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3. Naut. to outsail,

g to windward of the ship, and thus taking the wind out of her sails.

We were very much wronged by the ship that had us in chase.

Smollett, Wrong-doer (rong'dő-ér), n. 1. One who injures another or does wrong.

She resolved to spend all her years ... in bewailing the wrong, and yet praying for the wrong. doer.

Sir P. Sidney. 2. In law, one who commits a tort or trespass; a tort-feaser. Wrong-doing (rong'do-ing), n. The doing of wrong; behaviour the opposite of what

is right; evildoing. Wronger (rong'er), n. One who wrongs; one who injures another. 'Caitiffs and wrongers of the world.' Tennyson. Wrongful (rong'ful), a. Injurious; unjust;

as, a wrongful taking of property. His wrongful dealing.' Jer. Taylor.

I am so far from granting thy request

That I despise thee for thy wrongful suit. Shak. Wrongfully (rong'ful-li), adv. In a wrongful manner; unjustly; in a manner contrary to the moral law or to justice; as, to accuse one wrongfully; to suffer wrongfully. 'Accusing the Lady Hero wrongfully.' Shak. Wrongfulness (rong'fyl-nes), n. Quality of

being wrong or wrongful; injustice. Wronghead (rong hed), n. A person of a misapprehending mind and an obstinate character. Wronghead (rong hed), a. Same as Wrongheaded. This jealous, waspish, wronghead, rhyming race.' Pope. Wrongheaded (rong'hed-ed), a. Having the brain or head taken up with false or wrong notions or ideas; especially, perversely wrong; having a perverse understanding: perverse. A wrongheaded distrust of England.' Bp. Berkeley. Wrongheadedly (rong-hed'ed-li), adv. In

a wrong-headed manner; obstinately; perversely.

(Johnson) then rose to be under the care of Mr. Hunter, the head-master, who according to his ac. count, was very severe, and wrongheadedly severe.

Boswell. Wrongheadedness (rong'hed-ed-nes). n.

The state or quality of being wrongheaded; perverseness; erroneousness.

Fidelity to opinions and to friends seems to him mere dulness and wrongheadedness. Macaulay. Wrongless t (rongles), a. Void of wrong. Wronglesslyt (rong'les-li), adv. Without

injury to any one. Sir P. Sidney. Wrongly (rongʻli), adv. In a wrong manner; unjustly; amiss.

Thou ... wouldst not play false

And yet wouldst wrongly win. Shak. Wrongminded (rongʻmind-ed), a. Having a mind wrongly inclined; entertaining erroneous or distorted views. Wrongness (rong'nes), n. The state or condition of being wrong; error.

The best have great wrongnesses within them. selves, which they complain of, and endeavour to amend.

Butler. Wrongous (rong'us), n. (O.E. wrongwis, that is wrong-wise, the opposite of rightwise or righteous.) In Scots law, not right; unjust; illegal; as, torongous imprisonment, false or illegal imprisonment. Wrote (rot), pret. and old pp. of write.

Lucius hath wrote already.' Shak. Wrote, t v. i. or t. [A. Sax. wrótan, to grub up. See ROOT.) To root or dig with the snout, as swine do. Chaucer. Wroth (rath), a. (A. Sax. wrath, angry, engraged. lit. twisted, from writhan, to twist or writhe. See WRATH, WREATH.) Very angry; much exasperated.

Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

Gen, iv. 5. And to be wroth with one we love,

Doth work like madness in the brain. Coleridge. Wrought (rat), pret. & pp. of work. See

WORK.- Wrought iron. See IRON. Wrung (rung), pret. & pp. of wring. Wry (ri), a. (A. Sax. wrigian, to bend, turn, to incline; akin to wriggle (which see). 1. Abnormally bent or turned to one side; in a state of contortion; twisted; distorted; as, a wry neck; a wry mouth; a wry face or distorted countenance frequently indicates discontent, disgust, impatience, pain, or the like. 'A wry nose.' B. Jonson. -2. Crooked; bent; not straight. Many a wry meander.' W. Brownie.-3. Deviating from what is right or becoming; misdirected; out of place; as, wry words. If he now and then make a wry step.' W. Gilpin.-4. Wrested; perverted.

He mangles and puts a wry sense on Protestant authors.

Atterbury. Wryt (rī), v.i. 1. To swerve or go obliquely; to go aside; to deviate from the right path, physically or morally. How many... murder wives much better than

For wrying but a little.

Shak. 2. To bend or wind; to move in a winding or crooked course. The first with divers crooks and turning wries.

Ph. Fletcher. 3. To writhe or wriggle. Beau, & FI. Wry (ri), v.t. 1. To distort; to wrest; to make to deviate. They have wrested and wryed his doctrine.

Ralph Robinson, 2. To writhe; to twist. Wries his back and shrinks from the blow.' Jer. Taylor. Wryly (ri'li), adv. In a wry, distorted, awkward manner.

Most of them have tried their fortune at some little lottery-office of literature, and receiving a blank have chewed upon it harshly and wryly. Landor Wry-mouthed (ri'mouthd), a. Having the mouth awry.

A shaggy tapestry Instructive work! whose wry-mouth'd portraiture

Display'd the fates her confessors endure. Pope. Wryneck (ri'nek), n. 1. A twisted or distorted neck; a deformity in which the neck is drawn to one side, and at the same time somewhat forward. – 2. A disease of the spasmodic kind in sheep, in which the head is drawn to one side.-3. A small migratory

protruding and retracting it, and the writhing snake-like motion which it can impart to its neck without moving the rest of the body. It is also known by the names of

Snake-bird, Cuckoo's Mate, &c. Wrynecked (ri'nekt), a. Having a distorted neck. Some commentators in noticing the Shaksperean phrase, the wrynecked fife,' are of opinion that the allusion is to the player; others hold that the reference is to the instrument, which they say is the old English flute, or flute à bec: so called from having a curved projecting mouthpiece like

a bird's beak. Wryness (ri'nes), n. The state of being wry

or distorted. Wud (wud), a. Mad. See Wood. (Scotch.] Wuddy (wud'i), n. See WOODIE. Wullt (wul or wul), v.i. To will; to wish.

Pour out to all that wull.' Spenser. Wull (wul), n. Will. (Scotch.) Wumil (wum'l), n. A wimble. [Scotch.] Wurrus (wur'rus), n. A brick-red dyepowder, somewhat resembling dragon'sblood, collected from the seeds of Rottlera

tinctoria. Wusset (wus), adv. Probably a form of the-wis of Y-wis, certainly. See Y-WIS. Why, I hope you will not a-hawking now, will you? No, wusse; but I'll practise against next year, uncle.

B. Jonson, Wucher (wUTH'er), v.i. To make a sullen roar. Written also Wudder. (Yorkshire. 1

The air was now dark with snow; an Iceland blast was driving it wildly. This pair neither heard the long 'wondhering' rush, nor saw the white burden it drifted." nering

C. Bronte. Wych. Same as Wich. Wych-elm (wich'elm), n. [OE. wiche. wyche, A. Sax. wice, a name applied to various trees. The sense is 'drooping' or bending, and it is derived from A. Sax. wic-en, pp. of voican, to bend.' Skeat. See WICKER.) A British plant of the genus Ulmus, the U. montana. It is a large spreading tree with large broadly elliptical leaves, and grows in woods in England and Scotland. Some varieties have pendulous branches, and belong to the class of 'weeping' trees, See ELM. Wych-bazel (wich'ha-zl), n. (See WYCHELM] The common name of plants of the genus Hamamelis, the type of the nat. order Hamamelidaceae. They are small trees, with alternate leaves on short petioles, and yellow flowers, disposed in clusters in the axils of the leaves, and surrounded by a three-leaved involucrum. They are natives of North America, Persia, or China. See HAMAMELIDACEÆ. Wych-waller (wich'wal-ér), n. A salt

boiler at a wych. (Cheshire.) Wye (wi), n. The supports of a telescope, theodolite, or levelling instrument, so called from their resembling the letter Y. Written also Y. Wylie-coat (wyli-köt), n. A boy's flannel under-dress, next the shirt; a flannel petticoat. (Scotch.) Wynd (wýnd), n. An alley; a lane. (Scotch.]

Wynn (win). n. A kind of timber truck or carriage. Simmonds. Wyvern (wi' vérn), n. [0. Fr. wivre, vivre, a viper, a dragon or wyvern, from L. vipera, a viper. See VIPER, WEEVER. The

n is an addition to the Wyvern.

word, as in bittern.) In

her. an imaginary animal, a kind of dragon with wings, but with only two legs, the termination of its body being somewhat serpentine in form.

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X, the twenty-fourth letter of the English alphabet, was borrowed by the Romans in comparatively late times from the Greeks, and passed from the Roman into the AngloSaxon alphabet. The Greek x, however, was a guttural, probably like the Scotch or German ch, and why in Latin it should have assumed the functions of the Greek character E(= x) is not very clear. Except when used at the beginning of a word, x in English

is a double consonant (as it was in Latin and Greek), and has usually the sound of ks, as in wax, lax, axis, &c.; but when terminating a syllable, especially an initial syllable, if the syllable following it is open or accented, it often takes the sound of gz, as in luxury, exhaust, exalt, exotic, &c. At the beginning of a word it has precisely the sound of z. Hence it is entirely a superfluous letter, representing no sound that could

not easily be otherwise represented. As an initial it occurs in a few words borrowed from the Greek, never standing in this position in words that are properly Euglish in origin.--As a numeral X stands for ten. It represents one V, which stands for five, placed above another, the lower one being inverted. When laid horizontally, thus , it stands for a thousand, and with a dash over it, thus X, it stands for ten thousand.

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nism of one kinde believed

In palhary and ot. Spain

-As an abbreviation X. stands for Christ. the manner in which it is formed from three-masted vessel, formerly much used by as in Xn. Christian, Xmas. Christmas. -X on chlorophyll. Called also Xanthophylline. the Algerine corsairs, and now used to a beer-casks is said to have originally indi Xanthophylline (zan-thof'il-in), n. Same small extent in Mediterranean commerce. cated beer which had to pay ten shillings as Xanthophyll.

It differs from the felucca chiefly in having duty.

Xanthopicrin, Xanthopicrite (zan'tho- | several square sails, as well as lateen sails, Xangi, Xangti (zan'gi, zang-ti'), n. In pik-rin, zan'tho-pik-rit), n. [Gr. xanthos, while the latter has only lateen sails. Chinese myth. the supreme ruler of heaven yellow, and pikros, bitter.) In chem, names Xenelasia (zen-e-la'si-a), n. (Gr., the expuland earth; God.

given by Chevallier and Pelletan to a yellow sion of strangers.) A Spartan institution Xanthate (zan'thăt), n. A salt of xanthic acid. colouring matter from the bark of Xan which prohibited strangers from residing in Xanthein, Xantheine (zan-thē'in), n. That thoxylum caribæum, afterwards shown to Sparta without permission, and empowered portion of the yellow colouring matter in be identical with berberine.

magistrates to expel strangers if they saw Xanthopous (zan'tho-pus), a. (Gr. xan fit to do so. guished from xanthin, which is the insol. | thos, yellow, and pous, a foot.) In bot. hav. Xenium (zē'ni-um) n. pl. Xenia ('ni-a). uble part. ing a yellow stem.

(L., from Gr. senion, a gift to a guest, from Xanthian (zan'thi-an), a. Of or belonging Xanthoproteic (zan'tho-pro-tē"ik), a. Ap xenos, a guest.) 1. Anciently, a present

to Xanthus, an ancient town of Asia Minor; plied to an acid formed when protein or given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreign as, the Xanthian sculptures in the British any of its modifications is digested in nitric ambassador. -2. A name given to pictures Museum.

acid. It is of a yellow colour, and seems of still-life, fruit, &c., such as are found in Xanthic (zan'thik), a. (Gr. xanthos, yellow.) to combine both with acids and bases.

houses at Pompeii. Fairholt. Tending towards a yellow colour.-Xanthic Xanthoprotein (zan-tho-prõ'te-in). n. A Xenodocheum, Xenodochium (zen'o-doacid (CHOS), a name given to ethyldisul yellow acid substance formed by the action ke" um, zen'o-do-ki"um), 7. (Gr. xenodophocarbonic acid, from the yellow colour of of nitric acid upon fibrine.

cheion-xenos, a stranger, and dechomai, to its salts. It is a heavy oily liquid.-Xanthic Xanthorhamnine (zan-tho-ram'nin), n. [Gr. receive.) A name given by the ancients to flowers, flowers which have yellow for their canthos, yellow, and rhamnos, buckthorn.] a building for the reception of strangers. type, and which are capable of passing into A yellow colouring matter contained in the The term is also applied to a guest house in red or white, but never into blue. Those ripe Persian or Turkish berries and in Avi. a monastery. flowers of which blue is the type, and which gnon grains. It imparts a yellow colour to Xenodochy (zen-od'o-ki), n. (Gr, renodoare capable of passing into red or white. fabrics mordanted with alumina and a black chia. See above.) Reception of strangers; but never into yellow, have been termed colour to those mordanted with iron salts. hospitality. Also, same as Xenodocheum. cyanic flowers.-Xanthic oxide (C,H, N 02), See RHAMNUS.

Xenogenesis (zen-o-jen'e-sis), n. (Gr. renos, uric oxide, a very rare ingredient of urinary Xanthorrhæa (zan-tho-rē'a), n. (Gr. xan strange, and genesis, birth.] 1. Same as Hecalculi, and said to occur in small quanti thos, yellow, and rheo, to flow, from its terogenesis, (b).-2. The production or formaties in the spleen and liver, in the muscular yellow resinous exudation.) A genus of tion of an organism of one kind by an orflesh of the horse and ox, and in some kinds plants, nat, order Liliaceae. The species are ganism of another, as was formerly believed of guano. Called also Xanthin.

called grass-trees, and are found in Austra of parasitic worms by their hosts. Hugley. Xanthin, Xanthine (zan'thin), n. A name lia. They have thick trunks like those of Xenogenetic (zen'o-je-net"ik), a. Of or perapplied to more than one substance from palms, long wiry grass-like leaves, and long taining to xenogenesis. its colour; as, (a) that portion of the yellow dense flower-spikes. See GRASS-TREE,

I have dwelt upon the analogy of pathological mocolouring matter of flowers which is insol. Xanthorrhiza (zan-tho-ri'za), n. (Gr. xan dification which is in favour of the xenogenetic origin uble in water. (6) The yellow colouring thos, yellow, and rhiza, a root, the roots

of microzymes.

Huricy. matter contained in madder. (C) A gaseous being of a deep yellow colour.) A genus of

Xenops (zē'nops). n. [Gr. renos, strange, product of the decomposition of xanthates. North American plants, nat. order Ranun and ops, the countenance.) A genus of in(d) The name is now generally confined to culaceae. See YELLOW-ROOT.

sessorial birds of South America, allied to xanthic oxide, the ingredient of urinary Xanthosis (zan-tho'sis). 1. (Gr. xanthos, the nuthatches. calculi; it is a white crystalline substance. yellow.) In med. a term applied to the yel- Xenotime (zen'o-tim), n. A native phosXanthite (zan'thit), n. (Gr. xanthos, yellow.) low discoloration often observed in cancer phate of yttrium, having a yellowish brown A mineral of a yellowish colour, a variety ous tumours.

colour. of vesuvian, composed of silica, lime, alu- Xanthospermous (zan-tho-sper'mus), a. Xerasia (zē-rā'si-a), n. (From Gr. Xēros, dry.] mina, with small portions of the peroxides of (Gr. ranthos, yellow, and sperma, a seed.] In pathol. a disease of the hair, which beiron and manganese, and also magnesia and In bot. having yellow seeds.

comes dry and ceases to grow. water. It is found in a bed of limestone Xanthous (zan'thus), a. (Gr. xanthos, yel. Xeres (zer'es), n. [Sp.) Sherry: so called near Amity in New York

low.) A term applied by Dr. Prichard to from the district of Spain where it is proXanthium (zan'thi-um), n. [Gr. xanthos, that variety of mankind which includes all

duced. Simmonds. yellow, from yielding a yellow dye.) Bur those individuals or races which have brown, Xerif (ze-rif'), n. A shereef. "The serif of weed, a genus of plants, nat, order Compo auburn, yellow, flaxen, or red hair.

Mecca.' Landor, sitæ. X. Strumarium is a rank and weed. Xanthoxylacea (zan-thok'si-lá"se-ē), n. pl. Xeriff (ze-rif). n. 1. A gold coin formerly like plant occasionally met with in Britain, A group of polypetalous exogenous plants, current in Egypt and Turkey of the value of to which it has been introduced from the now usually combined with Rutaceæ, found 98. 4d.-2. A name for the ducat in MorContinent. It is remarkable for the curious chiefly in America, especially in the tropical

occo. structure of its flowers and the prickly in parts The species are trees or shrubs, with Xerocollyrium (zē'ro-kol-lir'i-um), 11. (Gr. volucres which surround the fertile ones, exstimulate, alternate or opposite leaves, Xēros, dry, and kollyrion.) A dry collyrium enlarging and becoming part of the fruit. furnished with pellucid dots. The flowers or eye-salve. Another species, X. spinosum, has in recent are either axillary or terminal, and of a gray Xeroderma (zē-ro-dér'ma), n. (Gr. reros, times spread over a great part of western green or pink colour. All the plants of the dry, and derma, skin.) In pathol. general Europe, coming from the south of Russia. group to a greater or less extent possess dryness of the surface of the skin, occaXantho (zan'tho), n. (Gr. xanthos, yellow.] aromatic and pungent properties, especially sioned by abnormal diminution of the secreA genus of brachyurous crustaceans, in the species belonging to the genera Xan tion of the sebiparous organs. In its severest cluding numerous species, and found in thoxylum, Brucea, Ptelea, Toddalia, and form it constitutes ichthyosis, or fish-skin most seas. Ailanthus.

disease. Hoblyn. Xanthocarpous (zan-tho-kär'pus), a. (Gr. Xanthoxylum (zan-thok'si-lum), n. (Gr. | Xerodes (zē-ro'dēz), n. (Gr. xerodes, dryxanthos, yellow, and karpos, fruit.] In bot.

xanthos, yellow, and xylon, wood; the roots ish, from Xēros, dry.) Any tumour attended having yellow fruit.

are yellow.) A genus of plants, the type of with dryness. Xanthochroi (zan-thok'ro-i), n. pl. (Gr. the group Xanthoxylacex. The species are

Xeromyrum (zē-ro-mi'rum), 12. (Gr. rēros. xanthochroos, yellow-skinned, from xanthos, treus or shrubs, with the petioles, leaves, and dry, and muron, ointment.] A dry ointyellow, and chroa, colour.] In ethn, one of branches usually furnished with prickles.

ment the five groups into which Huxley classifies On account of their aromatic and pungent Xerophagy (zē-rot'a-ji), n. (Gr. tēros, dry, man, comprising the fair whites.

properties they are known in the countries and phago, to eat.) A term applied by early The Xanthochroi, or fair whites, ... are the pre

where they grow under the name of peppers. ecclesiastical writers to the Christian rule valent inhabitants of Northern Europe, and the type

X. fraxineum is called toothache-tree, as its of fasting; the act or habit of living on dry may be traced into North Africa, and eastward as bark and capsular fruit are much used as a food or a meagre diet. far as Hindostan,

E. B. Tylor.
remedy for toothache.

Xerophthalmy, Xerophthalmia (ze'rofXanthochroic (zan-tho-kro'ik), a. or or Xebec (zē'bek), n. (Sp. zabeque, Fr. chebec, thal - mi, zē-rot-thal'mi-a ), n (Gr. reros, pertaining to the Xanthochroi. See under

dry, and ophthalmia, a disease of the eyes, MAN.

from ophthalmos, the eye.) A dry, red soreXanthochymus (zan-tho-ki'mus), n. (Gr.

ness or itching of the eyes, without swelling xanthos, yellow, and chymos, juice.) A

or a discharge of humours. genus of trees, nat. order Guttiferæ. X.

Xerotes (zero-téz), n. (Gr. rërotës, dryness pictorius, is a native of the East Indies,

In med. a dry habit or disposition of the with white flowers, yellow fruit, and thick

body. opposite leaves. The trunk yields a resin

Xiphias (zif'i-as). n. (Gr., from riphos, a ous juice of a yellow colour.

sword. 1 1. The genus of fishes to which the Xanthocon, Xanthocone (zan'tho-kon), n

X. gladius, or common sword-fish, belongs (Gr. xanthos, yellow, and konis, dust. ] An

See SWORD-PISH.-2. In astron. & constelarsenio-sulphide of silver, of a dull-red or

lation in the southern hemisphere. Called clove-brown colour, occurring in hexagonal

also Sword-fish and Dorado or Xiphias Detabular crystals, but commonly in crystal

rado. line reniform masses. When reduced to

Xiphidium (zi-fid'i-um), n. [From Gr. sipowder it becomes yellow, whence the

phos, a sword, and eidos, resemblance.) A name.

genug of plants with sword-shaped leaves. Xanthophyll (zan'tho-fil), n. (Gr. xanthos,

nat, order Liliacea. X. album is a native yellow, phyllon, a leaf.) In bot. & peculiar

Xebec of Barbary.

of the West Indies. waxy matter to which some attribute the

Xiphisternum (zif-i-stèrnum), n (Gr. yellow colour of withering leaves. Nothing It. sciabecco, zambecco, from Turk. sumbeki, xiphos, a sword, and sternon, a breast-bode.] is known respecting its composition, or of xebec; Ar. sumbúk, a small vessel.) A small In compar. anat. the inferior or posterior

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Y, the twenty-fifth letter of the English

L. -ium, the noun termination, as in study, Yacca-wood (yak-a-wod). n. The ornaalphabet, was taken from the Latin, the Latin

remedy, subsidy, &c., or the adjective term. mental wood of Podocarpus coriacea, a small having borrowed it from the Greek Tor -ius, as in notary, contrary, secondary, &c. tree of Jamaica. It is of a pale-brown upsilon. In the Anglo-Saxon alphabet it

In nouns ending in -ty the -ty represents colour with streaks of hazel-brown, and is was always a vowel, and is believed to have

Fr. -té, L. -tas, -tatis, as in, vanity, calamity, much used in the West Indies for cabinet had a sound resembling that of French u or

&c. In the middle and at the end of words work. German ü, this being also the sound which

y is a vowel, and is precisely the same as i. | Yacht (yot), n. (O.D. jacht, Mod. D. jagt, the Greek T is believed to have had. In

It is sounded as i long. when accented, as a yacht, a chase, hunting, from jagen, to modern English it is both a consonant and

in defy, rely, dying; and as i short when chase, to hunt, to hurry; G. jagen, to hunt; a vowel, and seldom or never is the histori unaccented, as in vanity, glory, symonymous. Dan. jage, to hunt, to drive, to hurry.] A cal representative of A. Sax. y. this being

As a consonant this letter bears much the light and elegantly fitted up vessel, used usually represented by i At the beginning

same relation to i(short) as w does tou; thus either for pleasure trips or racing, or as a of syllables and followed by a vowel it is a

i short has in certain positions--as in the ia vessel of state to convey kings, princes, &c., consonant of the palatal class, being formed

of Christian-a tendency to pass into y. Y from one place to another by sea. There are by bringing the middle of the tongue in

is sometimes called the Pythagorean letter, two distinct species of yacht: the mere contact with the palate, and nearly in the

from its Greek original representing. by racer with enormous spars and sails and position to which the g hard brings it. Hence

means of its three limbs, the sacred triad, deeply-ballasted hull, with fine lines, but it has happened that in a great number of

formed by the duad proceeding from the sacrificing everything to speed; and the elewords g has been softened into y, as A. Sax.

monad.-In chem. Y is the symbol of yttri. gant, commodious, well-proportioned tragear into year, geornian into yearn, dæg

um.-Y, as a numeral, stands for 150, and velling yacht, often with steam-propelling into day. As an adjective termination it with a dash over it, Y, for 150.000

machinery, fit for a voyage round the world. commonly represents A. Sax. -ig, as in stony JY- A common prefix in Old English words,

The yacht navy of Britain comprehends ves=A. Sax, stanig, greedy = A. Sax. grædig, as in y-clept, y-clad, &c., representing A.Sax.

sels from 3 to about 600 tons. hungry = A. Sax. hungrig, many=A. Sax. ge-, which assumed this form by the com I sail'd this morning with his majesty in one of his moenig. In some nouns it also represents mon weakening of g to y. The meaning of yachis (or pleasure-boats), vessels not known among the term. -ig, as in honey= A. Sax. hunig, words with this prefix is usually the same

us till the Dutch E. India Company presented that withy=A. Sax. withig. In the term. -ly it as if it were absent. See GE.

curious piece to the king.

Evelyn. stands for ic or ice, as in godly=A. Sax. god Ya, t adv. Yea; yes. Chaucer.

Yacht (yot), v.i. To sail or cruise in a yacht; lic, friendly = A. Sax. frendlic, fully=A. | Yacare (yak'a-ră), n. The native name of as, he spent the summer yachting in the Sax. fullice, hardly=A. Sax. heardlice, &c. a Brazilian alligator (Jacare sclerops), hay Mediterranean. In words of Romance origin the term. -Y ing a ridge from eye to eye, fleshy eyelids, Yacht-club (yot'klub). n. A club or union often represents Fr. -ie, L. -ia, as in history, and small webs to the feet; the spectacled of yacht-owners for racing purposes, &c., modesty, memory, victory; it also represents cayman. Written also Jacare.

acting under a commodore.

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Yachter (yot'ér), n. One who commands a

yacht; one who sails in a yacht. Yachting (yot'ing), a. Relating to a yacht or yachts; as, a yachting voyage. Yachtsman (yots'man), n. One who keeps

or sails a yacht.
Yaf. Gave. Chaucer.
Yaff (yaf), v.i. [Imitative.] To bark like a
dog in a passion; to yelp; hence, to talk
pertly. (Scotch.)
Yaffle, Yaffingale (yaf'l, yaf'in-gäl),n. Local
names given to the green woodpecker (Picus
viridis) from its cry.

VowsI-I am woodman of the woods,
And hear the garnet-headed paffingale
Mock them.

Yager (ya'ger), n. [G. jäger, lit. a hunts-
man, from jagen, to hunt.) A member of
certain regiments of light infantry in the
armies of various German states. Such regi-
ments were originally composed of jäger or
huntsmen, whence the name. The French
chasseur belongs to the same class of sol-
Yagger (yag'er), n. (D. jager, a huntsman,
a driver. See YAGER.) A ranger about the
country; a travelling pedlar. Sir W. Scott.
(Shetland Islands.)
Yahoo (ya'ho), n. A name given by Swift,
in Gulliver's Travels, to a race of brutes,
having the form of man and all his degrad-
ing passions. They are placed in contrast
with the Houyhnhnms, or horses endowed
with reason, the whole being designed as a
satire on the human race. Hence, a rough,
boorish, uncultivated character. A yahoo
of a stable-boy.' Graves.

What sort of sellow is he; . . . a yahoo, I suppose?' 'Not at all, he is a capital fellow, a perfect gentleman.'

H. Kingsley. Yak (yak), n. (Thibetian.) A ruminant mammal of the Bovine tribe, the Bos poephagus, or Poephagus grunniens, a small species of ox, with cylindric horns, curving outward, long pendent silky hair fringing its sides, á bushy mane of fine hair, and villous, horselike tail: inhabiting Thibet and the higher plateaus of the Himalayas: called by Pennant and others the grunting ox, from its very peculiar voice, which sounds much like the grant of a pig: known also as Sarlac, Sarlik. There are several varieties of the yak due to climatic influences, character of habitat, food, and, in the case of domesticated animals, to the kind of work to which they are put, as the noble yak, the ghainorile, the plough-yak. The last is a plebeianlooking animal, and wants the magnificent side tufts of hair characteristic of its free brethren. It is employed in agriculture. The yak is often crossed with other domestic cattle, and a mixed breed obtained. The tail of the yak is in great request for various ornamental purposes, and forms quite an important article of commerce. Dyed red it decorates the caps of the Chinese, and when properly mounted it is used as a flyflapper in India under the name of a chowry.

plants of the genus Dioscorea, growing in Yank (yangk), n. 1. A quick, sharp stroke: tropical climates. The common West Indian a buffet; as, he gave him a yank on the yam is produced by D. alata, the East In. head. (Scotch.1-2. A jerk or twitch. (Colloq.

United States.)-3. pl. A kind of leggings. (Provincial.) Yank (yangk), n. (Contr. of Yankee.) A

Yankee. (Vulgar.) Yankee (yang kē), n (A word of uncertain origin. The most common explanation seems also the most plausible, namely, that it is a corrupt pronunciation of English or of Fr. Anglais formerly current among the American Indians. In Bartlett's Dictionary of Americanisms a statement is quoted to the effect that Yengees or Yenkees was a name originally given by the Massachusetts Indians to the English colonists, and that it was afterwards adopted by the Dutch on the Hudson, who applied the term in contempt to all the people of New England. Bartlett also quotes a statement of Heckwelder (an authority on Indian matters), who affirmed that the Indians applied the term Yengees specially to the New Englanders as contradistinguished from the Virginians or Long Knives, and the English proper or Saggenash. As early as 1713 it is said to have been a common cant word at Cambridge, Mass., in the sense of good or excellent, being probably borrowed by the

students from the Indians, to whom a Yan. Yam (Dioscorea globosa).

kee' article would be synonymous with an

excellent one, from the superiority of the dian yams are produced by D. globosa, ru

white man in mechanical arts.) A cant name bella, and purpurea. The D. atro-purpurea

for a citizen of New England. During the grows in Malacca, and produces tubers

American Revolution the name was applied which, like those of D. purpurea, are of a

to all the insurgents; and during the civil purple colour. Yams, when roasted or

war it was the common designation of the boiled. form a wholesome, palatable, and

Federal soldiers by the Confederates. In nutritious food. They are sometimes of the

Britain the term is sometimes applied genweight of 30 lbs. See WATER-YAM.

erally to all natives of the United States. Yama (yä'ma), n. In Hind. myth, the god

Yankee - Doodle (yang-ke-do'dl). 7. 1. A famous air, now regarded as American and national. In reality the air is an old Eng. lish one, called Nankey Doodle, and had some derisive reference to Cromwell. It is said that the brigade under Lord Percy, after the battle of Lexington, marched out of Boston playing this tune in derisive and punning allusion to the name Yankee, and the New Englanders adopted the air in consideration of the fact that they had made the British dance to it. The really national tune of the whole United States, however. is 'Hail, Columbia !'-2. A Yankee. Hot

Yankee-doodles.' Moore. (Ludicrous. ] Yankeeism (yang ke-izm), n. An idiom or

practice of the Yankees. Yanker Yankie, n. (See YANK, V. i.) (Scotch] 1. A sharp, forward, clever woman.-2. One who speaks or scolds incessantly. Yanolite (yan'o-lit), n. See AXINITE. Yaourt (yourt), n. A fermented liquor or milk-beer, similar to koumis, made by the Turks. Simmonds. Yap (yap), v.i. [Imitative, like yaf; comp. Fr. japper, Pr. japar, to yelp.) To yelp; to bark. Sir R. L' Estrange.

Yap (yap), n. The cry of a dog; a bark; a Yama,


Yapock (yap'ok), n. A handsome opossum of departed spirits and the appointed judge

inhabiting the rivers of Brazil and Guiana and punisher of the dead; the embodiment

It is aquatic in its habits, bearing a conof power without pity, and stern, unbend

siderable resemblance to a small otter, and ing fate. He is generally represented as

differs from other opossums in its dentition, crowned and seated on a buffalo, which he

in having no opposable thumb, and, thereguides by the horns. He is four-armed and

fore, in being incapable of climbing trees, of austere countenance. In one hand he

and in the toes of the hind feet being webbed. holds a mace, in another a noose which is

It is an excellent swimmer, and lives on the used to draw out of the bodies of men the

fishes which it chases and catches in the souls which are doomed to appear before

rivers. Called also Water-opossum his judgment-seat. His garments are of the

Yapon (ya'pon or ya'pon), n. Nex Cassine, colour of fire, his skin is of a bluish green.

a shrub growing in the southern states of Yamer, Yammer (yä'mér, yâm'mer), v.i.

America, the leaves of which are used as [O.E. yomer, A. Sax. geomerian, to lament,

tea and as medicine. The same name is to groan, from geomor, sad, mournful,

also given to other species of Ilex. Written wretched; comp. G. jammeren, to lament,

also Yaupon. to wail.) To shriek; to yell; to cry aloud;

| Yar, Yare (yar, yar), a. Sour; brackish. to whimper loudly; to whine. (Scotch.)

(Provincial English. )" • The child is doing as well as possible,' said Miss

Yarage + (yar'åj), n. (From yare.) Naut Grizzy; to be sure it does yammer constantly, that

the power of moving or being managed at can't be denied.'

Miss Ferrier, sea: said of a ship.
Yank (yangk). v.i. (Probably a nasalized

To the end that he might, with his light ships, well form akin to G. and D. jagen, Dan. jage, to manned with water-men, turn and environe the galleys hunt, to chase, to hurry; Icel. jaga, to move

of the enemies, the which were heavy or yarage, both to and fro. See YACHT.) (Scotch.] 1. To

for their bignesse, as also for lacke of water men to ton thein.

North work cleverly and actively: often with on; as, she yanked on at the work.-2. To speak | Yarb (yårb), n. An herb. “Some skill in in a yelping or affected tone; to scold; to nag; yarbs as she called her simples.' Kingsley. as, she yanked at her servant from morning (Provincial English) to night.

Yard (yård), n.° (O. E. yerde, gerde, A. Sax Yank (yangk). v.t. To give a throwing gyrd, gird, rarely geard, a rod, a staff, A jerking motion to; to twitch strongly; to yard measure; D. garde, & rod, a twig: G. jerk. (Colloq. United States.)

gerte, a switch, a twig; Gothgazde, a goad,



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Yak (Bos poephagus). Tails are also carried before certain officers of state, their number indicating his rank. Yaksha (yak'sha), n. In Hind, myth, a kind of demigods who attend Kuvera, the god of riches, and guard his treasures. Yald (yäld), a. Same as Yeld. Yald, Yauld (yald), a. (Icel. gildr, stout, brawny, strong, of full size; Sw. and Dan. g'ld) Supple; active; athletic. [Scotch.) Yam (yam), n. [The Portuguese first saw the plant cultivated in Africa, then in India and Malacca, and brought the name as well as the plant to the West, but from what language it comes is unknown. The yam was imported into America.) A large escu: lent tuber or root produced by various

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3. To gape for anything; to express desire by yawning; as, to yawn for fat livings.

The chiefest thing at which lay reforiners yawn is, that the clergy may, through conformity in condition, be poor as the apostles were.

4. To express surprise and bewilderment by

Methinks it should be now a huge eclipse
or sun and moon, and that the affrighted globe
Should yawon at alteration.

Shak. Yawn (yan), n. 1. A gaping; an involuntary opening of the mouth from drowsiness; oscitation. “Thy everlasting yawn.' Pope. 2. The act of gaping or opening wide.

Sometimes with a mighty yawn, 'tis said,
Opens a dismal passage to the dead. Addison,
3. An opening; a chasm. Marston. (Rare.)
Yawningly (yan'ing-li), adv. In a yawning
manner; with yawns or gapes. Bp. Hall.
Yaws (yaz), n. (African yaw, a raspberry. )
A disease occurring in America, Africa and
the West Indies, and almost entirely con-
fined to the African races. It is character-
ized by cutaneous tumours, numerous and
successive, gradually increasing from specks
to the size of a raspberry, one at length
growing larger than the rest; core a fungous
excrescence; fever slight, and probably irri-
tative merely. It is contagious, and cannot
be communicated except by the actual con-
tact of yaw matter to some abraded surface,
or by inoculation, which is sometimes effec-
ted by flies. It is also called Frambæsia.
from the French framboise, a raspberry.
Ycladt (i - klad'). pp. ( Prefix y., and clad. )
Clad: clothed. Her words yclad with
wisdom's majesty.' Shak.
Yclept, Ycleped (i-klept'), pp. [A. Sax.
ge-clypod, pp. of ge-clypian, to call. ]
Called; named. (Obsolete, except in
humorous writing, or when used in the
affectedly ancient style.)

Judas I am, ycleped Maccabæus. Shak.
But come thou goddess fair and free

In Heaven yckeped Euphrosyne. Milton.
Ydlet (i'dl), a. Lazy; idle. Spenser.
Ydrad t (i-drad), pp. Dreaded.
Ye (yë), pron. (A. Sax. ge, ye, nom. pl. cor-
responding to thu, thou; the genit. was
eower, the dat. and acc. eôw; so that ye is
properly the nom. plural and you the obj.;
D. gij, Icel. ier, er, Dan. and $w. i, G. ihr,
Goth. jus, all ye or you (pl.). See You.)
Properly the nominative plural of the second
person, of which thou is the singular, but
in later times also used as an objective after
verbs and prepositions. Ye is now used
only in the sacred and solemn style; in com-
mon discourse and writing you is exclu-
sively used.
But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified. Cor. vi. 11,

Loving offenders thus I will excuse ye. Shak.
I thank ye; and be blest for your good comfort. Shak.

A south-west blow on ye
And blister you all o'er.

Shak. The confusion between ye and you did not exist in Old English. Ye was always used as a nominative, and you as a dative or accusative. In the English Bible the distinction is very carefully observed, but in the dramatists of the Elizabethan period there is a very loose use of the two forms. "Dr. Morris. Yet adv. Yea; yes. Chaucer. Yea (yå), adv. (A. Sax. gea, yea, indeed; Icel. já, D. Dan. Sw. and G. ja, Goth. ja, jai; allied to Goth. jah, and; L jam, now; Skr. ya, who.) 1. Yes; ay; a word that expresses affirmation or assent: the opposite of nay; as, will you go? yea. Whilst one says only yea, and t'other nay.' Denham. Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay.

Mat. v. 37. 2. It sometimes introduces a subject with the sense of indeed, verily, truly, it is so, or is it so?

Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree in the garden?

Gen. ill. I. Yea, mistress, are you so peremptory! Shak. 3. Used in the same way as nay, intimating that something is to be added by way of intensiveness or amplification; not this alone; not only so but also. I therein do rejoice : yea, and will rejoice.

Phil. i. 18. One that composed your beauties, yea, and one To whom you are but as a form in wax. Shak. 4. Used substantively: (a) in Scrip. denot. ing certainty, consistency, harmony, and stability.

All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him are amen.

a Cor. i. 20. (6) An affirmative vote: one who votes in the affirmative; the equivalent to Ay or Aye.-Yea is now used only in the sacred and solemn style. Yea like nay was formerly

he dramatinction is versusative. In botninatis

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