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WRIGHT

GOT

WRITE

to attain hia ends by unremitted employment of base means.

For Providence . .
In spite of all the wrigglers into place.
Still keeps a scat or two for worth and grace.
Cowper.

Wright (rit), n. [A. Sax. wyrhta, a worker, a maker, from wyrht, a work, from tcyrean, to work. See Work.] One whose occupation is some kind of mechanical business; an artificer; a workman; especially in Scotland, and some parts of England, a worker in wood; a carpenter. l'lis wor,l la now chiefly used in compounds, as in shipwright, •wheelwright, and, in a somewhat figurative sense, playwright. 'Wright*usefull and skilfull.' Chaucer.

Wrightla (rit'i-a). n. [AfterWilliam Wright. M.D., a Scotch physician and botanist resident in Jamaica.] A genus of plants, nat order Apocynacete. The species are chiefly natives of the East and West Indies; they are erect shrubs or small trees, with opposite leaves and corymbs of mostly white

[graphic][graphic][subsumed]

flowers. W. antidyscnterica furnishes conesai-bark, a valuable astringent and febrifuge. The wood is used by the turner and cabinet-maker. W. coccinea yields a very light and firm wood, used by turners. W. tomentosa yields when wounded a yellow juice, which, when mixed with water, dyes clothes, dipped into it, of a yellow colour. W. tinetona yieldB an excellent dye, which is used as a substitute for indigo. Wring (ring), v.t. pret. &pp. toning(icringed is an obsolete and rare form; wrang is the original preterite, but is now only provincial); ppr. wringing. (A. Sax. wringan, to wring, to Btrain, to press; pret. wrang, pp. wrungen; L. G. and D. wringen, Dan. vramge, also vringle, Sw. vrdnga, G. ringen, to wring, to twist, Ac., all no doubt nasalized forms of stem seen in icriggle, and in A. Sax. wrigian, to bend (whence wry\ and akin to wrong.] 1. To twist and squeeze or compress; to turn and strain with violence; as, to wring clothes in washing. 'He wrings her nose.' Shak.

The silly owner of the poods Weeps over them, and wrings his hapless hands . . . 'While all is shared and all is Dome away Shak.

2. To pain, as by twisting, squeezing, or racking; to torture; to torment; to distress. 'Let me wring your heart.' Shak. 'Much grieved and wrung by an uneasy and strait fortune.' Clarendon.

The king began to find where his shoe did -wring him. Bacon.

Didst thou taste but half the griefs

That luring my soul, thou couldst not talk thus

coldly. Addison.

3. To wrest from the true meaning or purpose; to distort; to pervert.

How dare these men thus wring the Scriptures?
Ifhitgift.

A. To extract or obtain by twisting, press-
ing, or squeezing; to squeeze or press out;
as. to wring water from a wet garment;
hence, to draw forth or bring out with vio-
lence, or against resistance or repugnance;
to force from; to extort.
He hath, my lord, wrung from me my slow leave
Uy laboursome petition. Shak.

I had rather coin my heart
And drop my blood for drachmas, than to wring
From the hard hands of peasants their vile trash.
Shak.

Thirty spies . . . compelled the bride
To wring from me, and tell to them my secret.
Milton.

6. To subject to extortion; to persecute for the purpose of enforcing compliance.

These merchant adventurers have been often wronged and wrtngtd to the quick. Hayward.

6. To bend or strain out of its position; as, to wring a mast.—To wring off, to force off or separate by wringing.

The priest shall . . . wring eff\\\% head. \jcv. i. 15.

—To wring out, {a) to force out; to squeeze out by twisting.

He . . . thrust the fleece together and wringed the dew out at the fleece. Judg. vi. 38.

(6) To free from a liquor by wringing; as, to wring out clothes. * A compress wrung out' Wiseman.

Wring (ring), v.i. To writhe; to twist, as with anguish.

Tis all men's office to speak patience
To those that wring under the load of sorrow.
Shak.

Wringt (ring), n. Action expressive of anguish; writhing. 'The sighs, and tears, and wring* of a disconsolate mourner.' tip. Hall.

Wring-bolt (ring'bdK), n. A bolt used by shipwrights to l>end and secure the planks against the timbers till they are fastened by bolts, Bpikes, and treenails.

Wringer (riug'er), n, 1. One who wrings. 'His washer and his wringer.' Shak. Specifically—2. An apparatus for forcing water out of anything, particularly for wringing, pressing, or straining water from clothes after they have been washed. The effective part of such a machine generally consists of a pair of adjustable rollers between which the wet fabrics are passed.—3. An extortioner.

Wringing-wet (ringing-wet), a. So wet as to require wringing, or that water may be wrung out 'A poor fisherman . . . with his cloaths wringing-wet.' Hooker.

Wring-Btaff (ring'stafX n. A strong bar of wooa used in applying wring-bolta for the purpose of Betting-to the planks. Called also W rain-staff.

Wrinkle (ring'kl). n. [A. Sax. wrincle, a wrinkle, whence wrinclian, to wrinkle; O D. wrinckU, a wrinkle, wrinckelen, to wrinkle; Dan. rynke, Sw. rynka, a wrinkle, to wrinkle; closely akin to wring, wrench, <fcc.; A. Sax. wrincle is perhaps for wrencle, and a dim. from wrenc in its original sense of wrench. See Wrench] A small ridge or prominence or a furrow, formed by the shrinking or contraction of any smooth substance; a corrugation; a crease; a fold; as, wrinkle* in the face or akin. 'Not the least wrinkle to deform the sky.' Dryden.

With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles come.
Shak.
Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow;
Such as creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now.

Byron.
A million wrinkles carved his skin. Tennyson.

Wrinkle (ring'kl), n. [Dim. from A. Sax. irrenc, wrence, a trick. See Wrench, as also the above noun. J A short pithy piece of information or advice; a valuable hint; a bit of useful instruction as to a course to ho pursued; a new or good idea; a notion; a device. [Colloq.]

* They say mocking is catching*—*I never heard that before.' —' Why then. Miss, you have one wrinkle more than ever you had before." Swi/t.

Wrinkle (ring'kl), v.t pret & pp. wrinkled; ppr. wrinkling. [See the nonn.] To contract into furrows and prominences; to corrugate; to furrow; to crease; to make rough or uneven; as, to wrinkle the skin; to wrinkle the brow. * Hollow eye and wrinkled brow.' Shak. - Wrinkled care.' Milton.

A keen

North wind that blowing dry,

Wrinkled the face of deluge, as decay'd. Milton.

Wrinkle(rinj*/kl),f.i. To become contracted into wrinkles; to shrink into furrows and ridges.

Wrinkly (ringTdi), a. Somewhat wrinkled; barring* tendency to be wrinkled; puckered; creasy. 'Dry wrinkly indications of crying.' George Eliot.

Wrist (rist), n. [O.K. wrute, wirste, handwriste, A. Sax. wrist, handwrut, handwyrst, the wrist; Dan. & Sw. vrixt, Icel. rist (for vrist), the instep; G. rist, the wrist, the inBtep; from the stem of wreathe. The primary sense is the joint employed in wresting or twisting, or (in Scandinavian) the joint on which the body turns. See Writhe, Wrest. ] 1. The joint by which the hand is united to the arm, and by means of which the

hand moves on the forearm; the carpus. It consists of eight bones disposed in two rows, four in each row. These bones are connected to each other, and to the metacarpal hones, by numerous ligaments. Their motions on the forearm may be described as those of Jtexion, extension, abduction, and circumduction. —2. In mach. a stud or pin.—Bridle wrist, in the tnanege, the wrist of the horseman's left hand.

Wristband (rist'band), n. That band or part of a sleeve, especially of a shirt sleeve, which covers the wrist.

He wore very stiff collars and prodigiously long wristbands. Dickens.

Wrist-drop (rist'drop), n. In jmthol paralysis of the muscles of the forearm induced by the poison of lead. Dunglison.

Wristlet (rist'let), n. An elastic bandlet worn round a lady's wrist to conflno the upper part of a glove.

Writ (rit), n. [Frem xerite; A. Sax. writ, gewrit, a writing, a writ.] 1. That which is written. In this sense u-rit is particularly applied to the Scriptures or books of the Old and New Testament; as, holy writ; sacred writ

Trifles light as air.
Are to the Jealous confirmations strong
As proofs of holy writ. Skat.

2. In law, a precept under seal in the name of the sovereign or highest authority of the state, a judge, or other person having jurisdiction in the particular subject-matter, and directed to some public officer or private person, commanding him to do a certain act therein specified. A writ may be considered the document connected with the origin and progress of a civil or criminal proceeding. Civil writs were formerly divided into original and judicial. Original writs issued out of the Court of Chancery and gave authority to the courts in which they were returnable to proceed with the cause, but all such have now been abolished. Judicial writs, now the only form, issue out of the court in which the action is pending. Writs in English law were formerly very multifarious, but a great number have been abolished. Some of the more importantare, the writ to the sheriff of a county to elect a member or members of parliament, and those described in this work under the headings Capias, Error, Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Subpoena, &C.—Z. A formal instrument or writing of any kind.

I folded the writ up in form of tV other Shak.

Writ (rit). A form of the preterite and past participle of write (which see).

Writability (rit-a-bil'i-ti). a. Ability or disposition to write. [Rare.]

j see by my ■writability in my pressing my let-
It's tooth left.
H. llalPote.

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tcrs on you that my pen has still a colt's tooth left.

Writable (rifa-bl), a. Capable of or tit for being written. [Rare.]

The talk was by no means writable, but very pleasant. Miss Barney.

Wlftative (rit'a-tiv), a. [Formed on the type of talkative.] Disposed or inclined to write; giveu to writing. [Rare.]

Increase of age makes men more talkative, but less writative. f'ofie.

Write (rit), r.t pret. wrote; pp. written. Writ for the pret. and part, was formerly in frequent use, but is now very rarely employed, and then most usually for the sake of rhyme, rhythm, or the like; wrote for the part, is also discontinued. [A. Sax. wrttan, pret. wrdt, pp. writen, to engrave, write, compose; IceL rffa (for vrita), to scratch, cut, write, draw a line; Sw. rita, to draw, to trace, Goth, vrits, a stroke, a line; D. rijten, G. reissen, to tear, to split. Originally it meant the operation of scratching lines with some sharp pointed instrument ]

1. To form or trace by a pen. pencil, or the like, on paper or other material, or by a graver on wood or stone; as, to write the characters called letters; to write figures.

The airy hand confusion wrought,

Wrote ' Mene, Mcne." Tennyson.

2. To produce, form, or make by tracing legible characters expressive of ideas; to transfer by pen or otherwise to paperor other materials the terms or import of; to trace by means of a pen or other instrument the constituent signs, characters, or words of; to set down or express in letters or words; to inscribe; as, to write a bill, an account, a cheque, a letter, or the like.

'She enjoined me to write some lines to one she loves.'—'And have you V—'I have.'—'Are they not lamely writ!' Shak.

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3. To cover with characters or letters traced by the pen, Arc.

There she wiil sit in her smock till she hare -writ a sheet of paper. Shak.

4. To make known, express, announce, indicate, disclose, or communicate by means of characters formed by the pen, Ac

What s^ys Romeo I
Or, if his mind be writ, give me his letter. Shak.
I chose to write the thing I dare not speak.

Prior.

5. To compose and produce, as an author; as, to write a novel or a poem. 'Write me a sonnet.' Shak.

I well remember that Dr. Johnson maintained that if a man is to write a panegyric he may keep vices out of sight; but if he professes to writs a life he must represent it really as it was. Bos-wet I.

6. To designate by writing; to style in writing; to entitle; to declare; to record.

O that be were here to write me down an ass.
Shak.

He who writes himself martyr by his own inscription is like an ill painter, who by writing on a shapeless picture which he had drawn, is fain to tell passengers what shape it is which else no man could imagine. Milton.

7. Fig to impress deeply or durably; to imprint forcibly; to engrave; to indicate by any mark or sign. 'The last taste of sweets writ in remembrance.' Shak. "The record of injuries . . . written in our flesh.' Shak.

There is written in your brow honesty and constancy. Shak.

To write dmen, (a) to trace or form with a pen, Ac, the words of; to record. 'Having our fair order icritten dotcn,' Shak. {b) To injure or depreciate the character, reputation, or quality of by writing unfavourably of; to criticise unfavourably; to pat an end to by writing against; as, the young author was completely icritten down by the critics.—To write off, to note or record the deduction or cancelling or removal of; as, to write off discounts; to write off bad debts —To write out. (a) to make a copy or transcription of; especially, to make a perfect copy of after being roughly drafted; to record in full; as, when the document is written out you may send it off. (&) To exhaust the ideas of or power of producing valuable literary work by too much writing: used reflexively; as, that author has written himself out—To write up, (a) to commend, praise, or heighten the reputation, character, or value of by written reports or criticisms; to bring into public notice and esteem by writing favourable accounts of; as, that critic has written up both the play and the actors, (6) To give the full details of in writing; to set down on paper with completeness of detail, elaborateness, fulness, or the like; as, to write up a story from a meagre outline, (e) To complete the transcription or inscription of; specifically, in book-keeping, to make the requisite entries in up to date; to post up; as, to write up a merchant's books.

Write (rit), o. i. 1. To trace or form characters with a pen, pencil, or the like, upon paper or other material; to perform the act of tracing or marking characters so as to represent sounds or ideas.

He can write and read and cast accompt. Shak.

2. To be regularly or customarily employed, occupied, or engaged in writing, copying, drawing up documents, accounts, bookkeeping, or the like; to follow the profession of a clerk, scribe, amanuensis, Ac; as. he writes in our chief public office.—3. To combine ideas and express them on paper for the information or enjoyment of others; to be engaged in literary work; to compose or produce articles, books, &c., as an author.

The world agrees

That he writes well who writes with ease. Prior.

I live to write, and wrote to live. Rogers.

4. To conduct epistolary correspondence; to communicate by means of letter-writing; to convey information by letter or the like; as, I will write in a poBt or two.

I go. write to me very shortly. Shak.

Writer (rit'er), n. One who writes or has written, or is in the habit of writing.

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer. Psa. xlv. i.

Specifically, (a) one skilled in penmanship; one whose occupation is principally confined to wielding the pen; as. a clerk, a scribe, an amanuensis; particularly a title given to clerks in the service of the late East India Company. (6) A member of the literary profession; an author, journalist, or the like.

Tell prose writers stories are so stale

That penny ballads make a better sale. Breton.

These unreal ways
Seem but the theme of writers, and. indeed.
Worn threadbare. Tennyson.

(c) In Scotland, a term loosely applied to law agents, solicitors, attorneys, or the like, and sometimes to their principal clerks.— Writer of the tallies. See Tallt. Writer to the Signet See Sigset. Writer's cramp, a spasmodic affection frequently attacking persons (generally middle-aged) who have been accustomed to write much. The patient loses complete control over the muscles of the thumb and the fore and middle finger, so that all attempts to write regularly, and in the severer cases even legibly, are unsuccessful. The various methods of treatment for this trouble (such as surgical operations, the application of electricity,dec. )have not generally produced very satisfactory results, entire cessation from writing for a considerable time seeming to be the only course open to the patient Called also Scrivener's Palsy.

Writeress (rit'er-es), n. A female writer or author. Thackeray.

Writerling (rit'er-ling). n. A petty, mean, or sorry writer or author.

Every writer and writerling of name has a salary from the government. t¥. Taylor.

Writerahlp (rit'er-ship), n. The office of writer.

Writhe (riTH), u. t. pret & pp. writhed; an old form writhen is still occasionally used by our poets. [A. Sax. writhan, to writhe, wreathe, twist; pret. wrdth, pp. writhen; I eel. ritha (for rrffAa). to writhe, twist, bind; Dan. vride, Sw. rrufa.to writhe, wring; O.H.O. ridan; from same root as worth (verb), L. verto, to turn (see Verse). Akin wrath, wreath, wrist, wrest.] 1. To twist with violence; to subject to contortion; to distort; to wring.

Hts features seem writhen as by a palsy stroke. Sfenser. The monster hissed aloud, and raged in vain. And writhed his body to and fro with pain.

Addison. The whole herd, as by a whirlwind writhen, Went dismal through the air like one huge python. Keats.

2. To pervert; to wrest; to misapply.

The reason which he yieldeth showeth the least part of his meaning to be that whereunto his words are writhed. Hooker.

3. To deprive of by torture, extortion, or the like; to wring; to extort.

The nobility hesitated not to follow the example of their sovereign in writhing money from them by every species of oppression. Sir If. Scott.

Writhe (riTH), v.i. 1. To twist the body about, as in pain; as, to writhe with agony.

Supposing a case of tyranny the Tuscans will wriggfe under it rather than writhe, and if even they should writhe yet they will never stand erect.

Landor. They detested; they despised; they suspected; they writhed under authority; they professed submission only to obtain revenge. y. Martineau.

2. To advance by vermicular motion; to wriggle. [Rare.]

And lissome Vivien holding by his heel tVrithed [inward him, siided up his knee and sat. Tennyson.

Writhel, t Writhle t (riTHl), v. t [Freq. from writhe. ] To wrinkle. 'This weak and writ hied shrimp.' Shak.

The skin that was white and smooth is turned tawnie and writheCd Bp. Hall.

Writing (rit'ing), n. 1. The act or art of forming letters and characters on paper, parchment, wood, stone, the inner bark and leaves of certain trees, or other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas which characters and words express, or of communicating them to others by visible signs. 2. Anything written or expressed in letters; as, (a) any legal instrument, as a deed, a receipt, a bond, an agreement, &c. (b) A literary or other composition; a manuscript; a pamphlet; a book; as, the writings of Addison, (c) An inscription. John xix. 19.

Writing-book (rit'ing-buk), n. A blank paper book for practice iu penmanship; a copy-book.

Writing -chambers (rit'lng-cham-berz), n. pi. Apartments occupied by lawyers and their clerks, Ac.

Writing-desk (rit'ing-desk), n. A desk with a broad sloping top used for writing on; also, a portable case containing writing materials as used for the same purpose. See Desk.

Writing-ink (rit'ing-fagk), n. See Ink.

Writing-master (rit'ing-maa-ter), n. One who teaches the art of penmanship.

Writing-paper (rit'ing-pa-per), n. Paper finished with a smooth, generally sized, surface for writing on.

Writing-BChOOl (rit'ing-skbl). n. A school or an academy where hand-writing or caligraphy is taught

Writing-table (rifing-ta-bl). n. A table used for writing on, having commonly a desk part, drawers, Ac.

Written (rit'n), p. and a. Reduced to writing; committed to paper or the like by pen and ink or otherwise, as opposed to oral or spoken; as, written testimony, instructions, or the like.

// 'ritttn language is a description of the said ludrbte signs, by sign* visible. Holder.

—Written law. law contained in a statute or statutes: as contradistinguished from unwritten law.

Wrlzzledt (riz'ld), a Wrinkled. * Her wrizzled skin.' Spenser.'His wrizzled visage/ Gay.

Wrokent (rolcn), pp. of wreak. Revenged. Spenser.

Wanted nothing but faithful subjects to have **rvken himself of such wrongs as were done and offered to him by the French king. Holinsked,

Wrong (rongX a. [Properly the participle of wring, though it occurs earliest (in 1124) as a noun; Dan. vrang, wrong, erroneous, incorrect; IceL rangr, vrangr, awry, wrong, unrighteous; D. wrong, sour, harsh (lit. twisting the mouth). See Wring ] 1. Not physically right; not fit or suitable; not appropriate for use; not adapted to the end or purpose; not according to rule, requirement, wish, design, or the like; not that which is intended or ought to be.

He called me sot.
And told me I bad turned the wrviff side oat
SAak

2. Not morally right; not according to the divine or moral law; deviating from rectitude; not equitable; unjust. 'A free determination 'twill right and wrong.' Shak,

3. Not according to the facts or to truth; inaccurate; erroneous. 'A wrong belief.* Shak. False intelligence or wrong surniia.* Shak.

For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight.
His can't be wrong whose life is in the right.

PfP*.

4. Holding erroneous notions in regard to matters of doctrine, opinion, or of fact; in error; mistaken.

I was wrong.
I am always bound to you, but you are free.

Tennysem.

Syn. Unjust, immoral, inequitable, erroneous, inaccurate, incorrect, faulty, detrimental, injurious, hurtful, unfit, unsuitable Wrong (rong), u. 1. What is wrong or not right; a state, condition, or instance in which there is something not right: without an article; as. to be unable to distinguish between right and wrong.—2. A wrong, unfair, or unjust act; any violation of right or of divine or human law; an act of injustice; a breach of law to the injury of another, whether by something done or left undone; injustice; trespass.

Do him not that -wrong To bear a hard opinion of his truth. SMak. As the king of England can do no -wrong, so neither can he do right, but in his courts and by nis courts. Milton.

3. Any injury, mischief, hurt, pain, or damage; as, to have many wrongs to complain of.

All that are assembled in this place
That by this sympathized one day's error
Hath suffered wrong, go, keep us company.

ShaJk.
Each had suffered some exceeding wrong.

Ten uyson.

—Jn the wrong, (a) holding a wrong or unjustifiable position as regards another person; as, in a quarrel both parties may be in the wrong.

When people once are in the wrong.

Each line they add is much too long. Prior

(b) In error; erroneously. "Construe Cassio's smiles . . . quite in the wrong.' Shak. Wrong (rong). adv. In a wrong manner; not rightly; erroneously; incorrectly; amiss; morally ill.

Ten censure wrong for one that writes amiss. Prpe. Wrong (rong). v.t. 1. To treat with injustice; to deprive of some right or to withhold Borne act of justice from; to deal harshly, cruelly, or unfairly with; to injure; to hurt: to harm; to oppress; to disgrace; to offend

If he hath wronged thee or oweth thee ought, pet that on mine account. Phtle. 18.

And my sword. Glued to Its scabbard with wronged orphans' tears. Will not be drawn. Afajsingrr.

2. To do injustice to by imputation; to impute evil unjustly; as, if you suppose me capable of a base act you wrong me. —

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3. Naut. to outsail, by going to windward of the ship, and thus taking the wind out of her saila.

We were very much wronged by the ship that hart us in chase. Smollett.

Wrong-doer (rongMb-er). n. 1. One who injures another or does wrong.

She resolved to spend ail her years ... in bewailing the wrong, and yet praying for the wrongdoer. Sir P. Sidney.

2. In law, one who commits a tort or trespass; a tort-feaser. Wrong-doing (rongMb-ing), n. The doing

of wrong; behaviour the opposite of what

is right; evildoing. Wronger (rong'er), n. One who wrongs; one

who injures another. 'Caitiffs and wrongers

of the world.' Tennyson. Wrongful (rong'ful), a. Injurious; unjust;

as, a wrongful taking of property. 'His

wrongful dealing.' Jer. Taylor.

I am so Tar from granting thy request

That I despise thee for thy -wrongful suit. Shak.

Wrongfully (rong'ful-li), adv. In a wrongful mauner; unjustly; in a manner contrary to the moral law or to justice; as, to accuse one wrongfully; to Buffer icrongfuUy. 'Accusing the Lady Hero wrongfully.' Skak.

Wrongfulness (rong'ful-nes), n. Quality of being wrong or wrongful; injustice.

Wronghead (rongTied), n. A person of a misapprehending mind and an obstinate character.

Wronghead (rongTied), a. Same as Wrongheaded. 'This jealous, waspish, wronghead, rhyming race.' Pope.

Wrongheaded (rong'hed-ed), a. Having the brain or head taken up with false or wrong notions or ideas; especially, perversely wrong; having a perverse understanding: perverse. 'A wrongheaded distrust of England." Bp. Berkeley.

Wrongheadedly (rong-hed'ed-li), adv. In a wrong-headed manner; obstinately; perversely.

(Johnson) then rose to be under the care of Mr. Hunter, the head-master, who according to his account, was very severe, and wrongheadedly severe. Borwell.

Wrongheadedness (rong'hed-ed-nes). n. The state or quality of being wrongheaded; perverseness; erroneousness.

Fidelity to opinions and to friends seems to him mere dulness and wrongheadedness. Macaulay

Wronglesst (rongTes), a. Void of wrong.

Wronglesslyt (rongMes-li), ado. Without injury to any one. Sir P. Sidney.

Wrongly (rongTi), adv. In a wrong manner; unjustly; amiss.

Thou . . . wouldst not play false
And yet wouldst wrongly win. ShaJt.

Wrongminded (rong^mind-ed), a. Having a mind wrongly inclined; entertaining erroneous or distorted views.

Wrongness (rong'nes), n. The state or condition of being wrong; error.

The best have great wrongnesses within themselves, which they complain of, and endeavour to amend. Butler.

Wrongous (rong'us), n. [O.E. wrongwis, that is wrong-wise, the opposite of rightwise or righteous.] In Scots law, not right; unjust; illegal; as, wrongous imprisonment, false or illegal imprisonment.

Wrote (rot), pret. and old pp. of write. 'Lucius hath wrote already.' ShaJc.

Wrote,t v.i. or t. [A. Sax. wrotan, to grub up. See Root.] To root or dig with the snout, as swine do. Chaucer.

Wroth (rath), a. [A. Sax. wrdth, angry, engraged, lit. twisted, from wrtthan, to twist or writhe. See Wrath, Wreath.] Very angry; much exasperated.

Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

Gen. iv 5.
And to be it-roth with one we love.
Doth work like madness in the brain. Coleridge.

Wrought (rat), pret. & pp. of work. See
Work.—Wrought iron. See Iron.

Wrung (rung), pret. & pp. of wring.

Wry (ri), a. [A. Sax. wrigian, to bend, to turn, to incline; akin to wriggle (which Bee).]

1. Abnormally bent or turned to one Bide; in a state of contortion; twisted; distorted; as, a wry neck; a 101/ mouth; a wry face or distorted countenance frequently indicates discontent, disgust, impatience, pain, or the like. 'Awrynose.' B.Jonson. —2.Crooked; bent; not straight. 'Many a wry meander.' W. Browne.—Z. Deviating from what Is right or becoming; misdirected; out of place; as, wry words. 'If he now and then make a wry step.' W. Gilpin.—4. Wrested; perverted.

He mangles and puts a wry sense on Protestant authors. Atterbury.

Wryt (ri), v. i. 1. To swerve or go obliquely; to go aside; to deviate from the right path, physically or morally.

How many . . . murder wives much better than

themselves. For wrying but a little. Shak.

2. To bend or wind; to move in a winding or crooked course.

The first with divers crooks and turning writs. Ph. Fletcher

3. To writhe or wriggle. Beau. & Ft. Wryt (ri). v.t. 1. To distort; to wrest; to

make to deviate.

They have wrested and wryedhis doctrine.

Ralph Robinson.

2. To writhe; to twist. 'Writs his back and shrinks from the blow.' Jer. Taylor. Wryly (ri'li), adv. In a wry, distorted, or awkward manner.

Most of them have tried their fortune at some little lottery-office of literature, and receiving a blank have chewed upon it harshly and wryly. Landor

Wry-mouthed (ri'mouTHd), a. Having the mouth awry.

A shaggy tapestry . . . Instructive work I whose wry-month'd portraiture Display'd the fates her confessors endure. Pope

Wryneck (ri'nek), n. 1. A twisted or distorted neck; a deformity in which the neck is drawn to one Bide, and at the same time somewhat forward. — 2. A disease of the spasmodic kind in sheep, in which the head is drawn to one side.—3. A small migratory

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protruding and retracting it, and the writhing snake-like motion which it can impart to its neck without moving the rest of the body. It is also known by the names of Snake-bird, Cuckoo's Mate, &c.

Wrynecked (ri'nekt), a. Having a distorted neck. Some commentators in noticing the Shaksperean phrase, 'the wrynecked Me,' are of opinion that the allusion is to the player; others hold that the reference is to the instrument, which they say is the old English flute, or flute a bee: so called from having a curved projecting mouthpiece like a bird's beak.

Wryness (ri'nes), n. The state of being wry or distorted.

Wud (wud), a. Mad. See Wood. [Scotch.]

Wuddy (wud'i), n. See Woodie.

Willit (wul or wul), v.i. To will; to wish. 'Pour out to all that until' Spenser.

WuU(wul), n. WilL [Scotch]

Wumll (wum'l), n. A wimble. [Scotch.]

Wurrus (wur'rus), n. A brick-red dyepowder, somewhat resembling dragon'sblood, collected from the seeds of Rottlera tinctoria.

Wusset (wus), adv. Probably a form of the -wig of Y-wi*t certainly. See Y-wis.

Why, I hope you will not a hawking now, will you? No, wusse; but I'll practise against next year, uncle. B. fonson.

Washer (wuTH'er), v.i. To make a sullen roar. Written also Wudder. [Yorkshire ]

The air was now dark with snow; an Iceland blast was driving it wildly. This pair neither heard the long 'wuthering' rush, nor saw the white burden it drifted. C. Bronte.

Wych. Same as Wieh.

Wych-elm (wich'elm), n. [O.E. wiche, wyche, A. Sax. wice, a name applied to various trees. 'The sense is 'drooping' or bending, and it is derived from A. Sax. wic-en, pp. of wican, to bend.' Skeat. See Wicker] A British plant of the genus Ulmus, the U. montana. It is a large spreading tree with large broadly elliptical leaves, and grows in woods in England and Scotland. Some varieties have pendulous branches, and belong to the class of 'weeping' trees. See Elm.

Wych-hazel (wichTia-zl), «. [See WtchElm] The common name of plants of the genus Hamamelis, the type of the nat order Hamamelidaces. They are small trees, with alternate leaves on short petioles, and yellow flowers, disposed in clusters in the axils of the leaves, and surrounded by a three-leaved involucrum. They are natives of North America, Persia, or China. See

HAMAMELIDACE.fi.

Wych-waller (wich'wal-er), n. A salt boiler at a wych. [Cheshire.] Wye (wi), n. The supports of a telescope, theodolite, or levelling instrument, so called from their resembling the letter Y. Written also )'. Wylie-coat (wy'li-kot), n. A boy's flannel under-dress, next the shirt; a flannel petticoat. [Scotch.)

Wynd (wynd), n. An alley; a lane. [Scotch] Wynn (win), n. A kind of timber truck or carriage. Simmonds. Wyvern (wi' vera), «. [0. Fr. wivre, vivre, a viper, a dragon or wyvern, from L. vipera, a viper. See Viper, Weever. The a is an addition to the word, as in bittern.] In her. an imaginary animal, a kind of dragon with wings, but with only two legs, the termination of its body being somewhat serpentine in form.

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Ab an abbreviation X. stands for Christ, as in Xn. Christian, Xmas. Christmas.—X on beer-casks is said to have originally indicated beer which had to pay ten shillings duty.

Xangi. Xangti (zan'gi. zang-ti'). «■ In Chinese myth, the supreme ruler of heaven and earth; God.

Xanthate (zan'thatV*- A salt of xanthic acid.

Xantheln, Xantheine(zan-the'iu), n. That portion of the yellow colouring matter in Rowers which is soluble in water, as distinguished from xanthin, which is the insoluble part.

Xanthian (zan'thi-an), a. Of or belonging to XanUiu*, an ancient town of Asia Minor; as, the Xanthian sculptures in the British Museum.

XanthlC (zan'thik), a. [Gr. xanthos, yellow.] Tending towards a yellow colour.—Xanthic acid (C*H«0Sf), a name given to ethyldisulphocarbonic acid, from the yellow colour of its salts. It is a heavy oily liquid.—Xanthic Jtowers, flowers which have yellow for their type, and which are capable of passing into red or white, but never into blue. Those flowers of which blue is the type, and which are capable of passing into red or white. but never into yellow, have been termed cyanic flowers.—Xantfiic oxide (CjlliN^Oa), uric oxide, a very rare ingredient of urinary calculi, and said to occur in small quantities fn the spleeu and liver, in the muscular flesh of the horse aud ox, and in some kinds of guano. Called also Xanthin.

Xanthin, Xanthine (zan'thiu), n. A name applied to more than one substance from its colour; as, (a) that portion of the yellow colouring matter of flowers which is insoluble in water. (6) The yellow colouring matter contained in madder, (e) A gaseous product of the decomposition of xanthates. (d) The name is now generally confined to xanthic oxide, the ingredient of urinary rali uli; it is a white crystalline substance.

Xanthite (zan'thit), n. [Gr. xa>itho;<. yellow. J A mineral of a yellowish colour, a variety of vesuvian, composed of silica, lime, alumina, with small portions of the peroxides of iron and manganese, aud also magnesia and water. It is found in a bed of limestone near Amity In New York.

Xanthium (zau'thi-um), u. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, from yielding a yellow dye] Burweed, a genus of plants, nat order Composite. X. Strumarium is a rank and weedlike plant occasionally met with in Britain, to which it has been introduced from the Continent. It is remarkable for the curious structure of its flowers and the prickly involucres which surround the fertile ones, enlarging and becoming part of the fruit. Another species, X. spinosum, has in recent times spread over a great part of western Europe, coming from the south of Russia.

Xantho (zan'tho), n, [Gr. xanthos, yellow.] A genus of brachyurous crustaceans, including numerous species, and found in most seas.

Xanthocarpous (zantho-kar'puB), a. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, aud karpos, fruit.] In bot. having yellow fruit.

Xanthochroi (zan-thok'ro-I), n. pi. [Gr. xa nthochroos, yellow-skinned, from xantAos, yellow, and chroa, colour.] In ethn, one of the five groups into which Huxley classifies man, comprising the fair whites.

The Xnnthpchrai, or fair whites, . . . are the prevalent inhabitants of Northern Europe, and the type may be traced into North Africa, and eastward as far as Hindustan, i S. Tylor.

Xanthochromic (zan-tho-kro'ik), a. Of or pertaining to the Xanthochroi. See under Man.

Xanthochymus (zan-tho-ki'mus), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and chymos. juice.] A genus of trees, nat. order Guttiferic. A". pictorins, is a native of the East Indies, with white flowers, yellow fruit, and thick opposite leaves. The trunk yields a resinous juice of a yellow colour.

Xanthocon, Xanthocone (zan'tho-kon), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and konis, dust] An arsenio-sulphide of silver, of a dull-red or clove-brown colour, occurring in hexagonal tabular crystals, but commonly in crystalline reniform masses. When reduced to powder it becomes yellow, whence the name.

Xanthophyll (zan'tho-fll), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, phyllon, a leaf] In bot. a peculiar waxy matter to which some attribute the yellow colour of withering leaves. Nothing is known respecting its composition, or of

the manner in which it Is formed from chlorophyll. Called also Xanthophylline.

Xanthophylline (zan-thofil-in), n. Same as Xanthophyll.

Xanthopterin, Xanthopicrite (zan'thol>ik nn, zan'tho-pik-rit), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and pikros, bitter.] In chem. names given by Chevallier and Pelletan to a yellow colouring matter from the bark of Xanthoxylum caribamm, afterwards shown to be identical with berberine.

Xanthopous (zau'tho-pus), a. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and potts, a foot.] In bot, having a yellow Btem.

Xanthoproteic (zan'tho-pro-te"ik), a. Applied to an acid formed when protein or any of its modifications is digested in nitric acid. It is of a yellow colour, and seems to combine both with acids and bases.

Xanthoprotein (zan-tho-pro'te-in), n. A yellow acid substance formed by the action of nitric acid upon fibrine.

Xanthorhamnlne (zan-tho-ram'nin),?».l Gr. xanthos, yellow, and rhamnos, buckthorn.] A yellow colouring matter contained in the ripe Persian or Turkish berries and in Avignon grains. It imparts a yellow colour to fabrics mordanted with alumina and a black colour to those mordanted with iron salts. See Rhamntjs.

Xanthorrhsea (zan-tho-re'a), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and rhed, to flow, from its yellow resinous exudation.] A genus of plants, nat. order Liliaceee. The species are called grass-trees, and are found in Australia. They have thick trunks like those of palms, long wiry grass-like leaves, and long dense flower-spikes. See Grass-tree.

Xanthorrhlza (zan*tho-ri'za), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and rhiza, a root, the roots being of a deep yellow colour.] A genus of North American plants, nat. order Ranunculaceee. See Yellow-root.

Xanthosis (zan-tho'sis), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow.] In med. a term applied to the yellow discoloration often observed in cancerous tumours.

Xanthospermous (zan-tho-sper'mus), a. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and spenna, a seed.] In bot. having yellow seeds.

XanthOUS (zan'thus), a. [Gr. xanthos, yellow] A term applied by Dr. Priehard to that variety of mankind which Includes all those individualsor races which have brown, auburn, yellow, flaxen, or red hair.

Xanthoxylacess (zan-thok'si-la"se-e), n. pi. A group of polypetalous exogenous plants, now usually combined with Rutacere, found chiefly in America, especially in the tropical parts The species are trees or shrubs, with exsti^ulate, alternate or opposite leaves, furnished with pellucid dots. The flowers are either axillary or terminal, and of a gray green or pink colour. All the plants of the group to a greater or less extent possess aromatic and pungent properties, especially the species belonging to the genera Xauthoxylum, Brucea, Ptelea, Toddalia, and Ailan thus.

Xanthoxylum (zan-tholr/si-lum), n. [Gr. xanthos, yellow, and xylon, wood; the roots are yellow] A genus of plants, the type of the group Xanthoxylacerc. The species are trees or shrubs, with the petioles,leaves, and branches usually furnished with prickles. On account of their aromatic and pungent properties they are known in the countries where they grow under the name of peppers. X. fraxinettm is called toothache-tree, as its bark and capsular fruit are much used as a remedy for toothache.

Xebec (ze'bekX n. [Sp. xabeqne. Ft. chebec,

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three-masted vessel, formerly much used by the Algerine corsairs, and now used to a small extent in Mediterranean commerce It differs from the felucca chiefly in having several square sails, as well as lateen sail*, while the latter has only lateen sails,

Xenelasia (zen-e-la'si-a), n. [Gr., the expulsion of straugers.] A Spartan institution which prohibited strangers from residing in Sparta without permission, and empowered magistrates to expel straugers if they sawfit to do so.

Xenium (ze'ni-um), n. pi. Xenia (ze'ni-a). [L., from Gr. xenion, a gift to a guest, from xenos, a guest] 1. Anciently, a present given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreigu ambassador.— 2. A name given to pictures of still-life, fruit, &c., such as axe found in houses at Pompeii. Fairholt.

Xenodocheum. Xenodochium (zen'o-d6ke"um, zeu'o-do-ki"um), n, [Gr. xenodocheioti—xenos, a stranger, and dechomai, to receive.] A name given by the ancients to a building for the reception of strangers. The term is also applied to a guest-house m a monastery.

Xenodochy (zen-od'o-ki), n. [Gr. xenodachia. See above] Reception of strangers; hospitality. Also, same as Xenodocheum,

Xenogenesis (zen-o-jen'e-sis), n. [Gr. xena*. strange, and genesis, birth.] 1. Same as Heterogenesis, (6).—2. The production or formation of an organism of one kind by an organism of another. :is was formerly believed of parasitic worms by their hosts. Hvxley.

Xenogeneic (zen'o-je-net"ik), a. Of or pertaining to xenogenesis.

I have dwelt upon the analofjy of pathological modification which is in favour oftne xenogtnttic origin of niicrojymes. Hu \ ir\.

Xenops (ze'nops), n. [Or. xenos, strange, and ops, the countenance.] A genus of insessorial birds of South America, allied to the nuthatches.

Xenotime (zen'o-tim), n. A native phosphate of yttrium, having a yellowish brown colour.

Xerasla (ze-ra'si-a), n. (Trom Gr. xSrot. dry.] In pathol. a disease of the hair, which becomes dry and ceases to grow.

Xeres (zer'es), n. [Sp] Sherry: Bo called from the district of Spain where it is produced. Simmonds.

Xerlf (ze-rif), n. A shereef. * The xerif of Mecca.' Landor.

Xeriff (ze-rif), n. 1. A gold coin formerly current in Egypt and Turkey of the value of 9*. Ad.—2. A name for the ducat in Morocco.

Xerocollyrium (ze'rd-koMir"i-um), n. [Gr. xeros, dry, and kollyrivn.] A dry collyriuin or eye-salve.

Xeroderma (ze-ro-der'raa), n. [Gr. xeros, dry, and derma, skin.] In pathol general dryness of the surface of the akin, occasioned by abnormal diminution of the secretlonof the sebiparous organs. In its severest form It constitutes ichthyosis, or fish skin disease. Hoblyn,

Xerodes (ze-ro'dez), n. [Gr. xerodn, dryish, from xeros, dry.] Any tumour attended with dryness.

Xeromyrum (z£-ro-mi'rnm), n. [Gr. ziros, dry, and muron, ointment] A dry ointment.

Xerophagy (ze-rof'a-ji), n. (Gr. xfros. dry, and phago, to eat. ] A term applied by early ecclesiastical writers to the Christian rule of fasting; the act or habit of living on dry food or a meagre diet.

Xerophthalmy, Xerophthalmia (zfrofthal-mi, ze-rof-thaimi-a_), n. [Gr. zeros. dry, and ophthalmia, a disease of the eyes, from ophthalmos, the eye.] A dry. red soreness or itching of the eyes, without swelling or a discharge of humours.

Xerotes (ze'ro-tez), n. [Gr. xerotfs, dryness ] In med. a dry habit or disposition of the body.

Xiphlas (zif'i-as). n. [Gr.. from xiphos, a sword.] 1. The genus of fishes to which the X. gladius, or common sword-fish, belong* See Sword-fish—2. In astron. a constellation in the southern hemisphere. Called also Sword-fish and Dorado or Xiphias I . rado.

Xlphidium (zi-fld'i-nm), n. [From Or. xiphos, a sword, and eidos, resemblance.] A genus of plants with sword-shaped leaves, nat. order Liliocea?. A*, album is a native of the West Indies.

Xiphisternum (zif-i-ster'num), n. [Gr. xiphos, a sword, and sternon, a breast-bone.) In compar. anat. the inferior or posterior

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segment of the sternum, corresponding to the xiphoid cartilage of human anatomy.

Xiphodon (zifo-don), n. [Gr. xiphos, a sword, and odous, odontos, a tooth. ] A genus of fossil mammals, closely allied to Anoplotherium, of which two specieB have been ascertained.

Xiphoid (zif'oid), a. [Or. xiphos, a sword, and eidos. likeness.] Shaped like or resembling a sword; ensiform.— Xiphoid or ensiform cartilage, in anat. a small cartilage placed at the bottom of the breast-boue.

Xiphoidiau (zi-foid'i-an), a. Of or pertaining to the xiphoid cartilage.

Xiphophyllous (zif-of i-lus), a. [Gr. xiphos, a sword, and phyilon, a leaf] In hot, having ensiform leaves.

Xlphosura (zif-o-su'ra), n. [Gr. xiphos, a sword, and oura, a tail.] An order of crustaceans, so called from the long sword-like appendage with which the body terminates. They are represented solely by the Liniuli or king-crabs. See Kino-crab.

Xiphoteuthls (zif-o-tu'this), n. [Gr. xiphos, a sword, and teuthis, a squid.] A genus of Belemnites, characterized by a very long, narrow,deep-chambered phragmacone. Only a Bingle species is known from the lias. See Bklemsitidje

Xylanthrax (zi-lan'thraks). n. [Gr. xylon, wood, and anthrax, coal. ] Woodcoal; boveycoal.

Xylene (zHen), n. In chem. see XtxoL.

Xylldlne (zi'li-din), n. Same as Xyloidine.

Xylite (zi'lit), n. [Gr. xylon, wood.] The name given to ligniform asbestos, mountain wood, or rock-wood.

Xylobalsamum (zi-15-harsa-mum),n. l.The wood of the balsam-tree.—2. A balsam obtained by decoction of the twigs and leaves of the Amyris gileadcnsis in water.

Xylobius (zl-lo'bi-us), n. [Gr. xylon. wood, and bios, life.] A genus of fossil insects, supposed to be myriapods of the order Chlloguatha, discovered in trunks of Sigillaria. one of the most characteristic trees of the carboniferous age.

Xylocarp(zi'16-karp),n. [Gr.xylon,wood, and karpos, fruit ] In bat.a, hard and woody fruit

XylocarpOUS (zi-lo-kar'piis), a. [Or. xylon, wood, and karpos, fruit.] Having fruit which becomes hard or woody.

Xylocopa (zi-lok'o-pa), n. [Gr. xylos, wood, and kept, a cutting, incision.] The carpenter-bee, a genus of hymenopterous insects with sharp-pointed mandibles which bore holes in wood. It is an extensive genus. 8ee Carpenter-bee.

Xylograph (zi'lo-graf), n. [See XylograPhy.] An engraving on wood, or an impression from such an engraving.

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graphy. Xylography wood, and graphs, to engrave. ] 1. Wood en

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graving; the act or art of cutting figures or designs in wood.—2. A name given to a process of decorative painting on wood. A selected pattern or design is drawn on wood which is then engraved, or the design is reproduced in zinc by the ordinary method An electrotype cast is taken from the woodcut or zinc plate, and smooth surfaces of wood are printed from the electrotype, under a regulated pressure, with pigments prepared for the purpose. The colour penetrates the wood, leaving no outside film, and after being French polished or covered with a fluid enamel the wood may be washed, scrubbed, or even sand-pnpered without destroying the pattern, lire.

XylOld (ziloid), a. [Gr. xylon, wood, and eidos, form.] Having the nature of wood; resembling wood.

Xyloidine (zi-loi'din), n. [Gr. xylon, wood, and eidos, resemblance.] (CVHgNOj.) An explosive compound produced by the action of strong nitric acid upon starch or woody fibre. Called also Xylidine.

Xylol, Xylole (zHol), n> (CBHl0.) A hydrocarbon, analogous to benzol and toluol, found among the oils separated from crude woodspirit by the addition of water. Called also Xylene.

Xylophaga (zMofa-ga), n.pl. [Gr. xylon, wood, and phago, I eat.] A group of coleopterous insects noted for their habit of excavating wood. They resemble the weevils, but are distinguished from them by the absence of a proboscis.

Xylophagan (zi-lof a-gan), ». An insect of the group Xylophaga.

Xylophagidaa (zi-16-faj'i-dS), n. pi A family of Diptera or flies, the members of which have the antennae ten-jointed, and are furnished with a long ovipositor. The larva is cylindrical, and has a scaly plate on the tail, the head ending in an acute point They are very destructive to wood.

Xylophagoua (zi-lof a-gus), a. [Gr. xylon, wood, and phagO, to eat] Eating or feeding on wood.

Xylophagus (zi-lofa-gus\ n. The typical genus of the family Xylophogidro.

Xylophllan (zi-lof'i-lanV n. An Insect belonging to the Xylophili.

Xylophlll (zi-lof'i-li), n. pi. [Gr. xylon, wood, and phileo, to love.] A tribe of gigantic coleopterous insects, which live on decayed

wood. They chiefly inhabit tropical countries.

Xylophilous (zi-lofi-lus), o. Growing upon or living in wood.

Xylophylla (zi-lofil-a), n. [Gr. xijlon, wood, and phyilon, a leaf.] A genus of Euphorbiacere, or, as some regard it, a section of Phyllanthus, consisting of shrubs without leaves, but whose branches are flattened out and leaf-like, bearing the flowers in tufts in the notches of the margin. They are natives of the West Indies, and are named from the singular appearance of their leaf-like branches.

XylOpia (zi-16'pi-a), n, [Said to be contracted for Xylopicria, from Gr. xylon, wood, and pikros, bitter.] A genus of plants, nat order Anonacese. The species are trees or shrubs, natives chiefly of South America. X aro•matica is known by the name of African pepper. The fruit of X. grandifiora is a valuable remedy for fevers in Brazil. The wood of all is bitter; hence they are called bitter-woods.

Xylopyrography (zi16-pi-rog"ra-fl), n. [Gr. xylon, wood, pgr, pyros, fire, and grapho, to write.] The art or process of producing a

fiicture on wood by charring it with a hot ron. Called also Poker-painting.

Xyloretlne (zi'16-r6-tin), n. [Gr. xylon, wood, and rhetini, resin.] A sub-fossil resinous substance, found in connection with the pine-trunks of certain peat-mosses.

Xylotile (xi'16-til), n. [Gr. xylon, wood, and tiios, flock or down.] 1. An opaque, glimmering, light or dark brown or green mineral, of a delicately fibrous texture, consisting chiefly of silica, sesquioxide of iron, magnesia,and water.—2. Same as Parkesine.

Xyrldaceae (zi-ri-da'se-e), n.pl. [Gr. xyris, an iridaceous plant, from xyron, a razor: from shape of its leaves.] A nat. order of monocotyledonous rush-like or sedge-like herbs, the species of which are found over the tropics in both hemispheres. The order comprises two genera, Xyris and Abolboda, to which some botanists add Philydrum.

Xyst, Xystos (zist, zis'tos), n. [L. xystus, Gr. xystos, from xyo, to scrape, from its smooth and polished floor.] In anc. arch. a sort of covered portico or open court, of great length in proportion to its width, in which the athleta? performed their exercises. Written also Xystus.

Xystarch (zis'tark), n. [Gr. xystos, xyst, and archo, to rule.] An Athenian officer who presided over the gymnastic exercises of the xystos.

Xyster (zis'ter), n. [Gr. xyster, from xyd, to scrape] A surgeon's instrument for scraping bones.

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Y, the twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, was taken from the Latin, the Latin having borrowed it from the Greek T or upsilon. In the Anglo-Saxon alphabet it was always a vowel, and is believed to have had a sound resembling that of French u or German it, this being also the sound which the Greek T is believed to have had. In modern English it is both a consonant and a vowel, and seldom or never is the historical representative of A. Sax. y, this being usually represented by i At the beginning of syllables and followed by a vowel it is a consonant of the palatal class, being formed by bringing the middle of the tongue in contact with the palate, and nearly in the position to which the g hard brings it. Hence it has happened that in a great number of words g has been softened into y, as A. Sax. gedr into year, geomian into yearn, d<r<i Into day. As an adjective termination it commonly represents A. Sax. -ig, as in stony = A. Sax. stilnig, rjreedy=A. Sax. grazdig, hungry = A. Sax. hungry}, many = A. Sax. mamig. In some nouua it also represents the term, -ig, as in honey = A. Sax. hunig, withy = A. Sax. withig. In the term, -ly it stands for ic or ice, as in godly = A. Sax. godlie, friendly =A. Sax. freOndltc, fully = A Ssa.fulltce, hardly = A. Sax. heardllce, Ac. In words of Romance origin the term, -y often represents Fr. -ie, L. -m.os in history, modesty, memory, victory; it also represents

L. -turn, the noun termination, aa in study, remedy, subsidy, Ac., or the adjective terra. -ius, as in notary, contrary, secondary, Ac. In nouns ending in -ty the -ty represents Ft. -U, L. -tas,-tatis, aainvanity,calamity, Ac. In the middle and at the end of words y is a vowel, and is precisely the same as i. It is sounded as t long, when accented, as in defy, rely, dying; and as i short when unaccented, as in vanity, glory, synonymous. As a consonant this letter bears much the same relation to i (short) as w does to u; thus t short has in certain positions—as in the ia of Christian—a tendency to pass into y. Y is sometimes called the Pythagorean letter, from its Greek original representing, by means of its three limbs, the sacred triad, formed by the duad proceeding from the monad.—In chem. Y is the symbol of yttrium,— Y, as a numeral, stands for 150, and with a dash over it, Y, for 150.000.

T-. A common prefix in Old English words, as in y-clept, y-clad, Ac., representing A.Sax. ge-, which assumed this form by the common weakening of g to y. The meaning of words with this prefix is usually the same as if it were absent. See GE.

Ya,t adv. Yea; yea Chaucer.

Yacare (yak'a-ra). n. The native name of a Brazilian alligator (Jacare sclerops), having a ridge from eye to eye, fleshy eyelids, and small webs to the feet; the spectacled cayman. Written also Jacare.

Yacca-WOOd (yak-a-wod), n. The nmnint-m al wood of Podoca rpus coriacea, a small tree of Jamaica. It is of a pale-brown colour with streaks of hazel-brown, and is much used in the West Indies for cabinet work.

Yacht (yot), n. [O.D. jacht. Mod. D. jagt, a yacht, a chase, hunting, from jagen, to chase, to hunt, to hurry; G. jagen, to hunt; Dan. jage, to hunt, to drive, to hurry.] A light and elegantly fitted up vessel, used either for pleasure trips or racing, or as a vessel of state to convey kings, princes, Ac, from one place to another by sea. There are two distinct species of yacht: the mere racer with enormous spars and sails and dee ply-ballasted hull, with fine lines, but sacrificing everything to speed; and the elegant, commodious, well-proportioned travelling yacht, often with steam-propelling machinery, fit for a voyage round the world. The yacht navy of Britain comprehends vessels from 3 to about 600 tons.

f sail'd this morning with his majesty in one of hi-. yachts (or pleasure-boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch E. India Company presented that curious piece to the king. Evtiyn.

Yacht (yot), v.i. Tosail orcruise in a yacht:

as, he spent the summer yachting in the

Mediterranean. Yacht-club (yofklub), n. A club or union

of yacht-owners for racing purposes, Ac,

acting under a commodore.

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