiel.' Burns. [Scotch. ]

Shield (sheldX n. [A. Sax scild, scyld, sceld, a shield, refuge, protection; common to the Teutonic languages; Goth, skiidus, I eel. skjoldr, G. schild, from root seen in Icel. skjdl, Dan. skjul, shelter, protection, IceL and Sw. skyla, Dan. skiule, to cover, protect; Skr. sku, to cover. Akin shelter.] L A broad piece of defensive armour carried on the arm; a buckler, used in war for the protection of the body. The shields of the ancients were of different shapes and sizes, triangular, square, oval, Ac., made of leather, or wood covered with leather, and borne on the left arm. This species of armour was a good defence against arrows, darts, spears, Ac., but would be no protection against bullets.—2. Anything that protects or defends; defence; shelter; protection. 'My council is my shield.' ShaJc—S. Fig. the person that defends or protects; as, a chief, the ornament and shield of the nation.

Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. Gen. xv. i.

4. In her. the escutcheon or field on which are placed the bearings in coats of arms. The Bhape of the shield upon which heraldic bearings are displayed is left a good deal to fancy; the form of the lozenge, however, is


1. Loxenge-shield. a and 3, Fanciful forms. 4, Spade

shield—the best heraldic form.

used only by single ladies and widows. The shield used in funeral processions is of a square form, something larger than the escutcheon, and divided per pale, the one half being sable, or the whole black, as the case may be, with a scroll border around, and in the centre the arms of the deceased upon a shield of the usual form.—5. In bot. a little cup with a hard disc, surrounded by a rim, and containing the fructification of lichens; an npothecium. — 6. In mining, a framework for protecting a miner in working an adit, pushed forward as the work progresses. — 7.t A spot resembling or suggesting a shield.

Bespotted as with shields of red and black. Sfenser.

Shield (aheld), v.t. 1. To cover, as with a shield; to cover or protect from danger or anything hurtful or disagreeable; to defend; to protect; as, to shield a person or thing from the Bun's rays. 'To shield thee from diseases of the world.' Shak. 'To see the son the vanquish'd father shield.' Dryden.

2. To ward off.

They brought with them their usual weeds, fit to shield the cold, to which they had been inured.


3. To forfend; to forbid; to avert.

God shield I should disturb devotion. Shak.

Shield-drake (sheld'drak), n. Same as Sheldrake.

Shield-fern (sheld'fem), n. A common name for ferns of the genus Aspidium, nat. order Polypodiacew, so named from the form of the indusfum of the fructification. The sori are roundish and scattered or deposited in ranks; the indusia solitary, roundly-peltate or kidney-shaped, fixed by the middle or the edge. The species are numerous and beautiful. Thirteen are natives of Britain, among which is the male-fern (A. FUix mas), the stem of which has been employed us an anthelmintic and as an emmenagngue and purgative. The fragrant shield-fern (A. fragrans) has been employed as a substitute for tea.

Shieldless (sheld'les), a. Destitute of a shield or of protection. 'The shieldless maid.' Southey.

Shleldlessly (sheldles-li), adv. In a Bhieldless manner; without protection.

Shieldlessness (sheld'les-nes), n. The state or quality of being shieldless; destitution of a shield or of protection.

Shield-shaped (sheld'shapt), a. Having the shape of a shield; scutate; as, ti shield-shaped leaf. Lindley.

Shieling, Shielling (Bhel'ing;), n. Same as Shealing.

Shift (shift), v.t [A. Sax. tcuftan, to divide, to order, to drive away; LG. schiften, to divide, to part; Dan. skifte, to change, to shift, to divide; Icel. skipta, to divide, distribute, also to change. Perhaps from root of sliove. ] 1. To transfer from one place or position to another; to change; to alter.

Unto Southampton do we shift our scene. Shak.

The other impecunious person contrived to make both ends meet by shifting his lodgings from time to time. W. Black.

2. To pnt off or out of the way by some expedient. *I shifted him away.' Shak.—

3. To change, as clothes; as, to shift a coat 4 To dress in fresh clothes, particularly fresh linen.

As it were, to ride day and night; and . . . not to have patience 10 shift me. Shak.

—To shift off, (a) to delay; to defer; as, to shift off the duties of religion. (6) To put away; to disengage or disencumber one's self of, as of a burden or inconvenience. Shift (shift), v.i. 1. To change; to give place to other things; to pass into a different form, state, or the like.

The sixth age shifts

Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon. Shak.

If the ideas . . . constantly change and shift . . . it would be impossible for a man to think long of any one thing. Locke.

2. To move; to change place, position, or direction. 'As winds from all the compass shift and blow.' Tennyson.

Here the Baillie shifted and fidgetted about in bis seat. Sir If. Scott.

3. To change dress, particularly the under


When from the sheets her lovely form she lifts.
She begs you just would turn you while she shifts.

4. To resort to expedients; to adopt some course iu a case of difficulty; to contrive; to manage; to seize one expedient when another fails.

Men in distress will look to themselves and leave their companions to shift as well as they can.

Sir R. £ Estrange.

5. To practise indirect methods.

All those schoolmen, though they were exceeding witty, yet better teach all their followers to shift than

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to resolve by their distinctions. Raleigh

o\t To digress.

Thou hast shifted out of thy tale into telling me of the fashion. Shak.

7. t To divide; to part; to distribute. Chancer. —To shift about, to turn quite round to a contrary side or opposite point; to vacillate. Shift (shift), n, 1. A change; a substitution of one thing for another.

My going to Oxford was not mcrdy for shift of air. li'otton.

2. A turning from one thing to another; hence, an expedient tried in difficulty; a contrivance; a resource; one thing tried when another fails.

Ill find a thousand shifts to get away. Shak. (Eric) had to run with his queen Gunnhilda and seven small children; no other shift for Eric.


3. In a bad sense, mean refuge; last resource; mean or indirect expedient; trick to escape detection or evil; fraud; artifice.

For little souls on little shifts rely. Dryden.

When pious frauds and holy shifts

Are dispensations and gifts. Hudilras.

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4. [Lit. a change of underclothing.] A woman's under garment; a chemise.—6. A squad of men to take a spell or turn of work at stated intervals; hence, the working time of a squad or relay of men; the spell or turn of work; as, a day shift; a night shift.—6. In mining, a fault or dislocation of a seam or stratum, accompanied by depression of one portion, destroying the continuity.—7. In building, a mode of arranging the tiers of bricks, timbers, planks, «c, so that the joints of adjacent rows shall not coincide — 8. In music, a change of the position of the left hand in violin playing, by which the first finger of the player has to temporarily become the nut. Shifts are complete changes of four notes; thus, the first shift is when the first finger is on A of the first string; the second shift, when it is on D above.— Shift of crops:, in agri. an alteration or variation in the succession of crops; rotation of crops; as, a farm is wrought on the five years' shift* on the six years' shiftTo make shift, or to make a shift, to devise; to contrive; to use expedients; to find ways and means to do something or overcome a difficulty.

I hope I shall make shift to go without him.
Ska k.

Shiftable(shiit'a-bl), a. Capable of being

shifted or changed. Shifter (sniffer), n. 1. One who shifts or

changes; as, scene-shifter.— 2. One who plays

tricks or practises artifice.

And let those shifters their own judges be.
If they have not been arrant thieves to me.

"John Taylor.

3. Naut. a person employed to assist the ship's cook in washing, steeping, and shifting the salt provisions.

Shiftiness (shif'ti-nes), n. The quality of being shifty in all its senses.

Shifting (shift'ing), p. and a. Changing place or position; resorting from one expedient to another.— Shifting beach, a beach of gravel liable to be shifted or moved by the action of the Bea or the current of rivers— Shifting sand or sands, loose moving sand; quicksand.

Who stems a stream with shifting sand,

Or fetters flame with flaxen band. Sir It'. Scott,

Shifting or secondary use, in law. See Use. Shifting centre. Same as Metacentre.

Shifting (shift'ing), n. 1. Act of changing; change. 'The nhiftings of ministerial measures.' Burke. —2. The act of having recourse to equivocal expedients; evasion; artifice; shift. 'Subtle shifting.*.' Mir. for Mags.

Shiftingly (shift'ing-li), adv. In a shifting manner; "by shifts and changes; deceitfully.

Shiftless (shift'les), a Destitute of expedients, or not resorting to successful expedients; wanting means to act or live; as, a shiftless fellow.

Shiftlessly (shiMes-li), adv. Iu a shiftless manner.

Shiftlessness (shift'les-nes), n. A state of being shiftless.

Shifty (shif'ti), o. 1. Changeable; shifting. £din. Rev. [Rare.]-2. Full of shifts; fertile in expedients; well able to shift for one's self.

Shifty and thrifty as old Greek or modern Scot, there were few things he could not invent, and perhaps nothing he could not endure. Kmgsley.

3. Full of or ready in shifts, in a bad sense; fertile in evasions; given to tricks and artifices.

Shiite, Shiah (shTIt, shi'a), n. [Ar. shiai, sectarian or schismatic; shiah, shktt, a multitude following one another in the pursuit of some object, hence, the Beet of AM; from shda,to follow.) A memberof one of the two great sects into which Mohammedans are divided, the other sect being the Sunnites or Sunnis. The Shiites consider Ali as being the only rightful successor of Mohammed. They do not acknowledge the Sunna, or body of traditions respecting Mohammed, as any part of the law, and on these accounts are treated as heretics by the Sunnites or orthodox Mohammedans. The Shiahs are represented by nearly the whole Persian nation, and call themselves also elAdiliyyat, or 'the Upright,' while the Sunnites are represented by the Ottoman Turks.

Shikaree, Shikarree (shi-kar'e), n. In the East Indies, a native attendant hunter; hence, applied generally fen a sportsman.

We came upon the traces of a heir, quite recent, so much so that the shikaree or huntsman said that he could not be twenty yards away.

//". //. Russell.

Shllf (shilf), n. [The same word as G. schilf,

sedge.] Straw. [Provincial English.]

Shlll (shil). v.t. [IceL skyla. See Shielp.] To put under cover; to Bheal. [Provincial English. ]

Shlllalah, Shillaly (shil-hVla, shil-lali), n. Same as Shillelah (which Bee).

Shillelah (shil-lel'a), n. [From Shillelagh, a barony in Wicklow, famous for its oaks: a corruption of Siol Elaigh, the descendants of Elach—siol (pron. shel), seed, and Elaigh, Elach.] An Irish name for an oaken sapling or other stick used as a cudgel.

Shililng(shU'ing).n. [A. S&x. scylling.O.Tris. O.Sax. Dan. and Sw. skilling, Goth, skilliggs, G. schilling, probably from a root seen in IceL and Sw. skilja, Dan. skille, to divide, the ancient shilling having been divided by two cross indentations, Btamped deeply into it so as to be easily broken into four parts. Comp. Dan. skillemynt, from skille, to sever, and mynt, coin, and G. scheidemiinze, from scheiden, to divide, and munze, coin—both meaning small change.] A British coin of currency and account, equal in value to twelve pennies, or to one twentieth of a pound sterling. Previous to the reign of Edward I. it fluctuated greatly in value, from fivepence to twentypence, with various intermediate values. The same name, under the forms skilling and schilling, is applied to coins of Germany, Denmark, and: Norway. Shilling is also applied to different divisions of the dollar in the United States currency,

Shilli-shaUl Shilly-shally (shilli-shal-i). v.i. [A reduplication of shall If and equal to Bhall I or shall I not?] To act in an irresolute or undecided manner; to hesitate; as, tliis is not a time to shilly-shally.

ShilU-shaUi. Shilly-shally (shii'ii-shal-i), adv. In an irresolute or hesitating manner.

I don't stand shdl-I-shall-I then: if I say't, III do't. longrrve.

Shilli-shalli, Shilly-shally (shilTi-shal'i). n. Foolish trifling; irresolution. [Colloq.]

She lost not one of her forty five minutes in picking and choosing— no shilly-shally in Kate.

De Quincev.

Shilpit (shil'pit), a. 1. Weak; washy and'insipid. 'Sherry's but shUpif drink. Sir W. Scott. [Scotch.]—2. Of a sickly white colour; feeble-looking. [Scotch.]

The laird . . . pronounced her to be but a shilpit thitiR. Miss Ftrrier.

Shily (shiliY Same as Shyly.

Shim (shim), n. 1. In mach. a thin piece of metal placed between two parts to make a fit.— 2. A tool, used in tillage, to break down the land or to cut it up and clear it of weeds. Called also a Shim-plough.

Shimmer (shim'er), v.i. [A. Sax. scymrian, freq. of seimian, to gleam, from sctma, a gleam, brightness, splendour; Dan. skimre, G. schimmern, to gleam.} To emit a tremulous light; to gleam; to glisten. 'The shimmering glimpses of a stream.' Tennyson.

Twinkling faint, and distant far.
Shimmers through nn&t each planet star.

Sir If Scott.

Shimmer (shim'er), n. A tremulous gleam or glistening.

The silver lamps . . . diffused . . a trembling twilight or seeming shimmer through the quiet apartment. Sir W. Scott.

Shim-plough (shim'plou), n. See Shim.

Shin (shin), n. [A. Sax. scin, the shin, scinbiin, the shin-bone; Dan. skinne, the shin, a splint; skinnebeen, D. scheen, scheenbeen, the shin-bone; G. schiene, a splint of wood, schien-bein, the shin-bone: so called from its sharp edge resembling that of a splint of wood.] The forepart of the leg between the ankle and the knee, particularly of the human leg; the forepart of the crural bone, called tibia.

Shin (shin), v.i 1. To climb a tree by means of the hands and legs alone; to swarm.

Nothing for it but the tree: so Tom laid his bones to it, shinning up as fast as he could. T Hughes.

2. To borrow money. [U.S. See Shinner. ]

Shin (shin), v.t To climb by embracing with the arms and legs and working or pulling one's self up; as, to shin a tree.

Shin-bone (shin'bon), n. The bone of the shin; the tibia.

Shindlet (shin'dl), n. 1. A Bhingle. 'Boards or shindies of the wild oak.' Holland.— 2. A roofing Blate.

Shindlet (shin'dl),r t. To cover or roof with shingles. Holland.

Shindy (shin'di), n. ['A shindy approaches so nearly in sound to the Gypsy word chingaree, which means precisely the same thing, that the suggestion is at least worth consideration. And it also greatly resem

bles chindi, which may be translated as 'cutting up,'and also 'quarrel.' 'To cut up shindies' was the first form in which this extraordinary word reached the public." C. O. Leland.] 1. A row; a spree. [Slang.]— 2. A liking; a fancy. Haliburton. [American.]—3. A game of ball; shinty. Bartlett. [American.]

Shine (shin). t>.t. pret. shone; pp. shone; ppr. nhining; shined, pret. & pp., is now obsolete or vulgar. (A. Sax. scinan, D. schijnen, Icel. skina, Dan. skiime, Goth, skeinan, G. scheinen, to shine. Probably from a root skan. skand, seen withoutthe s in L. candeo, toshine; candidus, white; candor, whiteness (whence E. candid, candour); Skr. chand, to be light or clear ] 1. To emit rays of light; to give light; to beam with steady radiance; to exhibit brightness or Bplendour; as, the Mim shines by day: the moon shines by night. —Sinning differs from sparkling, glistening, glittering, as it usually implies a steady radiation or emission of light, whereas the latter words usually imply irregular or interrupted radiation. This distinction is not always observed, and we may say the fixed stars shine as well as that they sparkle. But we never say the sun or the moon sparkles.

2. To be bright; to glitter; to be brilliant 'Fish with their fins and shining scales." Milton.

His eyes, like glow-worms, shine when he doth fret. sfuii. Let thine eyes shine forth in their full lustre.

Sir 7. Denham

3. To be gay or splendid; to be beautiful.

So proud she shined in her princely st-ate.


Once brightest Mi'wVthis child of heat and air.


4. To be eminent, conspicuous, or distinguished; as, to shine in courts. 'Shine in the dignity of F.R.S.' Pope.

Few are qualified to shine in company. Sn-(/T.

6. To be noticeably visible; to be prominent.

Man is by nature a cowardly animal, and moral courage shines out as the most rare and the most noble of virtues. Prof Biackie.

To cause the face to shine, to be propitious. Pa. lxvii. 1.—SVN. To radiate, beam, gleam, glare, glisten, glitter, sparkle, coruscate.

Shine (Bhin), v.t. To occasion or make to shine.

Shine i (shin), a. Bright or shining; glittering. Spenser.

Shine (shin), n. 1. Fair weather; sunshine. 'Be it fair or foul, rain or shine.' Dryden. 'Shadow and shine is life." Tennyson.—

2. The state of shining; brilliancy; brightness; splendour; lustre; gloss. 'The glittering shine of gold.' Dr. U. More. 'Fair opening to Borne court's propitious shine.' Pope.

3. [In this sense the word may be an abbreviation of shindy] A quarrel; a row. —To kick up a shine, to make a row. [Slang.]—To take trie shine out of, to cast into the shade; to outshine; to excel; to surpass. [Slang.]

Shiner (shln'er), n. 1. One who or that which shines. Hence—2. A coin, especially a bright coin; a sovereign. [Slang]

'And now. Jingo,' asked the man of business, * wherc's the shiners f' Jerrola*.

3. The American popular name applied to several species of fish, mostly of the family Cyprinidre; as, the shining dace (Ltndxcus nitidus); the bay shiner (Leuciseu* chrysopterus): New York shiner (Leuciseus or Stilbe chrysoleucas); and the blunt-nosed shiner (Vvmer Broanii), belonging to the family Scombridre.

Shiness (shi'nes). See Shyness.

Shingle (shing'gO.n. [Formerly also shindle, which was corrupted to shingle, the word, like G. schindel, being borrowed from L. scindula, a shingle, from L. scindo, to split,

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to lap with others, used as a roof-covering instead of slates or tiles.— 2. Round, waterworn, and loose gravel and pebbles; the coarse gravel or accumulation of small rounded stones found on the shores of rivers or the sea.

The plain of La Crau, in France, is composed of skinglt. Pin hertcn.

Turning softly like a thief. Lest the harsh shingle should grate underfoot. Tennyson.

Shingle ballast, ballast composed of shingle or gravel.

Shingle (shing'glX v.t. pret & pp. shingled; ppr. shingling, 1. To cover with shingles; as. to shingle a roof. 'They shingle, their houses with it.' Evelyn. —2. To perform the process of shingling on; as, to shingle iron. See Shingling

Shingler (shing'gl-erX n. One who or that which shingles; as, (a) one who roofs houses with shingles. (6) One who or a machine which cuts and prepares shingles, (c) A workman who attends a shingling hammer or machine, (d) A machine for shingling puddled iron or making it into blooms. Shingle-roofed (shing/Kl-roft), o. Having a roof covered with shingles. Shingles (shing'glz), n. pi. [L. cingulum, a belt, from eingo, to gird, ] A kind of herpes, viz. herpes zoster, which spreads around the body like a girdle; an eruptive disease. See Herpes

Shingling (shlng'gl-ingX n. 1. The act of covering with shingles, or a covering of shingles. —2. In iron manuf. the process of expelling the scoria? and other impurities from the metal in its conversion from the cast to the malleable state. This operation is performed by subjecting the puddled iron either to the blows of a ponderous forge hammer, to the action of saneezers, or to the pressure of rollers. — Shinoling hammer, a powerful hammer which acts upon the ball from the puddling furnace, and forces some of the remaining impurities therefrom. Shingling mtll.amWl or forge where puddled iron is hammered, Ac., to remove the dross, compact the grain, and turn out malleable iron. Shingly (shing'gl-iX a. Abounding with shingle or gravel.

Shining (shin'ingX p and a. 1 Emitting light; beaming; gleaming—2. Bright; splendid; radiant.—3. Illustrious; distinguished; conspicuous; as. a shining example of charity —4. In bot having a smooth polished surface, as certain leaves.— Svn. Glistening, bright, radiant, resplendent, effulgent, lustrous, brilliant, glittering, splendid, illustrious.

Shining (shin'ingX n. 1. Effusion or clearness of light; brightness. 'The stars shall withdraw their shining,' Joel ii. 10.—2. The act of making one'B self conspicuous by display of superiority; ostentatious display.

Would you both please and be Instructed too.
Watch well the rage of shining to sulidue.


Shiningness (shin'ing-nes), n. Brightness; splendour. Spenser.

Shinner (shin'er), n, [That is, one who plies his sht7u or legs quickly.] L A person who goes about among his acquaintances borrowing money to meet pressing demands The practice itself is called thinning. [ United States cant.]-2. t A stocking.

Shinney(shin'i). n. Same as Shinttf. Halliveil

Shin-plaster (shln'plas-te>X «• (According to Bartlett from an old soldier of the Evolutionary period having used a quantity of worthless paper currency as plasters for a wounded leg. ] A bank-note, especially one of low denomination; a piece of papermoney. (United States slang]

Shinto, Shintoism (shin'to, shin'to-izm), n. ((."binese thin, god or spirit, and to, way or bw] One of the two great religions of Japan. In its origin it was a form of nature worship, the forces of nature being regarded as gods, the sun being the supreme god. The soul of the sun-god, when on earth, founded the reigning house in Japan, sod hence the emperor is worshipped as of divine origin. Worship is also paid to the souls of distinguished persons. The essence of the religion is now ancestral worship and ■scriOce to departed heroes. Written also Sintu, Sintuism.

Shintoist (shiu'to-istX «- A believer in or supp-.rter of the Shinto religion.

Shinty (thin'tiX «■ [Gael, sinteag, a skip, a bound ] l In Scotland, an outdoor game in «bich a ball and clubs with crooked heads

are employed, the object of each party being to drive the ball over their opponents' boundary. The game is called Hockey in England.—2. The club or Btick used in playing the game.

Shiny (shrn'i), a, 1. Characterized by sunshine; bright; luminous; clear; unclouded. 'Like distant thunder on a. shiny day.' Dryden.— 2. Having a glittering appearance; glossy; brilliant.

-Ship (BhipX «. [A form of shape (which see); A.Sax. -scipe.) A termination denoting state, office, dignity, profession, or art; as, lordship, friendship, stewardship, horsemanship, Ac.

Ship (ship), n [A. Sax. seip, seyp, a ship; common to the Teutonic languages, LG. schipp, D. scJitp, Icel. and Goth, skip, Dan. skib, O.H.G. set/, G. schiff. The word passed into the Romance tongues from the Teutonic, our skiff being re-borrowed from the Fr. esquif; so also equip. Probably connected with shape, Icel. skapa, to shape, skipa, to arrange, order. Some derive it from root signifying to dig or hollow out, whence L. scapha, Gr. skaphg, a bowl, a boat, a skiff; Gr. skapto, to dig.] 1. A vessel of some size adapted to navigation: a general term for vessels of whatever kind, excepting boats. Ships are of various sizes and fitted for various uses, and receive various names, according to their rig and the purposes to which they are applied, as manof-war ships, transports, merchantmen, barques, brigs, schooners, luggers, sloops, xebecs, galleys, Ac The name, as descriptive of a particular rig. and as roughly implying a certain size, has been used to designate a vessel furnished with a bowsprit and three masts—a main-mast, a fore-mast, and a mizzen-mast—each of which is composed of a lower-mast, a top-mast, and a top-gallant mast, and carries a certain number of square sails. The square sails on the mixzen distinguishes a ship from a barque, a barque having only fore-and-aft sails on the mizzen. But the development of steam navigation, in which the largest vessels have sometimes only a schooner rig and sometimes four masts, has gone far towards rendering this restricted application of the term ship of little value. Owing to increase of size, and especially increase in length, some sailing vessels now have four masts, and this rig is said to have certain advantages. Up to within recent times wood, such as oak, pine, &c., was the material of which all ships were constructed, but at the present day it is being rapidly superseded by iron and steel; and in Britain, which is the chief ship-building country in the world, the tonnage of the wooden vessels constructed is but a fraction of that of those built of iron. The first iron vessel classed at Lloyd's was built at Liverpool in 1833, but iron barges and small vessels had been constructed long before this.—Armed ship. See under Armed Ship'* papers, the papers or documents required for the manifestation of the property of the ship and cargo. They are of two sorts, viz. (l) those required by the law of a particular country, as the certificate of registry, license, charter-party, bills of lading, bills of health, etc., required by the law of England to be on board British ships. (2) Those required by the law of nations to be on board neutral ships to vindicate their title to that character.— Ship of the line, a man-of-war large enough and of sufficient force to take its place in a line of battle.— Ship of the desert, a sort of poetical name for the camel. —Registry of ships. See Lloyd's register, under Lloyd's—2. A dish or utensil formed like the hull of a ship, in which incense was kept Tyndale. Shin (ship), vt. pret. A pp. shipped; ppr. shipping. l.Toputon board of a ship or vessel of any kind; as, to ship goods at Glasgow for New York.

The emperor shipping his great ordnance, departed down the river. Ktwites.

2. To transport in a ship; to convey by water.

This wicked emperor may have shipp'd her hence. Shak.

3. To engage for service on board a ship or other vessel; as, to ship seamen. —4. To fix in Its proper place; as, to ship the oars, the tiller, the rudder.—To ship off, to send away by water. 'Ship off senates to some distant shore.' Pope.To ship a sea, to have a wave come aboard; to have the deck washed by a wave.

Ship (ship), v.i. 1. To go on board a vessel to make a voyage with it; to embark; as, we shipped at Glasgow.—2. To engage for service on board a ship.

Ship-biscuit (ship'bis-ket). n. Hard coarse biscuit prepared for long keeping, and for use on board a ship.

Shipboard (ship'bord), n. The deck or Bide of a ship: used chiefly or only in the adverbial phrase on shipboard; as, to go on shipboard or a shipboard.

Let him go on shipboard. Rramhall.

What do'st thou make a shipboard! Dryden.

Ship-board (shipTwrd), n. A board or plank of a ship.

They have made all thy shipboanis of fir-trees of Scnir. Ezek. xxvii. 5.

Ship-boy (ship'boi), n. A boy that serves on ooard of a ship.

Ship-breaker (shiplarak-erX ». A person whose occupation is to break up vessels that are unfit for sea.

Ship-broker (ship'bro-ker), n. A mercantile agent who transacts the business for a ship when in port, as procuring cargoes, Ac.; also, an agent engaged in buying and selling ships; likewise, a broker who procures insurance on ships.

Ship-builder (ship'bild-erX n. One whose occupation is to construct ships and other vessels; a naval architect; a shipwright.

Ship - building (ship'bild-ing), n. Naval architecture; the art of constructing vessels for navigation, particularly ships and other vessels of a large kind, bearing masts: in distinction from boat-building.

Ship-canal (ship'ka-nal), n. A canal through which vessels of large size can pass; a canal for sea-going vessels.

Ship-captain (shipTcap-tin or ship'kap-tan), n. The commander or master of a ship. See Captain.

Ship - carpenter (Bhiplfar-pen-ter), n. A shipwright; a carpenter that works at shipbuilding.

Ship-chandler (ship'chand-ler), n. One who deals in cordage, canvas, and other furniture of ships.

Ship-chandlery (ship'ehand-ler-i), n. The business and commodities of a ship-chandler.

Ship-fever (ship'fe-ver). n. A peculiar kind of typhus fever. Called also Putrid Fever, Jail-fever, and Hospital Fever.

Sbipful (shir/ful), «. As much or many as a ship will hold; enough to fill a ship.

Ship-holder (shipTidld-er), « The owner of a ship or of shipping; a ship-owner.

Shipless (shiples), a. Destitute of ships.

While the lone shepherd, near the shipless main, Sees o'er the hills advance the long-drawn funeral train. Rogers,

ShiDlett (shipnetX n. A little ship. Hoi

(turned. Ship-letter (shiplet-er), n. A letter sent

by a common ship, and not by mail. Shipmant (ship'manX "• 1- A seaman or


About midnight the skipmen deemed that they drew near to some country. Acts xxvii. 38.

2. The master of a ship. Chaucer.

Shipmaster ( shlr/mas-ter X n. The captain, master, or commander of a ship. Jon. i. 6.

Shipmate (ship'mat), «■■ One who serves in the same ship with another; a fellowsailor.

Shipment (Bhlp'ment), «. 1. The act of putting anything on board of a ship or other vessel; embarkation; as, he was engaged in the shipment of coal for London. 2. The goods or things shipped or put on board of a ship or other vessel; as, the merchants have made large shipments to the United States.

Ship-money (ship'mun-i), n. In Eng. hint, an ancient imposition that was charged on the ports, towns, cities, boroughs, and counties of England for providing and furnishing certain ships for the king's service. Having lain dormant for many years, it was revived by Charles I., and was met with strong opposition. The refusal of John Hampden to pay the tax was one of the proximate causes of the Great Rebellion. It was abolished during the same reign.

By the new writs for skiP-meney the sheriffs were directed to assess every land-holder and other inhabitant according to tneir judgment of his means, and to force the payment by distress. Haltam.

Ship-owner (ship'dn-er), n, A person who has a right of property in a ship or ships, or any share tfierein.

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Shipped (shipt), p. and a. 1. Put on board a snip; carried in a ship, as goods. —2. Furnished with a ship or ships.

Is he well shipp'di

His bark is stoutly timberVI. and his pilot

Of very expert and approved allowance. Shak.

Shlppsn, Shippon(shipVn. ship'on), n. [A Sax. scypen, scepen, a stall, a shed.] A stable; a cow-house. (Local.]

Bessy would either do field-work, or attend to the cows, the shippon, or churn or make cheese.


Ship - pendulum (ship-pen'dO-lura), n. A pendulum with a graduated arc, used iu the navy to ascertain the heel of a vessel, so that allowance may be made in laying a gun for the inclination of the deck.

Shipper (ship'erX ». 1. Owe who places goods on hoard a vessel for transportation. —2. tThe master of a vessel, or skipper; a seaman.

Shipping (ship'ing), n. 1. Ships in general; ships or vessels of any kind for navigation; the collective body of ships belonging to a country, port, Ac.; tonnage; as, the shipping of the English nation exceeds that of any other—2. Sailing; navigation. [Rare]

God send 'em good shipping. Shut.

Skipping articles, articles of agreement between the captain of a vessel and the seamen on board in respect to the amount of wages, length of time for which they are shipped, Ac—To take shipping, to embark; to enter on board a ship or vessel for conveyance or passage. Ju. vi. 24.

Take, therefore, shipping; post, my lord, to France. Shak.

Shipping (shlp'lnjrt. o. Relating to ships; as, shipping concerns.

Ship-propeller (ship'pro-pel-er), n. See Sere to -prop?lUr under SCREW.

Shlppy (ship'iX a. Pertaining to ships; frtquented by ships. 'Shippy havens.' Ficon.

Ship-rigged (ship'rigd). a. Rigged with square sails and spreading yards like a three-masted ship.

Ship-shape (ship'shap), a. or adv. In a seamanlike manner, or after the fashion of a Bhip; hence, neat and trim; well arranged. 'A ship-shape orthodox manner.' De Quincey.

Look to the babes, and till I come again

Keep everything ship-shape, fori must go. Tennyson.

Ship's-husband (ships'huz-band), n. A person appointed by the owner or owners of a vessel to look after the repairs, equipment, Ac, and provide stores, provisions, Ac., for a ship while in port and preparatory to a voyage.

Ship-tire t (ship'tir), n A kind of female head-dress. It has been supposed to be so named because adorned with streamers like a ship when dressed, or it may have been fashioned so as to resemble a ship.

Thou hast the right arched beauty of the brow that becomes the ship-tire, the tire-valiant, or any tire of Venetian admittance. Shah.

Ship-worm (ship'werm). n. The Teredo naralis, a testaceous mollusc which is very destructive to ships, piles, and all submarine woodworks. See TEREW}.

ShipwTeck (ship'rek), n. L The wreck of a ship; the destruction or loss at sea of a ship by foundering, striking on rocks or shoals, or by other means. 'Made orphan by a winter shipwreck.' Tennyson.

We are not to quarrel with the water for inundations and shipivrecks. Sir R. L'Estrange.

2. Fragments; shattered remains, as of a vessel which has been wrecked; wreck.


They might hare it in their own country, and that by gathering up the shipwrecks of the Athenian and Roman theatres. Diyden.

3. Destruction; miscarriage; ruin. 1 Tim. i. 19. Spenser.

Shipwreck: (ship'rek), v.t 1. To make to suiter shipwreck, as by running ashore or on rocks or sandbanks, or by the force of wind in a tempest; towreck; as.roanyvesBels are annually shipwrecked on the British coasts.

No doubt our state will ship-wrecked he

And torn and sunk for ever. Sirj. Davits.

2. To expose to distress, difficulty, ordestruction by the loss of a ship; to cast away.

Shipwrecked upon a kingdom, where no pity,

No friends, no hope; Do kindred weep for me. Shat.

Shipwright (ship'rit), n. One whose occupation is to construct ships; a builder of ships; a ship-carpenter.

Shipyard (ship'yard), n. A yard or piece of ground near the water in which ships or vessels are constructed.

Shlrax (she-raz')» n A Persian wine from Shiraz.

Shire (shir), n. [A. Sax. scire, scyre, a division, from sciran, seeran, to shear, to divide. Akin share, sheer, Ac. See SHARE, Shear] A name applied to the larger divisions into which Great Britain is divided, and practically corresponding to the term county, by which it is in many cases superseded. Some smaller districts in the north of England retain the provincial appellation of shires; as, RichmondsAtre, in the north riding of Yorkshire, HallamsAire, or the manor of Ualiam, in the west riding, which is nearly coextensive with the parish of Sheffield. The shire was originally a division of the kingdom under the jurisdiction of an earl or alderman, whose authority was intrusted to the sheriff (shire-reeve). On thiB officer the government ultimately devolved. The English county members of the House of Commons are called knights of the shire. The shires in England were subdivided into hundreds, and these again into tithings. In Scotland they were subdivided into wards and quarters. The shires, a belt of English counties running in a north-east direction from Devonshire and Hampshire, the names of which terminate in 'shire,' but applied in a general way to the midland counties; as, he cornea from the shirrs; he has a seat In the shires.

Shire-Clerk (shirOtlark), n. In England, an officer appointed by the sheriff to assist in keeping the county court; an under-sheriff; also, a clerk in the old county court who was deputy to the under-sheriff.

Shire-gemot, Shire-mote (shir'ge-mot, Bhlr'mot)), n. [A. Sax. scir-gemdt, shiremeeting— scire, a shire, and gemdt, a meeting.] Anciently, in England, a court held twice a year by the bishop of the diocese and the ealdorman in shires that had ealdormen, and in others by the bishop and sheriffs. Cowcll,

Shire-reeve t (BhiVrev), n. A sheriff. See Sheriff.

Shire-town (shir'toun), n. The chief town of a shire; a county town.

Shire-wick* (shir'wik), n. A shire; a county. Holland.

Shirk (sherk), vi. [Probably a form of shark.] l.t To shark; to practise mean or artful tricks; to live by one's wits.—2. To avoid or get off unfairly or meanly; to seek to avoid the performance of duty.

One of the dties shirked from the league. Byron.

—To shirk of, to sneak away. [Colloq.]

Shirk (shfirk), v.t 1. f To procure by mean tricks; to shark.—2. To avoid or get off from unfairly or meanly; to slink away from; as, to shirk difficulty. [Colloq.l

Shirk (sherk), n. One who seeks to avoid duty; one who lives by shifts or tricks. See Shark.

Shirker (sherk'er), n. One who shirks duty or danger. 'A faint-hearted shirker of responsibilities.' Cornhill Mag.

Shlrky (slurk'i). a. Disposed to shirk; characterized by shirking.

Shirlt (sherl). a. ShrilL

Shirl (sherl), n. Shorl. (Rare.]

Shirley (sher'li), n. [Possibly from scarlet] The American name of a bird, called also the greater bullfinch, having the upper part of the body of a dark brown and the throat and breast red. Perhaps the pine grosbeak (Pyrrhula enucleator).

Shirr (sher), 7*. [Comp. O.G. scJnrren,to prepare.] An insertion of cord, generally elastic, between two pieces of cloth; also, the cord itself.

Shirred (sherd), a. An epithet applied to articles having lines or cords inserted between two pieces of cloth, as the lines of iudiarubber iu men's braces.

Shirt (shert), n. [Icel. skyrta, Dan. skiorfe, a shirt; Dan. skiort, a shirt, a petticoat; 1). schort, Q, schurz, an apron. The original menning of shirt is a garment shortened. Skirt is the same word] A loose garment of linen, cotton, or other material, worn by men and boys under the outer clothes.

Shirt (shert), v.t. To put a shirt on; to cover or clothe with, or as with, a shirt.

Ah! for so many soul? as but this morn

Were clothed with flesh, and wann'il with TitalbloM,

Hut naked now, or skirted but with air. Dryden.

Shirt-front (shert'frunt), n The dressed part of a shirt which covers the breast; also, an article of dress made in imitation of this part; a dickey.

Shirting (shert'ing), n. Bleached or un

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Shittah-tree {Acmeia vera).

pinnate leaves, and in spring is covered with yellow blossoms in the form of round balls. It is a gnarled and thorny tree, resembling a hawthorn in manner of growth but much larger. It yields gum-arabic, and also a hard close-grained timber, the shittimwood of Scripture. Is. xli. 19.

Shlttim - wood (shit'tim-wodX n. [See Shittah-tkee.] A sort of precious wood of which the tables, altars, and boards of the Jewish tabernacle were made. It is produced by the shittah-tree (prolwbly the Acacia vera or A. Seyal), and is hard, tough, smooth, durable, and very beautiful. Ex. xxv. 10, 13, 2a

Shittlet (shit'l), n. A shuttle.

A curious web whose yarn she threw

In with a golden shiitU. Chapman

Shittlet (sluYl), a. Wavering; unsettled.

We passe not what the people say or hate.
Their shittie hate makes none but cow.irds shake.
Mir. for Mugs.

Shittle-COCk t (shit'1-kok), n. A shuttlecock 'Not worth a shittu-cock.' Skelton.

Shittlenesst (snifl-nes), n. I'nsettledness; inconstancy. 'The vain shittUness of an unconstant head.' Barret.

Shive (sliiv), n. [IceL ski/a, a slice, a shaving, ski/a, to slice or cut in slices; Dan. store, L.G. schieve, D. schijf, G. scheibe. Sec Sheave.] 1. A slice; a thin cut; as, a shit* of bread. [Old and provincial English. J

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2. A little piece or fragment; as, the shices of flax made by breaking—3. A name given by cork-cutters to the small bungs used to close wide-mouthed bottles, in contradistinction to the phial corks used foruarrownecked bottles; also, a thin wooden bung used by brewers.

Shiver (shiv'er), v.t. [Same root as above: comp. G. schic/ern, to Bplinter; O. D. ecJtereren. to break in pieces; scJiett, a fragment, a shive.] To break into many small pieces or splinters; to shatter; to dash to pieces by n blow. 'The ground with shiver'd armour strown.' Milton.

Shiver (shiv'er), v.i. To fall at once into many small pieces or parts.

The natural world, should gravity once cease, would instantly shiver into millions of atoms.

H 'aodvxtrd.
The shattering trumpet shrilleth high,
The hard brands shiver on the steel.
The splinter'd s|>car-sbafts crack and fly.


Shiver (shiv'er). n. [From shive, sheave; comp. G. schicjer, a splinter, slate. See also the verb. ] 1. A small piece or fragment into which a thing breaks by any sudden violence.

lie would pound you into skivers with his fist, as a sailor breaks a biscuit. Shak.

2t A thin slice; a shive. 'A shiver of their own loaf.' Fuller.—3. In mineral, a species

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of blue slat*; schist; shale. — 4- A'aut. a little wheel; a sheave. Shiver (sluVer), v.i. [O.K. chiver, ehever; comp. l*rov. G. schnbbem, to shiver; CD. tekocr^ren, to shake.) To quiver; to tremble, as from cold; to shudder; to shake, as with ague, tear, horror, or excitement.

Aaj very harsh noise will set the teeth on edge, and make all the body shiver. Bacon.

As the dofj, withheld
A moment from the vermin that he sees
Before him. shivers as he springs and kills.


Shiver (ahiv'er), v.t. XauL to cause to flutter or shake in the wind, as a sail, by trimming the yards or shifting the helm so that the wind strikes on the edge of the tail: as, to shiver the mizzen-topsail

Shiver (shiv'er). n. A shaking fit; a tremulous motion. 'Tbe*/i*'«rof dancing leaves.' Tennyson.—The shivers, the ague.

Shiveringly (shiv'er-ing-li), adv. With shivering or slight trembling.

Shiver-spar (sliiv'er-spiir), n. [G. schieferrpath ) A carbonate of lime, so called from ita slaty structure. Called also Slate-spar.

Shivery (slnVer-i), a. 1. Pertaining to or resembling a shiver or shivering; characterized by shivering.

Sad ocean's face
A curling undulation shivery swept
From wave to wave. Mallet.

2. Easily falling into many pieces; not firmly cohering; incompact 'Shivery stone.' Woodward.

Shoad (sbdd),n. [Probably a Cornish word.] In mining, a train of metallic stones or fragments of ore washed down from a vein by water, or otherwise separated from it, which serves to direct explorers in the discovery of the veins from which they are derived. Woodward. Spelled also Shod*.

Shoading (shod'ing), n. In mining, the act of tracing shoads from the valley in which they may be found to the mineral lode from which they are derived. See Shoad.

Shoad - pit (shod' pit). n. A pit or trench formed on shoading, or tracing shoads to their native vein.

Shoad-stone (shdd'stdn), n. A small stone ur fragment of ore made smooth by the action of water passing over it. Woodward.

Shoal (shol), n, [A. Sax. teolu, scalu, a i-ruwd, a shoal. Also found in forms scoot, *choolt*cuU,] A great multitude assembled; a crowd; a throng: as, a shoal of herring; nhoaU of people. 'Shoal* of pucker'd faces.' Tennyson, The vices of a prince draw shoals of followers.

Dr. H. More.

Shoal (ahdl). v.i. To crowd; to throng; to assemble in a multitude. 'En trail about which . . . fish did shoal.' Chapman.

Shoal (ftbdl), n. [Probably from or allied to •hallow, Sc. schaul. See Shallow.] A place where the water of a river, lake, or sea is shallow or of little depth; a sandbank or bar; a shallow; more particularly, among seamen, a sandbank which dries at low water.

Say. Wolser, that once trod the ways of glory. And sounded all the depths and shoals of honour. Shak.

Shoal UhGl), v.i. To become more shallow; as, the water shoals as we approach the town.

Shoal (shol), r t. yaut. to cause to become more shallow; to proceed from a greater into a lesser depth of; as, a vessel shoals her water by sailing from a deep to a shallow place. liarryaL

Shoal (shdl), a. Shallow; of little depth; as, shoal water.

Shoallness (sh6Ti-nes),». The state of being ihoaly, or of abounding with shoals; shallowness: little depth of water; state of abounding with shoals.

Shoaling (shdl'ing), » and a. Becoming shallow by being filled up with shoals.

Had Invere-tk been a shoaling estuary as at present, it is difficult to see how the Romans should have made choice of it at a port. Sir C. Lyetl.

Shoalwlse (shol'wiz), adv. In shoals or crowds.

When he groes abroad, as he does now shoativtse, John Bttli nnds a great host of innkeepers. &c.

Prof. Blackie,

Shoaly (shdl'i), a. Full of shoals or shallow places.

The tossing vessel sail'd on shoaly ground. Dryden.

Shoar (sh6rX n. A prop; a shore.

Shoat < diot). n. A young hog. See Shote.

Shock (shok). n [Same word as D. schok, a

r»ujice. a]olt;0. and Prov. Q.sehock, a shock.

Sec the verb. ] 1. A violent collision of bodies;

a concussion; a violent striking or dashing against.

The strong unshaken mounds resist the shocks
Of tides and seas. Sir R. Blackmore.

2. Violent onset; assault of contending armies or foes; hostile encounter. 'In this doubtful shock of arms.' Shak.

He stood the shock of a whole host of foes.


3. That which surprises or offends the intellect or moral sense; a strong and sudden agitation; a blow; a stroke; any violent or sudden impression or sensation. 'The thousand natural shocks that flesh is heir to.' Shak.

Fewer shocks a statesman gives his friend, young.
Its draught
Of cool refreshment, drain'd by fever'd lips.
May give a shock of pleasure to the frame.


4 In elect the effect on the animal system of a discharge of electricity from a charged body.—5. In med. a violent and sudden or instantaneous disorganization of the system, with perturbation of body and mind, consequent upon severe injury, overwhelming mental excitement, and the like. Shock (sliok), v.t. [Perhaps directly from Fr. choquer, to knock or jolt against, choc, a shock, jolt, collision, but this is itself from the Teutonic; D. schokken, to jog, to jolt, knock against; O.O. schocken, schoggen. Akin to shake, chock.) 1. To shake by the sudden collision of a body; to strike against suddenly. —2. To meet with hostile force; to encounter.

Come the three corners of the world In arms
And we will shock them. Shak.

3. To strike, as with horror, fear, or disgust; to cause to recoil, as from something astounding, odious, appalling, or horrible; to offend extremely; to disgust; to scandalize.

Advise him not to.shock a father's will. Dryden.

Stn. To offend, disgust, disturb, disquiet, affright, frighten, terrify, appal, dismay. Shock (shok), v.i. To meet with a shock; to meet in sudden onset or encounter.

And now with shouts the shocking armies closed.

Pope. They saw the moment approach, when the two parties would shock together. De Quincey.

Shock (shok), n. [D. schok, O. schoek, Dan. skok, a heap, a quantity, but now a definite quantity or number, viz. threescore.] 1. A

Sile of sheaves of wheat, rye, &c.; a stook. ob v. 26.

Behind the master walks, builds up the shocks.


2. In com. a lot of sixty pieces of loose goods,

as staves. Shock (shok), v. t. To make up into shocks

or stooks; as, to shock corn. Shock (shok), v.i. To collect sheaves into a

pile; to pile sheaves.

Bind fast, shock apace, have an eye to thy corn. Tusser.

Shock (shok), M. [Modified from shag J 1. A dog with long rough hair; a kind of shaggy dog.—2. A mass of close matted hair; as, her head was covered with a shock of coarse red hair.

Shock (shok), a. Shaggy; having shaggy hair.

His red shock peruke . . . was laid aside.

Sir If. Scott.

Shock-dog (shok'dog), n. A dog having

very long snaggy hair; a shock. Shock - headed, Shock-head (shoklied

ed. shok'hed), a. Having a thick and bushy


The poplars, in long order due,

With cypress promenaded,
The shock-head willows two and two

By rivers gallopaded. Tennyson.

Shocking (shok'ing), a. Causing a shock of horror, disgust, or pain; causing to recoil with horror or disgust; extremely offensive or disgusting; very obnoxious or repugnant 'The grossest and most shocking villanies.' Abp. Seeker.

The French humour ... is very shocking to the Italians. Addison.

Syn. Appalling, terrifying, frightful, dreadful, terrible, formidable, disgusting, offensive.

Shockingly (shok'ing-li). adv. In a shocking manner; disgustingly; offensively. 'Shamelessly and shockingly corrupt.' Burke.

Shockingness (shok'ing-nes), n. The state of being shocking.

Shod (shod). Pret. .V pp. of shoe.

Shoddy (shod'i), n. [Said to be from shod, a provincial pp. of shed — the original meaning of the word being the flue or fluff thrown off, or shed, from cloth in the

process of weaving. J 1. Old woollen or worsted fabrics torn up or devilled into fibres by machinery, and mixed with fresh but inferior wool, to be respun and made into cheap cloth, table-covers, Ac. Shoddy differs from mungo in being of an inferior quality. —2. The coarse inferior cloth made from this substance.

Shoddy (shod'i), a. 1. Made of shoddy; as, shoddy cloth. Hence—2. Of a trashy or inferior character; as, shoddy literature.— Shoddy fever, the popular name of a species of bronchitis caused by the irritating effect of the floating particles of dust upon the mucous membrane of the trachea and its ramifications. It is of frequent occurrence, but is easily cured by effervescent saline draughts, Ac.

Shoddy-mill (Bhod'i-mil), n. A mill employed in the manufacture of yarn from old woollen cloths and refuse goods.

Shode t (shod), n, [Lit. the place at which the hair is shed or parted. ] The parting of a person's hair; the temple. Chaucer.

Shode (shod), n. Same as Shoad.

Shodelng, Shodlng (shod'ing), n. Same as Sheading.

Shoe (shb), n. pi Shoes (slioz). old pi. Shoon (shun). [O.E. scho, schoo, A. Sax. sco, seed, Dan. and Sw. sko, Icel. skdr, Goth. skohs, G. schuh, a shoe. Probably from root seen in Skr. sku, to cover, L scutum, a shield, Ac.} 1. A covering fur the foot, usually of leather, composed of a thick kind for the sole, and a thinner kind for the upper. 'Over shoes in snow." Shak.

The dull swain Treads on it daily with his clouted shoon. Milton. And the caked snow is shuffled From the ploughboys heavy shoon. Keats.

2 A plate or rim of iron nailed to the hoof of an animal, as a horse, mule, or other beast of burden, to defend it from injury — 8. Anything resembling a shoe in form or use; as, (a) a plate of iron or Blip of wood nailed to the bottom of the runner of a Bleigh, or any vehicle that slides on the snow in winter, (6) The inclined piece at the bottom of a water-trunk or lead pipe, for turning the course of the water and discharging it from the wall of a building. (c) An iron socket used in timber framing to receive the foot of a rafter or the end of a strut id) A drag or sliding piece of wood or iron placed under the wheel of a loaded vehicle to retard its motion in going down a hill, (e) An inclined trough used in an ore crushing-mill. (/) The step of a mast resting on the keelson, (g) The iron arming to a handspike, polar pile, and the like. —Shoe of an anchor, (a) a small block of wood, convex on the back, with a hole to receive the point of the anchor fluke, used to prevent the anchor from tearing the planks of the ship's bow when raised or lowered. (M A broad triangular piece of thick plank fastened to the fluke to extend its area and consequent bearing surface when sunk in soft ground.

Shoe (sho), v. t. pret. A pp. shod; ppr. shoeing. 1. To furnish with shoes; to put shoes on; as, to shoe a horse.—2. To cover at the bottom. 'The small end of the billiard stick, which is shod with brass or silver.* Evelyn.—To shoe an anchor, to place a shoe on its flukes. See under Shoe, n.

Shoeblack (iho'blak), n. A person that cleans shoes. —Shoeblack brigade. See BriGade.

Shoeblacker (sho'blak-er), u. Same as Shoeblack.

Shoe-block (sho'blok), n. Naut a block with two sheaves, one above the other, but the one horizontal and the other perpendicular.

Shoeboy (shb'boi ),n. A boy that cleans shoes.

Shoe - brush (aho'brush), n. A brush for cleaning shoes. For this purpose a set of three brushes is often employed—one, made with short hard hair, for removing the dirt; a second, with soft and longer hair, for spreading on blacking; and a third, with hair of medium length and softness, for polishing.

Shoebuckle (sho'buk-I), n. A buckle for fastening the shoe to the foot; an ornament In the shape of a buckle worn on the upper of a shoe.

Shoe - factor (shb'fak-ter), n, A factor or wholesale dealer in shoes.

Shoe-hammer (shbliam-mer), n. A hammer with a broad slightly convex face for pounding leather on the lapstone to con

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