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Cain was very wroth, and his countenance sell.

Gen, iv. 5. And to be wroth with one we love,

Doth work like madness in the brain. Coleridge. Wrought (rat), pret. & pp. of work. See

WORK.-Wrought iron. See IRON. Wrung (rung), pret. & pp. of wring. Wry (ri), a. (Ā. Sax. wrigian, to bend, to turn, to incline; akin to wriggle (which see). ] 1. Abnormally bent or turned to one side; in a state of contortion; twisted; distorted; as, a wory neck; a wry mouth; a wry face or distorted countenance frequently indicates discontent, disgust, impatience, pain, or the like. 'A wry nose.' B. Jonson. -2. Crooked; bent; not straight. Many a wry meander.' W. Browne.-3. Deviating from what is right or becoming; misdirected; out of place; as, wry words. If he now and then make a wry step.' W. Gilpin.-4. Wrested; perverted.

He mangles and puts a wry sense on Protestant authors.

Atterbury. Wryt (ri), v. i. 1. To swerve or go obliquely;

to go aside; to deviate from the right path,
physically or morally.
How many . . . murder wives much better than

For wrying but a little.

Shak. 2. To bend or wind; to move in a winding or crooked course. The first with divers crooks and turning wries.

Ph. Fletcher. 3. To writhe or wriggle. Beau. & Fl. Wry (ri), v.t. 1. To distort; to wrest; to make to deviate. They have wrested and wryed his doctrine.

Ralph Robinson, 2. To writhe; to twist. Wries his back and shrinks from the blow.' Jer. Taylor. Wryly (ri'li), adv. In a wry, distorted, or awkward manner.

Most of them have tried their fortune at some little lottery-office of literature, and receiving a blank have chewed upon it harshly and wryly. Landor, Wry-mouthed (ri'mouthd), a. Having the mouth awry.

A shaggy tapestry ... Instructive work! whose wry-month'd portraiture

Display'd the fates her confessors endure. Pope. Wryneck (ri'nek), n. 1. A twisted or distorted neck; a deformity in which the neck is drawn to one side, and at the same time somewhat forward. – 2. A disease of the spasmodic kind in sheep, in which the head is drawn to one side.-3. A small migratory

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3. Naut. to outsail, by going to windward of the ship, and thus taking the wind out of her sails.

We were very much wronged by the ship that had us in chase.

Smollett. Wrong-doer (rong'dö-ér), n. 1. One who injures another or does wrong.

She resolved to spend all her years ... in be. wailing the wrong, and yet praying for the wrong. doer

Sir P. Sidney. 2. In law, one who commits a tort or trespass; a tort-feaser. Wrong-doing (rong'do-ing), n. The doing of wrong; behaviour the opposite of what

is right; evildoing. Wronger (rong'er), n. One who wrongs; one who injures another. 'Caitiffs and wrongers of the world.' Tennyson. Wrongful (rong'ful), a. Injurious; unjust; as, a wrongful taking of property. His wrongful dealing.' Jer. Taylor.

I am so far from granting thy request

That I despise thee for thy wrongful suit. Shak. Wrongfully (rong'fyl-li), adv. In a wrongful manner; unjustly; in a manner contrary to the moral law or to justice; as, to accuse one wrongfully; to suffer wrongfully. 'Accusing the Lady Hero wrongfully.' Shak. Wrongfulness (rong'fyl-nes), n. Quality of

being wrong or wrongful; injustice. Wronghead (rong hed), n. A person of a misapprehending mind and an obstinate character. Wronghead (rong'hed), a. Same as Wrong. headed. *This jealous, waspish, wronghead,

rhyming race.' Pope. Wrongheaded (rong'hed-ed), a. Having

the brain or head taken up with false or wrong notions or ideas; especially, perversely wrong; having a perverse understanding; perverse. "A wrongheaded distrust of England.' Bp. Berkeley. Wrongheadedly (rong-hed'ed-li), adv. In a wrong-headed manner; obstinately; perversely.

(ohnson) then rose to be under the care of Mr. Hunter, the head-master, who according to his ac. count, was very severe, and wrongheadedly severe.

Boswell. Wrongheadedness (rong'hed-ed-nes), n.

The state or quality of being wrongheaded; perverseness; erroneousness.

Fidelity to opinions and to friends seems to him mere dulness and wrongheadedness. Macaulay. Wrongless t (rongles), a. Void of wrong. Wronglesslyt (rongʻles-li), adv. Without

injury to any one. Sir P. Sidney. Wrongly (rongʻli), adv. In a wrong manner; unjustly; amiss.

Thou , . . wouldst not play false

And yet wouldst wrongly win. Shak. Wrongminded (rong/mind-ed), a. Having

a mind wrongly inclined; entertaining erroneous or distorted views. Wrongness (rong'nes), n. The state or condition of being wrong; error.

The best have great wrongnesses within theinselves, which they complain of, and endeavour to amend.

Butler. Wrongous (rong'us), n. (O.E. wrongwis,

that is wrong-wise, the opposite of rightwise or righteous.) In Scots law, not right; unjust; illegal; as, wrongous imprisonment,

false or illegal imprisonment. Wrote (rot), pret. and old pp. of write.

• Lucius hath wrote already.' Shak., or t. (A. Sax. wrôtan, to grub up. See Root.) To root or dig with the snout, as swine do. Chaucer. Wroth (rath), a. (A. Sax. wrath, an engraged," lit. twisted, from writhan, to twist or writhe. See WRATH, WREATH.) Very angry; much exasperated.

per W

ng, Perverse48 & perverse

protruding and retracting it, and the writhing snake-like motion which it can impart to its neck without moving the rest of the body. It is also known by the names of

Snake-bird, Cuckoo's Mate, &c. Wrynecked (ri'nekt), a. Having a distorted neck. Some commentators in noticing the Shaksperean phrase, 'the wrynecked fife,' are of opinion that the allusion is to the player: others hold that the reference is to the instrument, which they say is the old English flute, or fute à bec: so called from having a curved projecting mouthpiece like

a bird's beak. Wryness (ri'nes), n. The state of being wry

or distorted. Wud (wud), a. Mad. See WOOD. (Scotch.) Wuddy (wud'i), n. See WOODIE. Wullt (wul or wul), v.i. To will; to wish.

Pour out to all that wull.' Spenser. Wull (wul), n. Will. (Scotch.) Wumil (wum'l), n. A wimble. (Scotch.) Wurrus (wur'rus), n. A brick-red dyepowder, somewhat resembling dragon'sblood, collected from the seeds of Rottlera

tinctoria. Wusset (wus), adv. Probably a form of the-wis of Y-wis, certainly. See Y-WIS. Why, I hope you will not a-hawking now, will you ! No, wusse; but I'll practise against next year, uncle.

B onson. Wucher (WUTH'er), vi. To make a sullen roar. Written also Wudder. (Yorkshire.]

The air was now dark with snow; an Iceland blast was driving it wildly. This pair neither heard the long 'widhering' rush, nor saw the white burden it drifted.

C. Bronte. Wych. Same as Wich. Wych-elm (wich'elm), n. (O.E. wiche, wyche, A. Sax. wice, a name applied to various trees. The sense is 'drooping'or bending, and it is derived from A. Sax. wic-en, pp. of wican, to bend.' Skeat. See WICKER.) A British plant of the genus Ulmus, the U. montana. It is a large spreading tree with large broadly elliptical leaves, and grows in woods in England and Scotland. Some varieties have pendulous branches, and belong to the class of weeping' trees.

See ELM. Wych-hazel (wich'ha-zl), n. (See WYCH

ELM) The common name of plants of the genus Hamamelis, the type of the nat. order Hamamelidaceæ, They are small trees, with alternate leaves on short petioles, and yellow flowers, disposed in clusters in the axils of the leaves, and surrounded by a three-leaved involucrum. They are natives of North America, Persia, or China. See HAMAMELIDACEÆ. Wych-waller (wich' wal-ér), n. A salt

boiler at a wych. (Cheshire.) Wye (wi), n. "The supports of a telescope, theodolite, or levelling instrument, so called from their resembling the letter Y. Writ. ten also Y. Wylie-coat (wyli-köt), n. A boy's flannel under-dress, next the shirt; a flannel petticoat. (Scotch.) Wynd (wýnd), n. An alley; a lane. (Scotch.]

Wynn (win), n. A kind of timber truck or carriage. Simmonds. Wyvern (wi'vérn ), 11. (10. Fr. wivre, vivre, a viper, a dragon or wyvern, from L. vipera, a viper. See VIPER, WEEVER. The

n is an addition to the Wyvern.

word, as in bittern.] In

her. an imaginary animal, a kind of dragon with wings, but with only two legs, the termination of its body being somewhat serpentine in form.

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X, the twenty-fourth letter of the English alphabet, was borrowed by the Romans in comparatively late times from the Greeks, and passed from the Roman into the AngloSaxon alphabet. The Greek X, however, was a guttural, probably like the Scotch or German ch, and why in Latin it should have assumed the functions of the Greek character E(= ) is not very clear. Except when used at the beginning of a word, x in English

is a double consonant (as it was in Latin and Greek), and has usually the sound of ks, as in wax, lax, axis, &c.; but when terminating a syllable, especially an initial syllable, if the syllable following it is open or accented, it often takes the sound of gz, as in luxury, exhaust, exalt, exotic, &c. At the beginning of a word it has precisely the sound of z. Hence it is entirely a superfluous letter, representing no sound that could |

not easily be otherwise represented. As an initial it occurs in a few words borrowed from the Greek, never standing in this position in words that are properly English in origin.-As a numeral X stands for ten. It represents one V, which stands for five, placed above another, the lower one being inverted. When laid horizontally, thus . it stands for a thousand, and with a dash over it, thus X, it stands for ten thousand.




-As an abbreviation X. stands for Christ, the manner in which it is formed from three-masted vessel, formerly much used by as in Xn. Christian, Xmas. Christmas.-X on chlorophyll. Called also Xanthophylline. the Algerine corsairs, and now used to a beer-casks is said to have originally indi. Xanthophylline (zan-thof'il-in), n. Same small extent in Mediterranean commerce. cated beer which had to pay ten shillings as Xanthophyll.

It differs from the felucca chiefly in having duty.

Xanthopicrin, Xanthopicrite (zan'tho several square sails, as well as lateen sails, Xangi, Xangti (zan'gi, zang-ti'), N. In pik-rin, zan'tho-pik-rit), n. [Gr. xanthos, while the latter has only lateen sails. Chinese myth, the supreme ruler of heaven yellow, and pikros, bitter.) In chem, names Xenelasia (zen-e-la'si-a), n (Gr., the expuland earth; God.

given by Chevallier and Pelletan to a yellow sion of strangers.) A Spartan institution Xanthate (zan'that).n. A salt of xanthic acid. colouring matter from the bark of Xan. which prohibited strangers from residing in Xanthein, Xantheine (zan-thé'in), n. That thoxylum caribæum, afterwards shown to Sparta without permission, and empowered portion of the yellow colouring matter in be identical with berberine.

magistrates to expel strangers if they saw flowers which is soluble in water, as distin- Xanthopous (zan'tho-pus). a. (Gr. xan fit to do so. guished from xanthin, which is the insol. thos, yellow, and pous, a foot.) In bot. hav- Xenium (zēni-um), n. Pl. Xenia (zēni-a). uble part. ing a yellow stem.

(L., from Gr. zenion, a gift to a guest, from Xanthian (zan'thi-an), a. Of or belonging Xanthoproteic (zan'tho-pro-tē"ik). a. Ap xenos, guest. ) 1. Anciently, a present to Xanthus, an ancient town of Asia Minor; plied to an acid formed when protein or given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreign as, the Xanthian sculptures in the British any of its modifications is digested in nitric ambassador. -2. A name given to pictures Museum.

acid. It is of a yellow colour, and seems of still-life, fruit, &c., such as are found in Xanthic (zan'thik), a. (Gr. canthos, yellow to combine both with acids and bases.

houses at Pompeii. Fairholt. Tending towards a yellow colour.-Xanthic Xanthoprotein (zan-tho-prö'te-in), n. A Xenodocheum, Xenodochium (zen'o-doacid (C, H, 09.), a name given to ethyldisul- yellow acid substance formed by the action kė"um, zen'o-do-ki"um), R. (Gr. xenodophocarbonic acid, from the yellow colour of of nitric acid upon fibrine.

cheion-xenos, a stranger, and dechomai, to its salts. It is a heavy oily liquid.-Xanthic Xanthorhamnine (zan-tho-ram'nin), n. (Gr. receive.) A name given by the ancients to flowers, flowers which have yellow for their xanthos, yellow, and rhamnos, buckthorn.) a building for the reception of strangers. type, and which are capable of passing into A yellow colouring matter contained in the The term is also applied to a guest house in red or white, but never into blue. Those ripe Persian or Turkish berries and in Avi. a monastery. flowers of which blue is the type, and which gnon grains. It imparts a yellow colour to Xenodochy (zen-od'o-ki), n. (Gr. renodo are capable of passing into red or white, fabrics mordanted with alumina and a black chia. See above.] Reception of strangers; but never into yellow, have been termed colour to those mordanted with iron salts. hospitality. Also, same as Xenodocheum. cyanic flowers.-Xanthic oxide (C,H, N, 0), See RHAMNUS.

Xenogenesis (zen-o-jen'e-sis), n. (Gr. xenos, uric oxide, a very rare ingredient of urinary Xanthorrhæa (zan-tho-rē'a), n. [Gr. xan strange, and genesis, birth.) 1. Same as Hecalculi, and said to occur in small quanti thos, yellow, and rheo, to flow, from its terogenesis, (b).-2. The production or formaties in the spleen and liver, in the muscular yellow resinous exudation.) A genus of tion of an organism of one kind by an orflesh of the horse and ox, and in some kinds plants, nat. order Liliacea. The species are ganism of another, as was formerly believed of guano. Called also Xanthin

called grass-trees, and are found in Austra of parasitic worms by their hosts. Hurley. Xanthin, Xanthine (zan'thin), n. A namelia. They have thick trunks like those of Xenogenetic (zen'o-je-net ik), a. Of or perapplied to more than one substance from palms, long wiry grass-like leaves, and long taining to xenogenesis. its colour; as, (a) that portion of the yellow I dense flower-spikes. See GRASS-TREE.

I have dwelt upon the analogy of pathological mocolouring matter of flowers which is insol. Xanthorrhiza (zan-tho-ri'za), n. (Gr. xan dification which is in favour of the senegonctis origin uble in water. (6) The yellow colouring thos, yellow, and rhiza, a root, the roots

of microzymes.

Husios matter contained in madder. (c) A gaseous being of a deep yellow colour.) A genus of Xenops (zė'nops). n. (Gr. xenos. strange. product of the decomposition of xanthates.

ates. North American plants, nat. order Ranun- and ops, the countenance.) A genus of in(d) The name is now generally confined to culacere. See YELLOW-ROOT.

sessorial birds of South America, allied to xanthic oxide, the ingredient of urinary Xanthosis (zan-tho'sis). n. (Gr. xanthos, the nuthatches. calculi; it is a white crystalline substance. yellow.) In med, a term applied to the yel- Xenotime (zen'o-tim). n. A native phos. Xanthite (zan'thit), n. (Gr. xanthos, yellow.) low discoloration often observed in cancer phate of yttrium, having a yellowish brown A mineral of a yellowish colour, a variety ous tumours.

colour. of vesuvian, composed of silica, lime, alu Xanthospermous (zan-tho-sper'mus), Xerasia (zē-rā'si-a), n. [From Gr. xêros, dry.] mina, with small portions of the peroxides of (Gr. xanthos, yellow, and sperma, a seed.) In pathol. a disease of the hair, which be iron and manganese, and also magnesia and In bot. having yellow seeds.

comes dry and ceases to grow. water. It is found in a bed of limestone | Xanthous (zan'thus), a. (Gr. xanthos, yel. Xeres (zer'es). n. (p.) Sherry: so called near Amity in New York.

low.) A term applied by Dr. Prichard to from the district of Spain where it is proXanthium (zan'thi-um), n. (Gr. xanthos, that variety of mankind which includes all duced. Simmonds. yellow, from yielding a yellow dye.) Bur those individuals or races which have brown, Xerif (ze-rif'), n. A shereef. "The serif of weed, a genus of plants, nat, order Compo anburn, yellow, flaxen, or red hair,

Mecca' Landor. sita. X. Strumarium is a rank and weed. Xanthoxylacem (zan-thok'si-la"sē-7), n. pl. Xeriff (ze-rif'), . 1. A gold coin formerly like plant occasionally met with in Britain, A group of polypetalous exogenous plants, current in Egypt and Turkey of the value of to which it has been introduced from the now usually combined with Rutaceæ, found

98. 4d.-2. A name for the ducat in MorContinent. It is remarkable for the curious chiefly in America, especially in the tropical occo. structure of its flowers and the prickly in parts The species are trees or shrubs, with Xerocollyrium (zē'ro-kol-lir"'i-um), th (Gr. volucres which surround the fertile ones, exstipulate, alternate or opposite leaves, tēros, dry, and kollyrion.) A dry collyrium enlarging and becoming part of the fruit. furnished with pellucid dots. The flowers

or eye-salve. Another species, X. spinosum, has in recent are either axillary or terminal, and of a gray Xeroderma (zė-ro-derma). n. (Gr. Ieros times spread over a great part of western green or pink colour. All the plants of the dry, and derma, skin.] In pathol. general Europe, coming from the south of Russia group to a greater or less extent possess dryness of the surface of the skin, OceXantho (zan'tho), n. (Gr. xanthos, yellow.) aromatic and pungent properties, especially sioned by abnormal diminution of the secre

A genus of brachyurous crustaceans, in the species belonging to the genera Xan- tion of the sebiparous organs. In its severest cluding numerous species, and found in thoxylum, Brucea, Ptelea, Toddalia, and form it constitutes ichthyosis, or fish-skin most seas. Ailanthus.

disease. Hoblyn. Xanthocarpous (zan-tho-kär'pus), a. (Gr. Xanthoxylum (zan-thok’si-lum), n. (Gr. Xerodes (zē-rö'dēz), n. (Gr. Dërodes, dryxanthos, yellow, and karpos, fruit.] In bot. xanthos, yellow, and xylon, wood; the roots ish, from tēros, dry) Any tumour attended having yellow fruit.

are yellow.) A genus of plants, the type of with dryness. Xanthochroi (zan-thok'ro-i), n. pl. (Gr. the group Xanthoxylaceæ. The species are Xeromyrum (zē-ro-mni'rum), n. [Gr. sērus. xanthochroos, yellow-skinned, from xanthos, treus or shrubs, with the petioles, leaves, and dry, and muron, ointment) A dry ointyellow, and chroa, colour.] In ethn. one of branches usually furnished with prickles.

ment. the five groups into which Huxley classifies On account of their aromatic and pungent | Xerophagy (zē-rof'a-ji). 7. (Gr. Téros, dry. man, comprising the fair whites.

properties they are known in the countries and phago, to eat.) A term applied by early The Xanthochroi, or fair whites,... are the pre

where they grow under the name of peppers. ecclesiastical writers to the Christian rule valent inhabitants of Northern Europe, and the type

X. fraxineum is called toothache-tree, as its of fasting: the act or habit of living on dry may be traced into North Africa, and eastward as bark and capsular fruit are much used as a food or a meagre diet. far as Hindostan.

E. B. Tylor.
remedy for toothache.

Xerophthalmy, Xerophthalmia. (zè'rofXanthochroic (zan-tho-kro'ik), a. Of or Xebec (zē'bek), n. (Sp. sabeque, Fr. chebec, thal - mi, zê-rof-thal'mi-a), n (Gr. Téros, pertaining to the Xanthochroi. See under

dry, and ophthalmia, a disease of the eyes, MAN.

from ophthalmos, the eye.] A dry, red some Xanthochymus (zan-tho-ki'mus), n. [Gr.

ness or itching of the eyes, without swelling scanthos, yellow, and chymos, juice.) A

or a discharge of humours. genus of trees, nat. order Guttiferae. X.

Xerotes (zē'ro-tēz), n. (Gr. zērotès, dryness) pictorius, is a native of the East Indies,

In med. a dry habit or disposition of the with white flowers, yellow fruit, and thick

body. opposite leaves. The trunk yields a resin

Xiphias (zit'i-as). n. (Gr., from riphos, a ous juice of a yellow colour.

sword. 1 1. The genus of fishes to which the Xanthocon, Xanthocone (zan'tho-kõn), n.

X. gladius, or common sword-fish, belongs (Gr. xanthos, yellow, and konis, dust.] An

See SWORD - FISH.-2. In astron & constelarsenio-sulphide of silver, of a dull-red or

lation in the southern hemisphere Called clove-brown colour, occurring in hexagonal

also Sword-fish and Dorado or Xiphias De tabular crystals, but commonly in crystal

rado. line reniform masses. When reduced to

Xiphidium (zi-fid'i-um), n (From Gr. powder it becomes yellow, whence the

phos, a sword, and eidos, resemblance.) A name.

genus of plants with sword-shaped leaves Xanthophyll (zan'tho-A1), n. (Gr. xanthos,

nat. order Liliacea. X. album is a native yellow, phyllon, a leaf. ] In bot. a peculiar

Xebec of Barbary.

of the West Indies. waxy matter to which some attribute the

Xiphisternum (zif-i-ster'num), m (Gr. yellow colour of withering leaves. Nothing It. sciabecco, zambecco, from Turk. sumbeki, xiphos, a sword, and sternon, a breast-bode] is known respecting its composition, or of xebec; Ar. sumbúk, a small vessel.) A small In compar. anat. the inferior or posterior





prekes the bips mel the

segment of the sternum, corresponding to Xylographer (zi-logʻra-fér), n. One who en wood. They chiefly inhabit tropical counthe xiphoid cartilage of human anatomy. graves on wood.

tries. Xiphodon (zif'o-don), n. (Gr. xiphos, a Xylographic, Xylographical (zi-lö-graf' Xylophilous (zi-lof'i-lus), a. Growing upon sword, and odous, odontos, a tooth.) A genus ik, zi-lö-graf'ik-al), a. Relating to xylo or living in wood. of fossil mammals, closely allied to Anop graphy.

Xylophylla (zi-lof'il-a), n. (Gr. xylon, wood, lotherium, of which two species have been Xylography (zi-logʻra-fi), n. (Gr. xylon, and phyllon, a leaf.) A genus of Euphorascertained.

wood, and graphó, to engrave.] 1. Wood en biaceæ, or, as some regard it, a section of Xiphoid (zif'oid), a. (Gr. xiphos, a sword, graving; the act or art of cutting figures or Phyllanthus, consisting of shrubs without and eidos, likeness.) Shaped like or resem designs in wood.--2. A name given to a pro leaves, but whose branches are flattened out bling a sword; ensiform. -Xiphoid or ensi. cess of decorative painting on wood. A se and leaf-like, bearing the flowers in tufts in form cartilage, in anat. a small cartilage lected pattern or design is drawn on wood the potches of the margin. They are natives placed at the bottom of the breast-bone. which is then engraved, or the design is re of the West Indies, and are named from Xiphoidian (zi-foid'i-an), a. Of or pertain produced in zinc by the ordinary method. the singular appearance of their leaf-like ing to the xiphoid cartilage.

An electrotype cast is taken from the wood branches. Xiphophyllous (zif-of'i-lus), a. (Gr. riphos, cut or zinc plate, and smooth surfaces of Xylopia (zi-lo'pi-a), n. (Said to be contracted a sword, and phyllon, a leaf.) In bot. having wood are printed from the electrotype, for Xylopieria, from Gr. xylon, wood, and piensiform leaves.

under a regulated pressure, with pigments kros, bitter.) A genus of plants, nat, order Xiphosura (zif-o-sü'ra). n. [Gr. xiphos, a prepared for the purpose. The colour pene Anonacex. The species are trees or shrubs, sword, and oura, a tail.) An order of crus trates the wood, leaving no outside film, natives chiefly of South America. X. arotaceans, so called from the long sword-like and after being French polished or covered matica is known by the name of African appendage with which the body terminates. with a fluid enamel the wood may be pepper. The fruit of x. grandiflora is a They are represented solely by the Limuli washed, scrubbed, or even sand-papered valuable remedy for fevers in Brazil. The or king-crabs. See KING-CRAB. without destroying the pattern. Ure.

wood of all is bitter; hence they are called Xiphoteuthis (zif-o-tū'this), n. [Gr. xiphos, Xyloid (zi'loid), a. (Gr. xylon, wood, and bitter-woods. a sword, and teuthis, a squid.] A genus of eidos, form.) Having the nature of wood; Xylopyrography (zi'lo-pi-rog'ra-fl), n. (Gr. Belemnites, characterized by a very long, resembling wood.

xylon, wood, pyr, puros, fire, and grapho, to narrow,deep-chambered phragmacone. Only Xyloidine (zi-loi'din), n. (Gr. xylon, wood, write.] The art or process of producing a a single species is known from the lias. See and eidos, resemblance.) (CH NO7.) An ex picture on wood by charring it with a hot BELEMNITIDÆ

plosive compound produced by the action of iron. Called also Poker-painting. Xylanthrax (zi-lan'thraks), n. (Gr. xylon, strong nitric acid upon starch or woody Xyloretine (zi'lő-re-tin), n. (Gr. xylon, wood, and anthrax, coal.] Woodcoal; bovey. fibre. Called also Xylidine.

wood, and rhetinë, resin.) A sub-fossil recoal.

Xylol, Xylole (zi'lol), n. (C2H10-) A hydro sinous substance, found in connection with Xylene (zilên), n. In chem, see XYLOL. carbon,analogous to benzol and toluol, found the pine-trunks of certain peat-mosses. Xylidine (zi'li-din), n. Same as Xyloidine. among the oils separated from crude wood. Xylotile (zilo-til), n. (Gr. xylon, wood, and Xylite (zi'lit), n. (Gr. xylon, wood.] The spirit by the addition of water. Called also tilos, flock or down.] 1. An opaque, glimname given to ligniform asbestos, mountain Xylene.

mering, light or dark brown or green minwood, or rock-wood.

Xylophaga (zi-lof'a-ga), n. pl. (Gr. xylon, eral, of a delicately fibrous texture, consistXylobalsamum (zi-lo-bal'sa-mum), n. 1. The wood, and phago, I eat.) A group of coleop ing chiefly of silica, sesquioxide of iron, wood of the balsam-tree.-2. A balsam ob terous insects noted for their habit of exca magnesia, and water.-2. Same as Parkesine. tained by decoction of the twigs and leaves vating wood. They resemble the weevils, Xyridaceæ (zi-ri-da'sē-ė), n. pl. (Gr. xyrie, of the Amyris gileadensis in water.

but are distinguished from them by the ab an iridaceous plant, from xyron, a razor: Xylobius (zi-lo'bi-us), n. (Gr. xylon, wood, 1 sence of a proboscis.

from shape of its leaves.) A nat, order of and bios, life.) A genus of fossil insects, Xylophagan (zi-lof'a-gan), n. An insect of monocotyledonous rush-like or sedge-like supposed to be myriapods of the order Chi the group Xylophaga.

herbs, the species of which are found over lognatha, discovered in trunks of Sigillaria, | Xylophagidæ (zi-lo-faj'i-dē), n. pl. A fa the tropics in both hemispheres. The order one of the most characteristic trees of the mily of Diptera or flies, the members of comprises two genera, Xyris and Abolboda, carboniferous age.

which have the antenna ten-jointed, and to which some botanists add Philydrum. Xylocarp (zi'lo-kärp). n. (Gr.rulon.wood, and are furnished with a long ovipositor. The Xyst. Xystos (zist, zis'tos), n. (L. xystus, karpos, fruit.] In bot. a hard and woody fruit. larva is cylindrical, and has a scaly plate on Gr. xystos, from xyo, to scrape, from its Xylocarpous (zi-lo-kår'pus), a. (Gr. xylon, the tail, the head ending in an acute point. smooth and polished floor.] In anc. arch. wood, and karpos, fruit. j Having fruit They are very destructive to wood.

a sort of covered portico or open court, of which becomes hard or woody.

Xylophagous (zi-lof'a-gus), a. (Gr. xylon, great length in proportion to its width, in Xylocopa (zi-lok'o-pa), n. (Gr. xylos, wood, wood, and phago, to eat.] Eating or feeding which the athletae performed their exerand kope, a cutting, incision.) The carpen-on wood.

cises. Written also Xystus. ter-bee, & genus of hymenopterous insects Xylophagus (zi-lof'a-gus). n. The typical Xystarch (zis'tärk), n. (Gr. xystos, xyst, and with sharp-pointed mandibles which bore genus of the family Xylophagidæ.

archô, to rule.) An Athenian officer who holes in wood. It is an extensive genus. Xylophilan (zi-lof'i-lan), n. An insect be presided over the gymnastic exercises of the See CARPENTER-BEE. longing to the Xylophili.

xystos. Xylograph (zilo-graf), n. [See XYLOGRA- Xylophuli (zi-lof'i-11), n. pl. [Gr. xylon, wood, Xyster (zis'ter), n. [Gr. xystēr, from xyo, PHY) An engraving on wood, or an im- and phileo, to love.) A tribe of gigantic co to scrape.) A surgeon's instrument for pression from such an engraving.

leopterous insects, which live on decayed scraping bones.

Y. the twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, was taken from the Latin, the Latin having borrowed it from the Greek Tor upsilon. In the Anglo-Saxon alphabet it was always a vowel, and is believed to have had a sound resembling that of French u or German ü, this being also the sound which the Greek T is believed to have had. In modern English it is both a consonant and a vowel, and seldom or never is the histori. cal representative of A. Sax. y, this being usually represented by i. At the beginning of syllables and followed by a vowel it is a consonant of the palatal class, being formed by bringing the middle of the tongue in contact with the palate, and nearly in the position to which the g hard brings it. Hence it has happened that in a great number of words g has been softened into y, as A. Sax. geår into year, geornian into yearn, dæg into day. As an adjective termination it commonly represents A. Sax. -ig, as in stony, = A. Sax, stånig, greedy = A. Sax. grædig, hungry = A. Sax. hungrig, many=A. Sax. mcenig. In some nouns it also represents the term. -ig, as in honey = A. Sax. hunig, withy=A. Sax. withig. In the term. -ly it stands for ic or ice, as in godly=A. Sax. godlic, friendly = A. Sax. freondlie, fully = A. Sax fulice, hardly= A. Sax. heardlice, &c. In words of Romance origin the term. -Y often represents Fr. -e, L. -ia, as in history, modesty, memory, victory; it also represents

L. -ium, the noun termination, as in study, | Yacca-wood (yak-a-wöd), n. The orna-
remedy, subsidy, &c., or the adjective term. mental wood of Podocarpus coriacea, a small
-ius, as in notary, contrary, secondary, &c. tree of Jamaica. It is of a pale-brown
In nouns ending in -ty the -ty represents colour with streaks of hazel-brown, and is
Fr. -té, L. -tas, -tatis, as in, vanity, calamity, much used in the West Indies for cabinet
&c. In the middle and at the end of words work.
y is a vowel, and is precisely the same as i. | Yacht (yot), n. (O.D. jacht, Mod. D. jagt,
It is sounded as i long, when accented, as a yacht, a chase, hunting, from jagen, to
in defy, rely, dying; and as i short when chase, to hunt, to hurry; G. jagen, to hunt;
unaccented, as in vanity, glory, synonymous. Dan. jage, to hunt, to drive, to hurry.) A
As a consonant this letter bears much the light and elegantly fitted up vessel, used
same relation to i(short) as w does to u; thus either for pleasure trips or racing, or as a
i short has in certain positions-as in the ia vessel of state to convey kings, princes, &c.,
of Christian -a tendency to pass into y. Y from one place to another by sea. There are
is sometimes called the Pythagorean letter, two distinct species of yacht: the mere
from its Greek Original representing, by racer with enormous spars and sails and
means of its three limbs, the sacred triad, deeply-ballasted hull, with fine lines, but
formed by the duad proceeding from the sacrificing everything to speed; and the ele-
monad. - In chem. Y is the symbol of yttri gant, commodious, well - proportioned tra-
um. Y, as a numeral, stands for 150, and velling yacht, often with steam-propelling
with a dash over it, Y, for 150,000.

machinery, fit for a voyage round the world. Y-. A common prefix in Old English words,

The yacht navy of Britain comprehends ves

sels from 3 to about 600 tons. as in y-clept, y-clad, &c., representing A.Sax. ges, which assumed this form by the com I sail'd this morning with his majesty in one of his mon weakening of g to y. The meaning of yachts (or pleasure-boats), vessels not known among words with this prefix is usually the same

us till the Dutch E. India Company presented that


curious piece to the king.
as if it were absent. See GE.
Ya, adv. Yea; yes. Chaucer.

Yacht (yot), v.i. To sail or cruise in a yacht;
Yacare (yak'a-rā), n. The native name of as, he spent the summer yachting in the
a Brazilian alligator (Jacare sclerops), hay. | Mediterranean.
ing a ridge from eye to eye, fleshy eyelids, Yacht-club (yot'klub), n. A club or union
and small webs to the feet; the spectacled of yacht-owners for racing purposes, &c.,
cayman. Written also Jacare.

acting under a commodore.

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Yachter (yot'ér), n. One who commands a

yacht; one who sails in a yacht. Yachting (yot'ing), a. Relating to a yacht

or yachts; as, a yachting voyage. Yachtsman (yots'man), n. One who keeps

or sails a yacht. Yaf. Gave. Chaucer. Yaff (yal), v.i. (Imitative.) To bark like a dog in a passion; to yelp; hence, to talk pertly. (Scotch.) Yaffle, Yaffingale (yaf'l, yaf'in-gāl),n. Local names given to the green woodpecker(Picus viridis) from its cry.

VowsI-I am woodman of the woods,
And hear the garnet-headed yaffingale
Mock them,

Tennyson, Yager (ya'ger), n. [G. jäger, lit, a huntsman, from jagen, to hunt.) A member of certain regiments of light infantry in the armies of various German states. Such regiments were originally composed of jäger or huntsmen, whence the name. The French chasseur belongs to the same class of soldier. Yagger (yag'èr)1. [D. jager, a huntsman, a driver. See YAGER.) A ranger about the country; a travelling pedlar. Sir W. Scott.

Shetland Islands. Yahoo (ya'ho), n. A name given by Swift, in Gulliver's Travels, to a race of brutes, having the form of man and all his degrading passions. They are placed in contrast with the Houyhnhnims, or horses endowed with reason, the whole being designed as a satire on the human race. Hence, a rough, boorish, uncultivated character. A yahoo of a stable-boy. Graves.

What sort of fellow is he; ... a yahoo, I suppose?' 'Not at all, he is a capital fellow, a perfect gentleman,

H. Kingsley. Yak (yak), n. (Thibetian.) A ruminant mammal of the bovine tribe, the Bos poephagus, or Poephagus grunniens, a small species of ox, with cylindric horns, curving outward, long pendent silky hair fringing its sides, a bushy mane of fine hair, and villous, horselike tail; inhabiting Thibet and the higher plateaus of the Himalayas: called by Pennant and others the grunting ox, from its very peculiar voice, which sounds much like the grunt of a pig: known also as Sarlac, Sarlik. There are several varieties of the yak due to climatic influences, character of habitat, food, and, in the case of domesticated animals, to the kind of work to which they are put, as the noble yak, the ghainorik, the plough-yak. The last is a plebeianlooking animal, and wants the magnificent side tufts of hair characteristic of its free brethren. It is employed in agriculture. The yak is often crossed with other domestic cattle, and a mixed breed obtained. The

Yam (Dioscorea globosa).

dian yams are produced by D. globosa, rubella, and purpurea. The D. atro-purpurea grows in Malacca, and produces tubers which, like those of D. purpurea, are of a purple colour. Yams, when roasted or boiled, form a wholesome, palatable, and nutritious food. They are sometimes of the weight of 30 lbs. See WATER-YAM. Yama (ya'ma), n. In Hind. myth. the god

Yank (yangk), n. 1. A quick, sharp stroke: a buffet; as, he gave him a yank on the head. (Scotch.1-2. A jerk or twitch. (Colloq. United States.]—3. pl. A kind of leggings (Provincial.) Yank (yangk), n. (Contr. of Yankee) A

Yankee. [Vulgar.) Yankee (yang kē), n. (A word of uncertain origin. The most common explanation seems also the most plausible, namely, that it is a corrupt pronunciation of English or of Fr. Anglais formerly current among the American Indians. In Bartlett's Dictionary of Americanisms a statement is quoted to the effect that Yengees or Yenkees was a name originally given by the Massachusetts Indians to the English colonists, and that it was afterwards adopted by the Dutch on the Hudson, who applied the term in contempt to all the people of New England. Bartlett also quotes a statement of Heekwelder (an authority on Indian matters), who affirmed that the Indians applied the term Yengees specially to the New Englanders as contradistinguished from the Vir. ginians or Long Knives, and the English proper or Saggenash. As early as 1713 it is said to have been a common cant word at Cambridge, Mass., in the sense of good or excellent, being probably borrowed by the students from the Indians, to whom a Yankee' article would be synonymous with an excellent one, from the superiority of the white man in mechanical arts.) A cant narne for a citizen of New England. During the American Revolution the name was applied to all the insurgents; and during the civil war it was the common designation of the Federal soldiers by the Confederates. In Britain the term is sometimes applied generally to all natives of the United States. Yankee - Doodle (yang-ke-do'al), n. 1. & famous air, now regarded as American and pational. In reality the air is an old Eng. lish one, called Nankey Doodle, and had some derisive reference to Cromwell. It is said that the brigade under Lord Percy. after the battle of Lexington, marched out of Boston playing this tune in derisire and punning allusion to the name Yankee, and the New Englanders adopted the air in consideration of the fact that they had made the British dance to it. The really national tune of the whole United States, however, is Hail, Columbia !'-2. A Yankee. Hot

Yankee-doodles,' Moore, (Ludicrous) Yankeeism (yang ke-izm), 2. An idiom or practice of the Yankees. Yanker Yankde, n. (See YANK,0. 1.) [Scotch.) 1. A sharp, forward, clever woman.-2. One who speaks or scolds incessantly. Yanolite (yan'o-lit), n. See AXINITE Yaourt (yourt), n. A fermented liquor or milk-beer, similar to koumis, made by the

Turks. Simmonds. Yap (yap), v... [Imitative, like yaf: comp. Fr. japper, Pr. japar, to yelp.) To yelp; to bark. Sir R. L Estrange. Yap (yap), n. The cry of a dog; a bark; a yelp. Yapock (yapok), n. A handsome opossum inhabiting the rivers of Brazil and Guiana It is aquatic in its habits, bearing & considerable resemblance to a small otter, and differs from other opossums in its dentition, in having no opposable thumb, and, therefore, in being incapable of climbing trees, and in the toes of the hind feet being webbed. It is an excellent swimmer, and lives on the fishes which it chases and catches in the rivers. Called also Water-opossum Yapon (ya'pon or ya'pon), 11. Nex Cassine, a shrub growing in the southern states of America, the leaves of which are used as tea and as medicine. The same name is also given to other species of her. Written also Yaupon. Yar, Yare (yar, yar), a. Sour; brackish,

(Provincial English.) Yarage + (yarăj), n. [From yare. ] Naut the power of moving or being managed at sea: said of a ship.

To the end that he might, with his light ships, well manned with water-men, fun and environe the galleys of the enemies, the which were heavy of yaraxe, bach for their bignesse, as also for lacke of water-mea to TOY them.

Nerth Yarb (yårb), n. An herb. "Some skill in yarbs as she called her simples. Kingaley.

Provincial English.) Yard (yård), n. [O. E. yerde, gerde, A. San. gyrd, gird, rarely geard, a rod, a staff, yard measure; D. garde, a rod, a twig: G. gerte, a switch, a twig; Goth, gazds, a goad,


orik, ngan

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ornamental purposes, and forms quite an importaut article of commerce. Dyed red it decorates the caps of the Chinese, and when properly mounted it is used as a flyflapper in India under the naine of a chowry.



Yames of tire seat. Bied to an

of departed spirits and the appointed judge and punisher of the dead; the embodiment of power without pity, and stern, unbendins fate. He is generally represented as crowned and seated on a buffalo, which he guides by the horns. He is four-armed and of austere countenance. In one hand he holds a mace, in another a noose which is used to draw out of the bodies of men the souls which are doomed to appear before his judgment-seat. His garments are of the colour of fire, his skin is of a bluish green. Yamer, Yammer ('mér, yäm'mér), v.i. (O. E. yomer, A. Sax. geomerian, to lament,

to groan, from geomor, sad, mournful, Yak (Bos poephagus).

wretched; comp. G. jammeren, to lament,

to wail.) To shriek; to yell; to cry aloud; Tails are also carried before certain officers to whimper loudly; to whine. (Scotch.) of state, their number indicating his rank. The child is doing as well as possible,' said Miss Yaksha (yak'sha), n. In Hind. myth, a kind Grizzy; 'to be sure it does yammer constantly, that of demigods who attend Kuvera, the god of

can't be denied.'

Miss Ferrier. riches, and guard his treasures.

Yank (yangk), v.i. (Probably a nasalized Yald (yäld), a Same as Yeld.

form akin to G. and D. jagen, Dan. jage, to Yald, Yauld (yąld), a. (Icel. gildr, stout, hunt, to chase, to hurry; Icel, jaga, to move brawny, strong, of full size; Sw. and Dan. to and fro. See YACHT.) (Scotch.] 1. To gild) Supple; active; athletic. [Scotch.) work cleverly and actively: often with on: Yam (yam), n. (The Portuguese first saw as, she yanked on at the work.-2. To speak the plant cultivated in Africa, then in In in a yelping or affected tone; to scold; to nag; dia and Malacca, and brought the name as as, she yanked at her servant from morning well as the plant to the West, but from what to night. language it comes is unknown. The yam Yank (yangk), v.t. To give a throwing or was imported into America.) A large escu | jerking motion to; to twitch strongly; to lent tuber or root produced by various jerk, (Colloq. United States.)





a prick. Cog. with L. hasta, a spear.) 1. The Yarpha (värfa), n. A kind of peaty soil; a 3. To gape for anything; to express desire British and American standard measure of soil in which peat predominates. (Orkney by yawning; as, to yawn for fat livings. length, equal to 3 feet or 36 inches, the foot and Shetland.

The chiefest thing at which lay reforiners yawn is, being in general made practically the unit.

We turn pasture into tillage, and barley into aits, that the clergy may, through conformity in condition, As a cloth measure the yard is divided into and heather into greensward, and the poor yarpha, be poor as the apostles were.

Hooker, 4 quarters=16 nails. (See under MEASURE.) as the benighted creatures here call their peat-bogs, 4. To express surprise and bewilderment by A square yard contains 9 square feet and a

into baittle grass-land.

Sir W. Scott.

gaping cubic yard 27 cubic feet. -2. A pole or rod Yarr (yär), n. [Perhaps akin in origin to Methinks it should be now a huge eclipse 3 feet long for measuring a yard. --3. A long yarrow.) A well-known British and Euro of sun and moon, and that the affrighted globe cylindrical piece of timber in a ship, having pean plant, Spergula arvensis. See SPER Should yawn at alteration.

Shak. à rounded taper toward each end, and slung GULA.

Yawn (yan), n. 1. A gaping: an involuntary Crosswise to a mast. All yards are either Yarr + (yär), v. i. (Imitative.) To growl or opening of the mouth from drowsiness; square or lateen, the former being suspended snarl, as a dog. Ainsworth.

oscitation. “Thy everlasting yawn.' Pope. across the masts at right angles for spread. Yarrish (yar'ish), a. (From yar, sour.) Hav-| 2. The act of gaping or opening wide. ing square sails, the latter obliquely. Yards ing a rough, dry taste. (Provincial.)

Sometimes with a mighty yawn, 'tis said, have sheave-holes near their extremities for Yarrow (yar'o), n. (A. Sax. gearwe, D. gerw, Opens a dismal passage to the dead. Addison. the sheets reeving through. Either end of G. garbe, 0. G. garwe, yarrow. According

3. An opening; a chasm. Marston. (Rare.] a yard, or rather that part of it which is to Skeat from A. Sax. gearwian, to pre

Yawningly (yan'ing-li), adv. In a yawning outside the sheave-hole, is called the yard pare, gerwan, to dress,

manner; with yawns or gapes. Bp. Hall. arm; the quarter of a yard is about halffrom being used in dress

Yaws (yaz), n. (African yaw, a raspberry.) way between the sheave-hole and the slings. ing wounds. Hence

A disease occurring in America, Africa and 4. A long piece of timber, as a rafter and allied to yare.) A name

the West Indies, and almost entirely conthe like. Oxford Glossary.-5. The male given to a British plant,

fined to the African races. It is characterorgan of generation; the penis.-Yard of Achillæa millefolium.

ized by cutaneous tumours, numerous and land. Same as Yard-land (which see). Also known by the

successive, gradually increasing from specks Yard (yard), n. (A. Sax. geard, an inclosure, name of Milfoil (which

to the size of a raspberry, one at length a yard, a court, &c.; Icel. garthr, a yard or see).

growing larger than the rest; core a fungous inclosed space (E. garth); Dan. gaard, a Yataghan (yat'a-gan), n.

excrescence; fever slight, and probably irriyard, a court, a farm; D. gaard, a garden: (Turk. yatagån.) A sort

tative merely. It is contagious, and cannot O.H.G. garto, Mod. G. garten, a garden; Rus. of dagger - like sabre,

be communicated except by the actual congorod (as in Novgorod, &c.), a town. From with double-curved

tact of yaw matter to some abraded surface, same root as L. hortus, a garden, cohors, a blade, about 2 feet long,

or by inoculation, which is sometimes effeccohort (see COURT), Gr. cheir, the hand. the handle without a

ted by fies. It is also called Framboesia, Akin garden, and probably gird, to surround. cross-guard, much worn

from the French framboise, a raspberry. Orchard contains this word.) 1. A small in Mohammedan coun

Ycladt (i - klad'), pp. ( Prefix y-, and clad. ) piece of inclosed ground, particularly adtries. It is also written

Clad: clothed. Her words yclad with joining a house, whether in front of it, be- 1. A taghan.

wisdom's majesty.' Shak. hind it, or around it. -2. An inclosure within Yate (yát), n. (A form of Yataghan. Yclept, Ycleped (i-klept'), pp. [A. Sax. which any work or business is carried on; gate, with softening of g

ge-clypod, pp. of ge-clypian, to call.) as, a brick-yard, a wood-yard, a tanning to y. See Y.) A gate. (North of Eng.

Called; named. (Obsolete, except in yard, a dock-yard, &c.-3. In Scotland, al land.]

humorous writing, or when used in the garden, particularly a kitchen - garden. Yaud (yąd), n. A jade; a yawd. [Old Eng

affectedly ancient style.) *Burns. lish and Scotch.] See YAWD.

Judas I am, ycleped Maccabæus. Skak. Yard (yård), v.t. To inclose in a yard; to Yaul (val). n. See YAWL.

But come thou goddess fair and free shut up in a yard, as cattle; as, to yard Yaup (yap), v.i. (O. E. yawlp, a form of

In Heaven ycloped Euphrosyne. Milton. COWS. yelp, A. Sax. gealp, a loud sound. See

Ydlet (i'dl), a. Lazy; idle. Spenser. Yard-arm (yürdürm), n. See YARD, 3. YELP.) To yelp; to cry out like a child or Yard-arm and yard-arm, the situation of a bird. (Scotch.)

Ydradt (i-drad'), pp. Dreaded. two ships lying alongside of each other so Yaup (yap), n.

Ye (yė), pron. (A. Sax. ge, ye, nom. pl. corThe cry of a bird or of a

responding to thù, thou; the genit. was near that their yard-arms cross or touch. child. (Scotch.)

eower, the dat. and acc. eów; so that ye is Yard-land (yard'land),n. A quantity of land Yaup (yap), a. (To be yaup is lit. to be

properly the nom. plural and you the obj.; in England, different in different counties; a-gape, with change of g to y.) Hungry.

D. gij, Icel. ier, er, Dan, and Sw. i, G. ihr. a virgate. In some counties it was 15 acres; (Scotch.)

Goth. jus, all ye or you (pl.). See You.) in others 20 or 24, and even 40 acres. Yaupon (ya'pon), n. Same as Yapon.

Properly the nominative plural of the second Yard-stick (yärd'stik), n. A stick or rod Yave,t pret. of yeve. Gave. Chaucer.

person, of which thou is the singular, but 3 feet in length, used as a measure of cloth, Yaw (ya), v.i. (Comp. prov. G. gagen, to

in later times also used as an objective after &c. rock, to move unsteadily ; Icel. gagr, bent

verbs and prepositions. Ye is now used Yard-wand (yård'wond), n. A yard-stick. back 1 Naut. to steer wild: to deviate from

only in the sacred and solemn style; in comHis cheating yard-wand.' Tennyson. the line of her course in steering: said of

mon discourse and writing you is excluYaret (yár), a. (A. Sax. gearu, prepared, a ship.

sively used. ready, yare; akin G. gar, prepared, ready: She steered wild, yawed, and decreased in her rate Icel. gör, gjör, quite: comp. Icel. göra, to of sailing.

But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified. Cor. vi. 11. Narryat.

Loving offenders thus I will excuse ye. Shak. do, to make; prov. E. gar, to cause to do. Yaw (ya), n. Naut. a temporary deviation

I thank ye; and be blest for your good comfort. Shak. Akin garb, gear.] 1. Ready; quick; dexter of a ship or vessel from the direct line of ous; eager: said of persons, and especially her course. 'O, the yaws that she will

A south-west blow on ye And blister you all o'er.

Shak. of sailors; as, to be yare at the helm. make!' Massinger.

The confusion between ye and you did not exist in
Be yare in thy preparation. Shak.
Yaw (va), v.i. To rise in blisters, breaking

Old English. Ye was always used as a nominative, in white froth, as cane-juice in the sugar and you as a dative or accusative. In the English 2. Easily wrought; answering quickly to the works.

Bible the distinction is very carefully observed, but helm; swift; lively: said of a ship. Yawd (yąd), n. (Softened form of jade.)

in the dramatists of the Elizabethan period there is The lesser (ship) will come and go, leave and take,

a very loose use of the two forms, Dr. Morris. A jade; an old horse or mare. (Old Engand is yare, whereas the other is slow. Raleigh. lish or Scotch. Written also Yaud. Burns.

Yet adv. Yea; yes. Chaucer. Yaret (yár), adv. Briskly; dexterously; Your yawds may take cold and never be good

Yea (ya), adv. ( A. Sax. gea, yea, indeed; yarely. after it.

Icel. ja. D. Dan. Sw. and G. ja, Goth. ja, Shak.

Brome. Yarely + (yarli), adv. Readily; dexterously;

jai; allied to Goth. jah, and; L jam, now; Yawl (yal), n. (From D. jol, a yawl, a skiff, skilfully. Those flower-soft hands that

Skr. ya, who.) 1. Yes; ay; a word that exSw. julle, Dan. jolle, a jolly-boat, a yawl. yarely frame the office.' Shak.

presses affirmation or assent: the opposite Jolly in jolly-boat is this word, being taken Yark (yärk), v.t. Same as Yerk.

of nay; as, will you go? yea. Whilst one direct from the Danish apparently.) 1. A Yarke (yar'ke), n. The native name of dif

says only yea, and t'other nay.' Denham. small ship's boat, usually rowed by four or ferent South American monkeys of the genns six oars; a jolly-boat.-2. The smallest boat

Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay. Pithecia,

Mat. v. 37. used by fishermen. Written sometimes Yaul. 2. It sometimes introduces a subject with Yarn (yürn), n. (A. Sax. gearn, D. garen, Yawl (yal), v. i. (Akin to yowl, yell.) To the sense of indeed, verily, truly, it is so, or Icel. Sw. Dan, and G. garn, yarn. Allied cry out; to howl; to yell. The pilot ...

is it so? to Gr. chorde, a chord, originally an integ louder yawls.' Quarles. "Then yelp'd the

Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree tine. (See CHORD.) Comp. G. garn, in sense cur and yawl'd the cat.' Tennyson.

in the garden?

Gen. ii. 1. of one of the stomachs of a ruminant, Icel. Yawn (yan), v. i (A. Sax. gånian, to yawn, Yea, mistress, are you so peremptory! Shak. görn, pl. garnir, the guts.) 1. Any textile to gape, to open; Sc. gant, G. gähnen, to fibre prepared for weaving into cloth. (See

3. Used in the same way as nay. intimating yawn, to gape; akin to A. Sax. ginan, Icel. THREAD.) The various sizes of cotton yarn

that something is to be added by way of ingina, to gape; from root seen in Gr. chaino, are numbered according to the pumber of L. hio, to gape; G. gans, E. gander, goose.

tensiveness or amplification; not this alone; hanks of 840 yards in the pound; flax and From same root are chasm, chaos, entering

not only so but also. jute according to the number of leas of 300 English from the Greek.] 1. To gape; to

I therein do rejoice ; yea, and will rejoice. yards per pound; and woollen and worsted

Phil. i. 18. oscitate: to have the mouth open involun

One that composed your beauties, yea, and one yarn according to the number of skeins of tarily through drowsiness or dulness,

To whom you are but as a forin in wax. Shak. 560 yards per pound. - 2. In rope-making,

When a man yawneth he cannot hear so well. Bacon. one of the threads of which a rope is com

4. Used substantively: (a) in Scrip. denot

The king awoke, posed.-3. A story spun out by a sailor for And yawn'd, and rubb'd bis face, and spoke.

ing certainty, consistency, harmony, and the amusement of his companions; a story


stability. or tale: hence, to spin a long yarn is to tell 2. To gape; to open wide; to stand open: All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him a long story. (Colloq.) said of the mouth, a chasm, or the like; as, are amen,

2 Cor. i. 20. Yarnen 1 (yärn'n), a. Made of yarn; con wide yawns the gulf below. This thy yawn (6) An affirmative vote; one who votes in sisting of yarn. 'A pair of yarnen stocks.' ing mouth.' Shak.

the affirmative; the equivalent to Ay or Turberville.

Graves yaton and yield your dead. Shak. Aye.-Yea is now used only in the sacred Yar-nut, n. See YER-NUT.

Heavens open inward, chasms yawn. Tennyson.

and solemn style. Yea like nay was formerly

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