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of wonderful virtues. In the tree, which drops honey, sit an eagle, a squirrel, and four stags. At the root lies the serpent Nithhoggr gnawing it, while the squirrel Ratatoskr runs up and dowu to sow strife between the eagle at the top and the serpent at the root.

Y-grave, t pp. Buried; entombed. Chaucer.

Y-Eerd,t pp. Haired; covered with hair. Chancer.

Y-holde,t pp. Obliged; beholden. Chaucer.

Yield (yeld), v.t. [A. Sax. gildan, gieldan, gyldan, geldan, to yield, pay, restore, render, «fcc.; a strong verb, pret. geald; pp. golden; IceL gjalda, Dan. gjelde, to yield, requite, dtc.; Sw. gdlla (for gdlda), to be of consequence; D. gelden, G gelten, to be worth, to avail. Ac; akinguild.) l.tTopay; to reward; to recompense; to bless.

Tend me to-night two hours, I ask no more.
And the goiisyield you for ic Sh.ik\

The invocatory phrase 'God yield you'= God reward you, was formerly very much used in colloquial speech in the same way as we now employ 'God bless you,' and for that reason assumed various corrupted or shortened forms, as 'God 'ield you,' 'God 'ild you,' *God dUd you," dild assuming its initial letter from the influence of the d in God.

King. How do you do, pretty lady?
Ofihelia. Well, God wWyou! Shak. {Hamlet, iv. 5.)
How do you do, sir? You are very well met; God
'ildyou for your last company.

Shak. (Asyen Like It, Hi. 3.)

2. To give In return, or by way of recompense; to produce, as a reward or return for labour performed, capital invested, or the like.

When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength. Gen. iv. 12.

Strabo tells us the mines at Carthagena yielded the Romans per diem to the value of twenty-five thousand drachms. Arbuthnot.

3. To produce generally; to bring forth; to give out; to bear; to furnish. 'Nectarine fruits which the compliant boughs yielded.' MUton,

The wilderness yieldeth food for them and for their cattle. Job xxiv. 5.

4. To afford; to confer; to grant; to permit * Yield me a direct answer.' Shak. 'Yield consent' Shak. 'Day, yield me not thy light' Shak.

And slowly was my mother brought

To yield consent to my desire. Tennyson. Pray for my soul and yield me burial.


5. To give up, as to a superior power, authority, or the like; to quit possession of, as through compulsion, necessity, duty, or the like; to relinquish; to resign; to surrender: in this sense often followed by up.

We yield our town and lives to thy soft mercy.

Shak. Your northern castles are yielded »/. Shak.

6. To give up or render generally; to emit. Hence the following figurative phrases, all = to expire; to die: to yield, or yield up, the life, l To yield the ghost.' Gen. xlix 3 'To yield the breath.' Shak.—7. To admit the force, justice, or truth of; to allow; to concede; to grant

I yield h just, said Adam, and submit Mil/on. Yield (yeld), v.i. 1. To give way, as to superior physical force, a conqueror, dec.; to give up the contest; to submit; to succumb; to surrender.

Thai yields the cedar to the axe's edge. Shak.
He saw the fainting Grecians yield. Dryden.

2. To give way, in a moral sense, as to entreaty, argument, a request, or the like; to cease opposing; to comply; to consent; to assent

To wisdom he's a fool that will not yield. Shak. With her much fair speech she caused him to yield. Prov. vu. 21. No more, dear love, for at a touch I yield:

Ask me no more. Tennyson.

3. To give place, as inferior in rank or excellence.

Tell me in what more happy fields

The thistle springs, to which the \\\yyieldst Pope.

Yield (yeld), n. Amount yielded; product; return: applied particularly to products resulting from growth or cultivation. 'A goodly yield of fruit.' Bacon.

Yieldableneset (yelrt'a-bl-nes), n. Disposition to yield or comply. 'A yieldableness upon sight of better truths.' Bp. Hall.

YIeldancet (yeld'ans). «. Act of yielding, producing, submitting, conceding, or the like. Bp. Hall.

Yielder (yeld'er), n. One who yields.

I was not bom ayielder. Shat.

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Sir W. Scott.

Yodel, Yodle (ytVdl), v.t and i. [German Swiss. ] To sing or utter a sound peculiar to the Swiss and Tyrolese mountaineers, by suddenly changing from the natural voice to the falsetto, and vice versa. 'A single voice . . . yodling a ballad.' Lofigfeltow.

Yoga (yo'gaX «. [Skr. yoga, union. See York ] One of the branches of the Hindu Sankhya philosophy which teaches the doctrines of the Supreme Being, and explains the means by which the human soul may obtain final emancipation from further migrations, and effect a junction with the universal spirit Among the means of effecting this junction are comprehended a long continuance in various unnatural postures, withdrawal of the senses from external objects, concentration of tbe mind on some grand central truth and the like, all of which imply, of course, the leading of an austere hermit life.

Yogi Yogln (yd'gi. yO'gin), n. An Indian devotee' of the yoga system of philosophy. See Yoga.

YoiclCS (yo'iks), interj. An old fox-hunting cry.

Hnjoy the pleasure of the chase. . . . Bravo! Or if Yoicks would be in belter keeping, consider that I said Yoicks. Dickens.

Yojan (yd'jan). n. [Skr. yojana, from yuj, to join.) In Hindustan, a measure of distance varying in different places from four to ten miles, but generally valued about five.

Yoke (yok), n. [A. Sax. geoc, toe, a yoke; D. juk, jok, Q. joch, Goth. juJc, and (without the initial consonant) Icel. and Sw. ok, Dan. aag; cog. Lith. jungus, l.jugum. Or. zugon, Skr. yuga, a yoke; lit. that which joins, from a root, yug, meaning to join, seen in Skr. V11), to join; L. jug (nasalized in jungo, to join). Gr. zeug (in zcugnymi, to join), to join] 1. An old contrivance by which pairs of draught animals, particularly oxen, are fastened together, usually consisting of a piece of timber, hollowed or made curving near each end, and fitted with bows for receiving the necks of the oxen, by which means two are connected for drawing. From a ring or hook in the bow a chain extends to the thing to be drawn, or to the yoke of an

other pair of oxen behind. "A red heifer on which never came yoke.' Num. xix. 2. Hence—2. Something resembling this apparatus in form or use; as, (a) a frame to tit the shoulders and neck of a persou, and support a pair of buckets, pails, or the like, one at each end of the frame, (b) A frame attached to the necks of some animals, as cows, pigs, &c, to prevent them from breaking through fences, (c) A cross-bar or curved piece from which a large bell is suspended for ringing it (d) Naut. a bar attached to the rudder head, and projecting in each direction sideways; to the ends are attached the yoke-ropes or yoke-lines which are pulled by the steersman in rowing-boats, or pass to the drum on the axis of the Bteering wheel in larger craft—3. An emblem or mark of servitude, slavery, and sometimes of sufferance generally.

My yoke is easy, and my burden is light. Mat. xi. 30. Our country sinks beneath the yoke. Shak.

4. Something which couples, connects, or hinds together; a bond of connection; a link; a tie. 'Whose souls do bear an equal yoke of love.' Shak.

Thisyoke of marriage from us both remove.


6. A pair of draught animals,especially oxen, yoked together; a couple working together. 'An half acre of land which a yoke of oxen might plow.' 1 Sam. xiv. 14

His lands a hundred yoke of oxen tilled. Dryden.

6. As much laud as may be ploughed by a pair of oxen in a day; hence, as much work generally as is done at a stretch; also, a portion of the working day, as from mealtime to meal-time, fn which labour is uninterruptedly carried on. Yoke (yak), v.t. 1. To put a yoke on; to join in a yoke.

Four milk-white hulls, the Thracian use of old.
Were yoked to draw his car of burnished gold,

2. To couple; to join with another.

Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb. Shak. My wife, my life. O we will walk this world, Yoked in alt exercise of noble end. Tennyson.

3. To enslave; to bring into bondage.

These arc the arms With which heyoteth your rebellious necks. Shak.

4. To restrain; to confine.

The words and promises thatyete

The conqueror, axe quickly brulte. Ihtdibras.

Yoke (y6k), v.i. To be joined together. 'The care that yokes with empire.' Tennyson.

Yokeage (yofaj), n. See Rokeaqe.

Yoke-fellow (yok'fel-lo), n. One associated with another in labour, in a task, undertaking, or the like; also, one connected with another by some tie or bond, as marriage; a partner; an associate; a mate. 'Yoke-fellows in arms.' Shak:

Thou, his yoke-felloiv of equity
Bench by his side. Shak.

Yokel (yolcl), n. [Perhaps from yoke, one who drives yoked animals.] A rustic or countryman; especially, a country bumpkin; a country lout Kingsley.

Thou art not altogether the clumsy yokel and the clod I took thee for. R, D. Mackmore.

Used adjectively in following extract.

The coach was none of your steady-going yokel coaches, but a swaggering, rakish, ili^ipalea. London coach; up all night, and lying by all day, and leading a terrible life. Dickens.

Yokelet (yokHet), n. [From its being worked by one yoke of oxen—let, diminutive] A Bmall farm. [Provincial.]

Yoke-line, Yoke-rope (ySklin, y&k'rop), n. See Yoke, it. 2 (d).

Yoke-mate (yok'mat), n. Same as Yokefellow.

Yoking (yfik'ing), n. 1. The act of putting a yoke on; the act of joining or coupling.— 2. As much work as is done by draught animals at one time, whether it be by cart or plough; hence, generally as much work as is done at a stretch. * A hearty yokin' at sang about' Burns. [Scotch.]

Yoky (yok'i), a. Pertaining to a yoke. Chapman. [Rare. ]

YolcM YoldeD,t pp. of yelde. Yielded; given; repaid. Chancer.

Yolk (yftk), n. [A. Sax. geoleca, the yolk or yelk, lit. the yellow of the esrg, from geoltt. yellow. See YELLOW] 1. The yellow part of an egg; the vitellus. Also written Yelk. See Ego.—2. The unctuous secretion from the skin of sheep whfch renders tbe pile soft and pliable.— 3- The vitellus, a part of

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the wed of plants, Bo named from its supposed analogy with the yolk of an egg.

Yolk-bag (yok'bag), n. The sac or membranous bag which contains the yolk or vitellus.

Yon (yon), a. [A Sax. geon (a ), yon, that or those—there; Goth, jains, G. jener, that; of pronominal origin, and akin to Skr. yas, who, also to yea and yet. See also Yond, Yonder.] That; those: referring to an object at a distance; yonder: now chiefly used in the poetic style. 'Yon foolish lout;' 'yon lime and stone;' ' by yon clouds.' Shak. 'Beside yon straggling fence.' Goldsmith.

Read thy lot in yon celestial sign. Milton.

[It was sometimes (as commonly in Scotland) used substantively, or without a noun. ]

Yont (yon), adv. In or at that (more or less distant) place. 'Him that yon soars on golden wing.' Milton.

Yond t (yond), a. [A. Sax. geond, yond, yonder, thither; Goth. jaind, there.] Same as Yon or Yonder, 'Yond fayrie knight' Spenser.

Yond t (yond), adv. Same as Yon or Yonder.

Say what seest thou yond t Shak.

Yondt (yond), a. [From A. Sax. geond, through, over, beyond, which sometimes occurs in compounds with an intensive force, like the L.per, through. The primary meaning, therefore, is extravagant, beyond measure.] Mad; furious or alienated in mind. 'Wexeth wood and yond.' Spenser,

Floriniel fled from that monster >e«(/. Spenser.

Yonder (yon'der), a. [Apparently a coropar. of yond; comp. Gothjaindre, there.] Being at a distance within view, or as conceived within view; that or those, referring to persons or things at a distance. 'By yonder moon.' Shak. 'From yonder tower.' Shak. 'Near yonder copse.' Goldsmith.

Our pleasant labour to reform Yon flowery arbours, yonder alleys green. Milton.

Yonder (yon'der). adv. At or tn that (more or less distant) place; at or in that place there.

Where Is your master f yonder, sir, he walks.

Shak. Mark her behaviour too; she's tippling jwrnrVr with the serving men. Dry den.

Yonghede.t n. [Young, and term, -hede, same as -head or -hood.) Youth. Chaucer.

Yongtht (yougth), n. Youth. Spenser.

Yonl (\o'ni),n. Among the Hindus, the female power in nature, represented by an oval.

Yonkert (yung'ker), n, A youngster; a younker. Chapman.

Yook. Same as Yuck.

Yoop (ytfp), n. An onomatopoetic word expressive of a hlccuping or sobbing sound.

There was such a scuffling, and hugging, and kissin);, and crying, with \\\e uysierltM yoois of Miss Swartz. Thackeray.

Yore* (y6r), adv. [A. Sax. gedra, formerly, of old, originally geuit pi. of gedr, a year, being thus an adverbial genitive of time, like twice, thrice, &c] In time long past; long since; in old time. * Yore agon, long ago. Chaucer. Now used only in the phrase of yore, that is, of old time; long ago; as, in times or days of yore.

But SaUu uow is wiser than of yore. Pope.

Yorkshire-grit (york 'shir-grit), n. A peculiar kind of stone used for polishing marble, as also engravers' copper-plates. Simmonds.

Yorkshire-pudding (york'shir-pud'ing), n. A butter-pudding baked uuder meat Simmonds.

Yot (yot), v t. To fasten; to rivet [Provincial English |

Yote (jot), v.t. [A. Sax. gedtan, to pour; Goth, giutan, G. giessen, to pour.] To water; to pour water on; to steep. [Old or provincial. ]

My fowls ... I found feeding at the trough
Their yoted grains. Chapman,

Yon (yb), pro%v [A. Sax. e6w, dat and ace. pi. of the pronoun of the second person, yt being properly the nom. pi.; O. Sax. iu, V.

«. you. gij. ye; OHO it*, you, iuwar, your. See YE] The nominative and objective plural of thou. Although it is strictly applicable only to two or more persons, it has long been commonly used when a single

Itersou is addressed instead of thou and thee, mt properly with a plural construction; as, you are. you were. Ac. This usage was well established before Chaucer's time. You, when addressed to a single person, was formerly used by good writers with the verb

in the singular, but this usage is not now considered correct

The town will have it that you was educated at Oxford. Hume.

You is frequently used reflexively for yourself. 'Keep you warm.' Shak.

Venus, if it be youre wil
Yaw in this garden thus to transfigure. Chancer.
Betake you to your guard. Shak.

It is also used expletively or superfluously, as (a) in easy, colloquial, or idiomatic phraseology as a kind of dative. 'I will roar you as gently as any sucking dove.' Shak. 'A tanner will last you nine year.' Shak. (o) Emphatically, sportively, or reproachfully before a vocative. 'Come on, you madcap.' Shak. When you both precedes and follows the vocative the mode of address gains considerably in playfulness, reproachfulness, or vituperative force; as, O. you little darling, you; you sweet child, you. 'You minion you;' 'you hag you;' 'you puppet you.' Shak.You is also used indefinitely, as toe and they are, for any one, one, people generally, and thus equivalent to one, French on.

We passed by what was one of those rivers of burning matter; this looks at a distance like a newploughed land; but as you come near it you see nothing but a long heap of heavy disjointed clods. Addison.

You (yo), n. Same as Yu.

Young (yung). a. [O.E yong, A. 8ax. geong, giung, iung. D. jong. G. jung, Goth, juggs, I eel. ungr, jungr, Dan. and Sw. ung; cog. Llth. jaunas, L. juvenis, Bkr. juvan—young. Perhaps allied to Skr. yu, to drive back, to repulse; L. juvare, to aid, to assist; the primary sense of young being thus able to repel or lend assistance in fight] 1. Being in the first or early stage of life; not long born; not yet arrived at maturity or age; not old: said of animals; as, a young child; a young man; a young horse.— 2. Being in the first or early stage of growth; as, a young plaut; a young tree.—3. Being in the first or early part of existence generally; not yet far advanced, of long duration, or of full development

Is the daysoyoungt Shalt,

Lowliness is young ambition's ladder. Shak.

4. Having the appearance and freshness or vigour of youth; youthful in look or feeling; fresh; vigorous.

He Isonlyseven-and-thirty, very young- for his age, and the most affectionate of creatures. Thackeray.

6. Having little experience; ignorant; raw; green. *Weareyetbutyoun<7indeed.' Shak.

Come, elder brother, you are too young- in this.

6. Pertaining or relating to youth; spent or passed during youth; youthful.

God forbid I should be so bold to press to heaven in roy young days. Shak.

Young (yung), n. The offspring of an animal collectively.

The eggs disclosed their callow young. Milton.

With young, pregnant; gravid. * So many days my ewes have been with young.' Shak.

Younger (yung'ger). n. A youngling. Shak.

Young-eyed (yung'Id), o. Having the fresh bright eyes or look of youth 'The youngeyed cherubins.' Shak.

Youngish (yung/ish), a. Somewhat young. * A very genteel youngish man.' Tatler.

Youngling (yung'ling), n. An animal in the first part of life; also, a young person. 'Than younglings to their dam.' Spenser. 'How those pooryounglings are both cheated of life and comfort' Beau. d> Fl.

Younglyt (yungli), a. Youthful.

Youngly (yung'li). adv. In a young manner: (a) early in life. 'How youngly he began to serve his country.' Shak, (6) Ignorantly; weakly.

Youngness (yung'nes), n. The state or qualityof being young. Cudworth.

Youngster (yung'stor), n. A young person; a lad. 'For Adon's sake, a youngster proud and wild.' Shak

Youngtht (yungth), n. Youth.

Youngth is a bubble blown up with breath.


Younker (yung'ker).!*. [' Borrowed from Du. jonker, also written jonkheer, compounded otjong, young, and heer, a lord, sir, gentleman.' Skeat] A young person; a lad; a youngster; hence, a raw, inexperienced person or youth. 'Trimmed like a younker prancing to his love.' Shak.

Youpon (yu/pon), n. Same as Yapon.

Your (yor). a. [A. Sox. edwer, O. Sax. iuwar, D. wMvr, O.H.G. iuwar. Mod. G. euer; the possessive corresponding to ye, you, and

therefore properly plural (thy being the singular), but now like you used as singular or plural ] Pertaining or belonging to you; as, your father; your book; give me your hand. (See You.) Like the personal pronoun you, your is sometimes used indefinitely, not with reference to the person or persons addressed, but to something known, common, and in some instances contemptible,

I will discharge it either in your straw-coloured beard, your orange-tawny beard, &c Shak.

Your medalist and your critic are much nearer related than the world imagine. Adduen

Yours (ybrz), pass. pron. A double genitive of you, and = that or those which belong to you: used with reference to a preceding noun; as, this book is yours; I have lost my pen, will you lend me yours! Yours a sometimes used without reference to a noun previously mentioned, when it is equivalent to (u) your property.

What's mine isyours. and what i&yours is mine. Shak,

(b) The persons belonging to you; your friends or relations.

O God. 1 fear thy justice will take hold
On me, and you, and mine, and yours tor this.

Yours truly, yours to command, Ac, phrases immediately preceding the signature at the end of a letter; hence, sometimes used playfully by a speaker in alluding to himself.

Yours truly, sir, has an eye for a fine woman and a fine horse. If'. Cellini.

Yourself (ycr-self), pron. pi. Yourselves (ybr-selvz'). You, not another or others; you, in your own person or individually: when used as a nominative generally accompanied by you and expressing emphasis or opposition; as, this work you must do yourself, or you yourself must do it; that is, you and no other person.

O. that you were yourself I but. love, you are
No longer yours than you yourself live here. Shak

Sometimes it is used without you.

Allow obedience, if yourselves are old. Shak

In the objective case it is used reflexive]* without emphasis; as, you have brought this calamity on yourselves.

Love not yourselves; away, rob one another. Shak

Youth (ybth), n. [O.E. youths, youhthe, yewethe, guwethe; A. Sax. gedguth, torgtonguth( = youngth, young and -M),fromgeong, young; 0. Sax. jugath, D. jeugd, O. jugend youth. See Young.) 1. The state or quality of being young; youthfulness; youngness.

But thou shalt flourish in immortal youth. Addu^n
Her open eyes desire the truth.

The wisdom of a thousand years
Is in them. May perpetual youth

Keep dry their light from tears. Tewnyse*

2. The port of life that succeeds to childhood. In a general sense, youth denotes the whole early part of life, from infancy to manhood; but it is not unusual to divide the stages of life into infancy, childhood, youth, and manhood.

Those who pass their youth in vice are Justly condemned to spend their age in folly. Kamfiler. A happy youth, and then old age Is beautiful and free. t\'ordra-e»th.

S. A young person; especially, if not invariably, a young man. In this sense it has s plural. 'Seven youths from Athens yearly sent.' Dryden.

I gave it to ayonth, a kind of boy. Shak.

4. Young persons collectively.

0 ye who teach the ingenuous youth of nations, . .

1 pray ye flog them upon all occasions. fiyron.

Youthede.t Youthhead,* n. Youthful ness; youth. Chaucer. 'In youthhead. happj season.' Southey.

Youthful (yotb'ful). a. 1. Not yet aged; not yet arrived at mature years; being in the early stage of life; young. 'Where youthful Edward comes.' Shak. 'Wanton as you/*

/uf goats.' Shak.

Is she not more than painting can express.

Or youthful poets fancy when they love. Xr-srt

2. Pertaining to the early part of life; as. youthful day*; youthful age. 'His youthful hose well saved.' Shak—3. Suitable to the first part of life; as, youthful thoughts. youthful sports.—4. Fresh; vigorous: as in youth. 'Perfect felicity, such as after millions of millions of ages is still youthful and flourishing.' Bentiey — 5 Pertainiu^ to an early time. 'The youthful season of the year.' Shak.

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Youthfully (yoth'ful-li), adv. In a youthful manner. 'Your attire . . . not youthfully wanton.' Bp. Hall.

Youthfulnesa (yoth'ful-nes), n. The state or quality of being youthful. 'Lusty youthfulness.' Holland.

YouthhOOd t (yoth'hud), n. Youth. Dr. G. Cheune.

Youtnlyt (yoth'li), a. Pertaining to youth; characteristic of youth; youthful. 'Youthly years.' Spenser. 'Puffed up with youthly heat and ambition.' Camden.

Youthsome (yoth'sum), a. Having the vigour, freshness, feelings, tastes, or appearance of youth; youthful; young.

I found him drinking, and very jolly and youthsome. P'fys

Youthy (yoth'i), a. Young; youthful. 'Affecting a youthier turn than is consistent with my time of day.' Steele. [Rare.]

You-you (yo'yo), n. A small Chinese boat impelled with the scull, used on rivers and in well-protected harbours aud roadsteads. Young.

Yove.f pret. of yeve. Gave. Chaucer.

Yowe (you), n. A ewe. George Eliot. [Provincial English and Scotch.]

YOwT(youl),pi [Ak\n to yawl, yell.] Togive a long distressful or mournful cry, as a dog.

Yowl (youl), n. A long distressful or mournful cry, as that of a dog.

Yoxet (yoks), v.i. [A. Sax. geocsa, a sob or hiccup. See Yex.] To hiccup. Chaucer.

Ypigutt (i'pit), a. Pitched; fixed. Spenser.

Yplked,tpp. Picked; pointed; having sharppointed peaks; smart; spruce. Chaucer.

YpOiBtingt (i-point'ing), ppr. [Prefix y, and pointing] Pointing or directed towards. 'A st&T-ypointi)igpyramid.' Milton. (Rare, perhaps unique.]

Yponomeutidse (I pon'6-mu"ti-de), n. pi. [Or. hyponomeuo, to undermine, and eidos, resemblance.] A family of heteropterous Lepidoptera. comprising a large number of minute moths inhabiting Europe. Their larva; or caterpillars, which are glabrous and attenuated at both extremities, are found on shrubs, especially on white-thorn hedges, living in large societies under a common web, in the midst of which they change into the chrysalis state each in its own cocoon. Yponomeuta cognatetta is exceedingly destructive to apple-trees, depriving them of their leaves.

Ypres-lace (e'pra-las), n. [From Ypres, in Belgium] The finest and most expensive kind of Valenciennes lace. Simmonds.

Yravlshedt (i-raWisht), pp. Delighted; ravished. Shak.

Yren,t n. Iron. Chaucer.

Yron,t n. Iron. Spenser.

Ysame.t pp. [A. Sax. ge-sam, together.] Collected together. Spenser.

Yae, n. Ice. Chaucer.

Yslaked t (i-slakf), pp. Slaked; assuaged; pacified Shak.

Yttria (it'ri-a), n. A metallic oxide or earth, having the appearance of a white powder, which is insipid, insoluble in water, and infusible. It dissolves in acids, forming sweetish salts, which have often an amethyst colour. It has no action on vegetable colours. Yttria is the protoxide of yttrium (YO). It was discovered In 1794 by

Professor Gadolin, in a mineral found at Ytterby in Sweden (hence the name), called from him gadolinite, It also occurs In yttro-cerite and yttro- tan tali te.

Yttrloua (it'ri-us), a. Pertaining to yttria; containing yttria; as, the yttrious oxide of columbium.

Yttrium (it'ri-um), n. [See Yttria.] Sym. Y. At. wt. 617. The metal contained in yttria. It was first obtained pure in 182S by Wbhler. Its texture is scaly, its colour grayish-black, and its lustre perfectly metallic. It is a brittle metal, and is not oxidized either in air or water, but when heated to redness it burns with splendour, even i#atmospheric air, and with far greater brilliancy in oxygen gas. This metal, or rather its oxide, is so rare as not to admit of any useful application.

Yttro-cerite (it-ro-se'rit), n. A mineral occurring very sparingly at Finbo and Brodbo, near Fahlun in Sweden, imbedded in quartz. Its colour is violet-blue, inclining to gray and white. It is sometimes white. These colours generally alternate in layers in the same specimen. It occurs crystallized and massive; its composition is that of a fluoride of yttrium containing fluoride of cerium and calcium. Before the blow-pipe it is infusible, but loses its colour and becomes white.

Yttro-columbite, Yttro-tantalite (it-roko-lum"bit, it-ro-tan'ta-lit), n. A mineral species, of which there are three varieties —the yellow, the dark, and the blackfound at Ytterby, in Sweden. They are tantalites of yttrium, yttria, lime, oxide of uranium, and oxide of iron, the principal ingredients being columhic acid and yttria. The whole are infusible before the blowpipe; but they decrepitate, and assume a light colour. They dissolve with borax, but are not acted upon by acids.

Yu (yu), n. The Chinese name for nephrite or jade (which see).

Yucca (yuk'ka), n. [Peruvian name.] A genus of American plants, nat. order Liliacete. The species are handsome plants, with copious white panicled flowers, extremely elegant, but destitute of odour. The leaves are long, numerous, simple, rigid or coriaceous, and pungent. There are several species, known by the name of Adam's needle. Y.gloriosa, or common Adam's needle, which along with other species has been acclimatized in Britain, is much prized


on account of its panicle of elegant flowers, which attain a height of 10 or 12 feet.

Yuck, Yuke (yuk, yuk), v.i. [D. jeuken, joken, L.G. jdken, G. jucken, to itch; akin to itch,] To itch. [Local.]

Yuck (yuk), n. The itch or Bcabies. [Provincial English and Scotch.]

Yufta (yufts), n. [Rus. yuft.] A kind of Russia leather, which when well prepared is of good red colour, soft and pinguid on the surface, and pleasant to the touch, with an agreeable peculiar odour. Simmonds.

Yug, Yuga (yug, yug'a), n. [Skr. yxtga, an age, from yuj, to join.] One of the ages into which the Hindus divide the duration or existence of the world.

Yulan (ydlan), n. A beautiful flowering tree of China; the Magnolia Yulan, a tree of 30 or 40 feet in its native country, but, in European gardens, of not more than 12 feet. See Magnolia.

Yule (ybl), n. [A. Sax. gc6l, giul, Ml, gedhol, Christmas, the feast of the nativity, whence gedla, the Yule month, December; Icel. jot, originally a great festival lasting thirteen days, and having its origin in heathen times, afterwards applied to Christmas; Dan. juul, Sw. jal. Of doubtful origin, but most commonly connected with wheel, Icel. hjdl, Dan. and Sw. hjul, as being a feast originally celebrated at the sun's wheeling or turning at midsummer and midwinter, but the h of these words is strongly against this. Skeat following Fick connects it with E. yowl, yawl, as referring to festive noise or outcry. Jolly is from this word, coming to us through the French.] The Old English and still to Borne extent the Scotch and Northern English name for Christmas, or the feast of the nativity of our Saviour.

And at each pause they kiss: was never seen such

In any place but here, at bonfire or at Yule.

They brinjj me sorrow touch'd with joy.
The merry merry bells of Yule. Tennyson.

Yule-block (ybl'blok), n. Same as Yule-log.

Yule-log (ybi'log), n. A large log of wood, often a tree-root, forming the basis of a ChriBtmas Are in the olden time. Tennyson.

Yule-tide (yoTtid), n. The time or season of Yule or Christmas; Christmas.

Yunx (yungks), n. [Gr. iynx, the wryneck.] A genus of scansorial birds; the wryneck (which see).

Yurt (yurt), n. The name given to houses or huts, whether permanent or movable, of the natives of northern Asia or Siberia.

Yuxt (yuks), n. [SeeYEX.YoxE.] A hiccup.

Yuxt (yuks), v.i. To hiccup.

Yve,t n. Ivy. Chaucer.

Yvei,t o. Evil; bad; unfortunate. Chaucer.

Yvel,t adv. Ill; badly. Chaucer.

Yvoire,t n. Ivory. Chaucer.

Y-wlfl,t adv. [A. Sax. gewis, gewiss, certain, sure; D. gewis, G. gewiss, certainly; from root of wit with prefix ge. This word being often written / wis gave rise to the notion that there was a verb to wis. See Wis.] Certainly; verily; truly.

Y-wrake.t Y-wroke.t pret. Wreaked; revenged. Chaucer; Spenser.

Y-wrie.t pp. [A. Sax. wrion, to cover.] Covered. Chaucer.

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Z, the last letter of the English alphabet, is a sibilant consonant, and is merely a vocal or sonant S, having precisely the same sound that 8 has in wise, ease, please, <fec. (See 3.) It did not have a place in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet, though no doubt » had sometimes this sound. In old EngliBh of the fourteenth century it was common, and in some writings was often used where we now have s. The words in modern English which begin with z are all derived from other languages, mostly from the Greek. The case was the same in Latin, in which this letter was never really naturalized. When not initial, however, the case is different, and we often find it representing an older s in genuine English words, as in blaze, freeze, gaze, graze, guzzle, hazard, size.&c. As a final it occurs in some onornatopoetic words, as in buzz, whizz. In German z is very common, being

a double consonant, with the sound ts. In Greek it was also a double consonant = dg or sd. In Britain its name is zed, in America zed and zee.

Za (za), n. In music, the seventh harmonic as heard in the horn or .-Eolian string. It corresponds to B flat. The term is now obsolete.

Zabalsm, Zablszn (za'ba-izm, zab'izm). See Sabianism.

Zacchean (zak'e-an), n. A follower of Zaccheus of Palestine, of the fourth century, who taught that only private prayer was acceptable to God. His disciples, therefore, retired to a hill near Jerusalem for their devotions.

Zaffre (zaf'fer), n. [Fr. zafre, safre, saffre, Sp. zafre, probably of Arabic origin.] Impure oxide of cobalt; the residuum of cobalt, after the sulphur, arsenic, and other

volatile matters have been expelled by calcination. So that it is a gray or dark-gray oxide of cobalt, mixed with a portion of silica. When fused into a glass it is intensely blue, and is much used by enamellerB and porcelain manufacturers as a blue colour. Written also Zaffar, Zafjir, and Zaphara. See Cobalt.

Zaim (za'im), n. A Turkish chief or leader.

Zaimet (za'i-met), n. A Turkish name for an estate; a district from which a zaim draws his revenue.

Zamang (za-mangO, n. A leguminous tree of Venezuela, the Pithecolobium Saman, the hemispherical head of one individual of which Humboldt describes as being 526 feet in circumference, its diameter being 60 feet and the diameter of its trunk 9 feet.

Zambo (zam'bd), n. [Sp. zambo, bandylegged, also a zambo. ] The child of a

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mulatto and a negro, also sometimes of an Indian and a negro. Written also Sambo.

Zaraia (za' mi - a), n. [ L zamia, a term applied by Pliny to a kind of fir cone.] A genus of plants, nat order Cycadacese. The species are found in the tropical parts of America, and also at the Cape of Good Hope and in Australia. They consist of trees with a cylindrical trunk. Increasing by the development of a single terminal bud, and covered by the scaly bases of the leaves. The stems of all the zamias abound in a mucilaginous juice, which has a nauseous odour and an unpleasant taste, arising from the existence in it of a peculiar proximate principle. This may be removed by boiling, roasting, &c, when some of them form a nutritious article of food. Caffer-bread is a common name for the genus in South Africa, where the central part of the stem pith of Z cycadis, after being prepared in a particular way, is formed into cakes, baked, and eaten by the natives. The starchy matter from the stems of '/. tenuis and Z. furfuracta is made into a kind of arrow-root in the Bahamas

Zamindar (zam - In - dar'), n. Same as Zemindar.

ZamiostrobUB (za-mi-os'tro-bus), n. [From zamia, and Gr. strobus, a top, a cone. ] The generic name for certain fossil canelike fruits of the upper oolite, Wealden, and chalk, so called because they were supposed to be the fruit of fossil zamias. It has been shown, however, that they belong to the true Conifene.

Zamlte (za'mit), n. A name for certain zamia like leaves which make their appearance in the upper oolite and continue through the secondaries and tertiaries.

Zamouse (za-moV), n. The native name of the Bos brachyceros, a West African ox or buffalo, differing from all other members of the Bo video in having the ears fringed with three rows of long hairs and in the total want of a dewlap.

Zampogna (tsam-po'nya). n. [It] 1. A bagpipe in use among Italian peasants.— 2. A rough-toned reed instrument shaped like a flageolet

Zandmole (zand'mdl), n. See Bathyergus.

Zannicliellia (zan-ni-kel'li-a), a [In honour of John Jerome Zannichelli, a Venetian botanist] A genus of plants, nat order Naiadaeero. Z. palustris, the marsh horned pond-weed, is a native of ponds, ditches, and rivulets in most parts of Europe. The stem is from 12 to 18 inches long, threadshaped, branched, and floating. The leaves are opposite and very narrow, bearing the flowers at their base inclosed in a membranous sheath.

Zanonia (za-n&'ni-a). n. A genus of plants, nat. order Cucurbitacere, having entire heart-shaped leaves, axillary tendrils, and dioecious flowers. The fruit of Z. indica has the flavour of the cucumber.

Zante (zan'ta), n. A golden-yellow species of Btimach from the island of Zante, in the Mediterranean, used for dyeing. Called also Young Fustic and Fuxtet.

Zante-wood (zan' ta - wud), n. A name commou to two plants, ono of the genus Rhus ( /.'. cotinus) and one of the genus Chloroxylon (C. Swietenia).

Zantiote, Zantlot (zau'ti ot, zan'ti-ot), n. A native of Zante, one of the Ionian Islands.

Zany (za'ni), n. 1li. zani, from It. zanni, zane, a zauy or clown; originally simply a familiar or abbreviated pronunciation of Giovanni, Johu. So we also find Jack in English used as equivalent to clown. See JACK.] A subordinate buffoon, whose office was to make awkward attempts at mimicking the tricks of the professional clown; hence, a buffoon in general; amerry-andrew. 'Preacher at once and zany of thy age.' Pope.

He's like a .tc'i to a tumbler.
That tries triclts after hint to make men laugh.
B. "jfonstm.

Zany (za'ni), v.t. pret A pp. zanied; ppr. zanying. To play the zany to; to mimic.

I have seen an arrogant baboon

With a small piece of glais zany the sun. Lwtlact.

ZanyiBm(za'nf-iztn), n. The state, character, or practice of a zany; buiroonery. Coleridge.

Zaphara (zaf'a-ra). n. See Zafpre.

ZapotUla (zap-6-til'la), n. Same as Sapodata.

Zarnich (zar'nlk), n. [From zarnich, zarnec, Ac, a name for orpiment used by the alchemists, from Ar. az-zernikh, from Gr. arseniko* See Arsenic] A name given

zeal ot God, but not according to Rom. x. 2.

to the native Bulphurets of arsenic, sandarach or realgar, and orpiment

Zax (zaks), n. [A Sax. seax, Icel. sax, a knife or short sword; O.H.G. sahs.) An instrument used by slaters for cutting and dressing slates; a kind of hatchet with a sharp point on the poll for perforating the Blate to receive the nail.

Zayat (za'yat), n. ■ In Burmah, a public alied or portico for the accommodation of travellers, loungers, and worshippers, found in every Burmese village and attached to many pagodas. H. Yule.

Z-crank (zed'krangk), n. A peculiarlyshaped crank in the cylinder of some marine steam-engines, so named from its zigzag form. Simmonds.

Zea (ze'a), n. (Gr. zea, zeia, a sort of grain used as fodder for horses. ] The generic name of maize. Two species only of Zea are known, viz. Z. Mays and /. Caragua. See Maize.

Zeal (zel). n. [Fr. zide, from L. zelus, Gr. zilos, zeal, from Btem of zed, to boil, which is akin to E. yeast. See also Jealous.]

1. Passionate ardour in the pursuit of anything; intense and eager interest or endeavour; an eagerness of desire to accomplish or obtain some object, and it may be manifested either in favour of any person or thing, or in opposition to it, and jn a good or bad cause; earnestness; fervency; enthusiasm.

They have


Let not my cold words here accuse my seat. ShaJb.

I-or virtue's self may too much zeal be had;

The worst of madmen is a saint run mad. Pope.

2.t A zealot. B. Jonson. Zealt (zel), v.t. To entertain zeal; to be


Stiff followers, such as zeal marvellously for those whom they have chosen for their masters. Bacon.

Zealantt (zel'ant), n. A zealot; an enthusiast.

To certain sealants all speech of pacification is odious. Bacon.

Zealedt (zeld), a. Filled with zeal; characterized by zeal. 'Zealed religion.' Beau. & Fl

Zealful (zcl'ful), o. Full of zeal; zealous. 'Zealfull knowledge of the truth divine." Sylvester.

ZeaUess(zeTles),a. Wantingzeal. Bp.Hall.

Zealot (zel'ot), n. [Fr. ztlote, L. zelotes. from Gr. ztlotfis. See Zeal.] 1. One who is zealous or full of zeal; one carried away by excess of zeal; a fanatical partisan. It is generally used in dispraise, or applied to one whose ardour is intemperate and censurable.

For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight.

His can't be wrong whose life is in the right. Pope.

2. One of a fanatical Jewish sect which struggled desperately against the Romans from about 6 AD. till the fall of Jerusalem.

Zealotical ( ze - lot' ik - al), a. Ardently zealous. Strype. [Rare]

Zealotism (zel'ot-izm). n. The character or conduct of a zealot. Gray

Zealotist (zel'ot-ist), n. A zealot; an enthusiast. Howell.

Zealotry (zel'ot-ri), n. Behaviour of a zealot: excessive or undue zeal; fanaticism. * Inquisitorial cruelty and party zealotry.' Coleridge.

Zealous (zel'us), a. [From zeal. Jealous is really the same word.] 1. Inspired with zeal; warmly engaged or ardent in the pursuit of an object; fervent; eager; earnest: rarely in a bad sense.

If zealous love should go in search of virtue.
Where should he find it purer? ShaJk.

The learned and pious Hishnp of Alexandria. Dionysius, wrote to the zealous and factious Presbyter Novatus. Bf. Gauden.

Being thus saved hiinsolf, hi may be zealous in the salvation of souls. Law.

21 Full of religious or pious zeal; religious; pious. Shak. Zealously (zel'us-H), adv. 1. In a zealous manner; with passionate ardour; with eagerness.

It is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing. Gal. iv. 18.

2. t Religiously; with religious or pious zeal.

Milton. Zealousness (zel'us-nes), n. The quality of

being zealous; zeal. Zebec, Zebeck (ze'bek), n. Same as Xebec. Zebra (ze'bra), n. [Anative African word.]

A pachydermatous, solidungulate mammal,

the Equus or Asinus zebra, a quadruped of

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Zebra \Eqnus zebra).

The zebras graze in herds on the steep hillside, and seek the wildest and most sequestered spots, so that they are extremely difficult of approach, not only from their watchful habits and great swiftness of foot, but also from the inaccessible nature of their abodes. The zebra is one of the handsomest, and also one of the wildest and least tractable of animals. Only in a few instances has it been domesticated, for it always retains iu vicious, obstinate, and fickle nature. The name zebra is sometimes applied to the quagga and the dauw or Buruhell s zebra; but they differ from the zebra in having"Do stripes on the lower limbs, while those ou the body are not so black as the true zebra. The zebra is said to be becoming nearly extinct. See Dauw, Quagga.

Zebra-opossum (ze'bra-6-pos"sumX n. Same as Zebra-wolf.

Zebra-plant (zebra-plant), n. The Colathea zebrina, so called from the alternate dark-coloured and green stripes on its leaves.

Zebra-WOlf (zeT^ra-wulf), n. See ThylaCine.

Zebra - wood ( ze' bra - wud), n. A kind of wood imported from South America used by cabinet-makers, produced by the Qmphalobium Lamberti, belonging to the nat. order Connaraceas. Its colours consist of brown on a white ground, clouded with black, and each strongly contrasted, and somewhat resembling the skin of a zebra. It is used in the manufacture of furniture Called also Pigeon-wood.

Zebrine (ze'brln), a. Pertaining to the zebra; resembling the zebra; striped somewhat like the zebra. Darwin.

Zebu (ze'bu), n. [The native Indian name.] A ruminant of the ox tribe, the Taurus indietis or Bos indicus. This quadruped differs from the common ox in having one, or


Zebu (Taurus indicus).

more rarely two, humps of fat on the shoulders, and in having eighteen caudal vertebrae instead of twenty-one. It varies in six? from a large mastiff dog to a full-grown European bull. It is found extensively io India, and also in China and northern Africa. It is often called the Indian Butt or Ox and Cow. The zebus are used as bensts of burden, and their flesh is uaeii as an article of food, especially the hump, which is esteemed as a great delicacy. To this stock belong the Brahinan bulls or sacred bulls of Siva

Zechariah (zek-a-ri'a), n The name of on* of the books of the Bible, the work of one of the twelve minor prophets. Little is known of his history, and the obscurity of his style has much embarrassed the commentators on this book.

Zechln (zek'in), n. [It zecchino, Fr. w^uui See Seocin.] A Venetian gold coin, worth

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about 9s. id sterling. Usually written Sequin (which see).

Zecnstein (zek'stin or tsech'sttn), n. [G., from zechf. a mine, and stein, stone.] In geol. a Germ in limestone, the equivalent of the English Permian or magnesian limestone. It lies immediately under the red sandstone and above the marl slate of the magnesian limestone formation.

Zed (zed). The name of the letter Z 'Zed, thou unnecessary letter.' Shak. Provincially called also lizard.

Zedoary (zed'6-a-ri), n. [Fr. zidoaire, Sp. and Pg. zedoaria, Ar. and Pers. udwitr, jtdwar, zedoary.] The name given to the root-stocks of certaiu plants of the genus Curcuma. They are aromatic, bitter, pungent, and tonic, and are used for similar purposes as ginger. Bound zedoary is the produce of C. Zedoaria, and long zedoary of C. Zerumbet, natives of India and China.

Zee-koe (za'ko), n. [D., lit sea (or lake) cow.] The name given by the Dutch colonists of South Africa to the hippopotamus.

Zein, Zeine (ze'in, ze'in), n. {From zea (which see).] The gluten of maize, a substance of a yellowish colour, soft, insipid, and elastic, procured from the seeds of Zea Mays or Indian corn. It is said to differ essentially from the gluten of wheat.

Zel (zel), n. An Eastern instrument of music of the cymbal kind.

Where, some hours since, was heard the swell

Of trumpet and the clash of zel.

Bidding the bright-eyed sun farewell. Moore.

Zelousie t (zel'us-i), n. Jealousy. 'The zetousie and the eagre feersenes of olimuias.' J. UdaU.

Zemindar (zem-in-darO, n. [Per. zemtnddr, a landholder —zemin, land, and ddr, holding, a holder.] In India, one of a class of officials created under the Mogul government of India. They have been regarded, first, as district governors, second, as landed proprietors, and third, as farmers or collectors of the government revenue on land. Their functions appear to have been to a great extent arbitrary and variable, but founded on and arising out of the last-named office. At the present day, in Bengal, the zemindar has all the rights of a British km.led proprietor, subject to the payment of the landtax, and also to a certain ill-denned tenantright on the part of tenants who have long held possession of their farms. Spelled also Zammdar.

Zemindary, Zemlndaree (zem'in-da-ri, zem'iu da-re), n. The office or jurisdiction of a zemindar; the land possessed by a zemindar.

Zenana (ze-na'na), n. [Per. zenanah, belonging to women, from zen, woman. ] The name given to the portion of a house reserved exclusively for the females belonging to a family of good caste in India.

Zend(zend),n. [From Zend in Zend-Areata (which see).] 1. Au ancient Iranian language, in which are composed the sacred writingsof the Zoroastrians. It is a member of the Aryan family of languages, and very closely allied to Sanskrit, especially the Sanskrit of the Vedas, by means of which, and by the help of comparative philology, it has been deciphered. Called also A vestan. 2. A contracted name for the Zend-Avesta or sacred writings of Zoroaster.

Zend-Avesta (zend-a-ves'ta), n. [Tills name seems to mean 'commentary-text,' or authorized text and commentary. The first portion of the name is now usually applied to the language in which the early portion of the work is written.] The collective name for the sacred writings of the Guebers or Parsees, ascril>ed to Zoroaster, and reverenced as a bible or sole rule of faith and practice. It consists of several divisions, of which the oldest is written in the primitive Zend language. It is often called the A vesta.

Zendlk (zen'dik), n. [Ar., an infidel, an atheistJ This name is given in the East not only to disbelievers in revealed religion, but also to such as are accused of magical heresy.

Zenlk (ze'nik), n. An African quadruped, the suricate or four-toed weasel. See 8URICATK.

Zenith (ze'nith). n. [Fr. zenith, from Sp. unit, zenith, a corruption of Ar samt, stmt, abbreviated for sainturrat, semt-er-ras, way of the head, zenith, saint Immiik a way. Akin azimut h] 1. The vertical point of the heavens at any place, or point right above a spectator's head; the upper pole of the ce

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lestial horizon* that point in the visible celestial hemisphere which is vertical to the spectator, and from which a line drawn perpendicular to the plane of the horizon would, if produced, pass through the earth's centre, supposing the earth a perfect sphere. Each point on the surface of the earth has therefore its

corresponding zenith. The opposite pole of the celestial horizon is termed the nadir, and a vertical line or plane will, if produced, pass through the zenith and nadir, the spectator^ place being considered as the centre of the celestial sphere. —2. The highest point of a person's fortune, or the highest or culminating point of any subject referred to.

By my prescience
I find my zenith doth depend upon
A most auspicious star. Shak.

—Zenith distance. The zenith distance of a heavenly body is the arc intercepted between the body and the zenith, being the same as the co-altitude of the body.— Zenith sector,an astronomical instrument for measuring with great accuracy the zenith distances of stars which pass near the zenith. It is also used in trigonometrical surveys for determining the difference of latitude of two stations by observing the difference of the zenith distances of the same Btar at the two stations as it passes the meridian. It consists essentially, as its name implies, of a portion of a divided circle. See Sector.—Zenith telescope, a geodetical instrument, having adjustments in altitude and azimuth, a graduated vertical semicircle, a level, and a micrometer: used for measuring the differeuce of the zenith distances of two stars as a means of determining the latitude, the stars being such as pass the meridian about the same time, but on opposite sides of the zenith.

Zenithal (ze'nith-al), a. Of or pertaining to the zenith. 'The deep zenithal blue.' Tyndall.

Zeolite (ze'6-lit), n. [Gr. ud, to boil, to foam, and lithos, stone: so named originally by Cronstedt from their boiling and swelling when heated by the blow-pipe.] A generic name of hydra ted double silicates in which the principal bases are aluminium and calcium. Zeolites frequently contain iron, magnesium, and alkalies. Zeolites intumeBce before the blow-pipe. They are decomposed by acids, yielding silica. Among them are analcime, apophyllite, harmotome, stilbite.&c.

ZeolitiC (ze-6-lifik), a. Pertaining to zeolite; consisting of zeolite or resembling it.

Zeolitiform (ze-6-lit'i-form), a. Having the form of zeolite.*

Zephanlah (zef-a-ni'a), n. The name of one of the books of the Bible, the work of one of the miuor prophets. The author lived in the reign of Josiah, in the seventh century B.C. The subjects of his prophecy are the temporary desolation of Judea, the destruction of the Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites, Assyrians, Ac, and the promise that God will leave a righteous remnant in Urael.

Zephyr, ZepnyruB (zef'er, zef'i-rus), n. [L. zephyrus, from Gr. zephyros, allied to zophos, darkness, gloom, the west] The west wind; and poetically, any soft, mild, gentle breeze. The poets personify Zephyrus, and make him the most mild and gentle of all the sylvan deities.

As gentle
As zephyrs blowing below the violet.
Not wagging hi* sweet head. Shak.

Mild as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes. Milton.

Zerda(zer'da),n. [African.] A beautiful little animal of the genus Megalotis,family Canidw.

firincipally found in northern Africa; the ennec. See MEGAI.OTIS. Zero (ze'ro), n. (Fr. zero. It. and Sp. zero, from Ar. sifr, a cipher, by contracting such forms as ze/ro, zjfro; really therefore the same word as cipher.) 1. No numl>er or quantity; number or quantity diminished to nothing; a cipher; nothing.

As to ntiml^r they (the teeth of fishes) r.inge from zero to countless quantities. Owen.

2. In physics, any convenient point with reference to which quantitatively estimable phenomena of the same kind are compared; the point of a graduated instrument at which its scale commences; the neutral point between any ascending and descending scale or series, geuerally represented by the mark 0. In thermometers the zero of the Centigrade and Reaumur scales is the freezingpoint of water; in Fahrenheit's scale, 32° below the freezing-point of water. The zero of Wedgwood's pyrometer corresponds with 1077s Fahr.— Absolute uro, 273* C, at which temperature any given body is supposed to contain no heat. In elect, an object is said to be at uro potential when it is in contact with and is at the same potential as the earth.— Zero point, the point indicating the commencement of any scale or reckoning.

Zest (zest), n. [Fr. zeste, a kind of partition in a walnut, the peel of an orange or lemon; from L. schistus, Gr. schistos, split, divided, from schizO, to split or divide (whence also schiem). ] 1, A piece of orange or lemou peel, used to give flavour to liquor, or the fine thin oil that spurts out of it when squeezed; also, the woody thick skin quartering the kernel of a walnut.—2. Something that gives a pleasant taste; that which serves to enhance enjoyment; hence, a pleasant taste; that quality which makes a thing enjoyable; relish.

Liberality of disposition and conduct gives the highest zest and relish to social intercourse. Cogau.

3. Relish or keenness of pleasure experienced; keen enjoyment; gusto.

They joined and partook of the rude fare with the zest of fatigue and youth. Lord Lytton.

Zest (zest), v.t. 1. To add a zest or relish to.

My Lord, when my wine's right I never care it should be zested. Cihter.

2. To cut, as the peel of an orange or lemon from top to bottom into thin slips, or to squeeze, as peel over the surface of anything.

Zeta (zS'ta), n. [L. uta, for di&ta, a chamber, a dwelling, from Gr. diatta, a way of living, mode of life, dwelling] A little closet or chamber. Applied by some writers to the room over the porch of a Christian church where the sexton or porter resided and kept the church documents. Britton.

Zetetic (ze-tet'ik), a. [Gr. zfitettieos, from zeted, to seek.] Proceeding by inquiry; seeking.— Theze teticwethod. in math, the method used in endeavouring to discover the value of unknown quantities or to find the solution of a problem. [Rare. ]

Zetetic (ze-tet'ik), n. A seeker; a name adopted by some of the Pyrrhonists.

Zetetics (ze-tet'iks), n. A name given to that part of algebra which consists in the direct search after unknown quantities. [Rare.]

Zeticula (z€-tik'u-la), » [A dim. of uta (which see).] A small withdrawing-room.

Zeuglodon (zu'glo-don), n. [Gr. zeugli, the strap or loop of a yoke, and odoug, odontos, a tooth, lit. yoke-tooOt: so called from the peculiar form of its molar teeth.] An extinct genus of marine mammals, regarded by Huxley as intermediate between the true cetaceans and the carnivorous seals. The species had an elongated snout, conical incisors, and molar teeth with triangular serrated crowns, implanted in the jaws by two roots, each molar appearing to be formed of two separate teeth united at the crown (whence the generic name). They belong to the eocene and miocene, the best known species being Z. cetoides of the middle eocene of the Tinted States, which attained a length of 70 feet. The first found remains were believed to be those of a reptile, and the name Basilosaurus was therefore given to them.

Zeuglodontidaa (zu-glo-don'ti-de). n pi. An extinct family of cetaceans, of which Zeuglodon is the type.

Zeugma (zug'ma), n. [Gr. zeugma, from zeugnymi, to join. See YOKE. J A figure in grammar in which two nouns are joined to a verb suitable to only one of them, but suggesting another verb suitable to the other noun; or in which an adjective is similarly used with two nouns.

Zeugrnatic (zug-mat'ik), a. Of or pertaining to the figure of speech zeugma.

Zeus (zus), u. 1. In myth, the supreme divinity among the Greeks; the ruler of the other gods: geuerally treated as the equivalent of the Roman Jupiter. See Jcpitkr.— 2. A genus of acanthopterygious fUhes, re

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