Imágenes de páginas


markable fur their rouudish or oval compressed form. To this genus belongs the Kpeciescalled doree, dory, and John Dory {/.. Faber). See Dorek.

Ziuxtte (ziiks'U). n. A zeolitic mineral found in Cornwall.

Zibet, Zlbeth (zib'et). n. [See Civet] A digitigrade carnivorous mammal belonging to tlte genus Viverra, the V. zibetha, and bearing a close resemblance to the civetcat. It is found on the Asiatic coast, and in some of the larger islands of the Indian Archipelago. It secretes an odoriferous substance which resembles that of the civet, and is perhaps equally prized. It is often tamed by the natives of the countries where it is found, and it inhabits the houses like a domestic cat.

Zibethum(zi-be'tum), n. A name given to theuuctuous odoriferous substance secreted by the zibet.

Ziega (ze'ga), n. Curd produced from milk by adding acetic acid, after rennet has ceased to cause coagulation. Brande <f- Cox.

Zif (zif), it The second month of the Jewish sacred year, and the eighth of the civil, answering to part of our April and May. 1 K i. vl l.

ZtfflUBt (zif'i-us), n. Probably for Xiphias, the sword-fish. 'Huge zifius whom mariners eschew.' Spenser.

Zigzag (zig'zag), n. [ft. zigzag, from G. ztck-zack, perhaps reduplicated from zacke, a tooth or sharp prong or point, a dentil.] 1. Something that has short sharp turns or angles, as a Tine. 'Cracks and zigzags of the head.' Pope —2. In fort a trench of approach against a fortress, so constructed that the line of trench may not be enfiladed by the defenders. — 3 In arch, a zigzag moulding; a chevron or dancette.

Zigzag (zig'zag), a. Having sharp and quick turns or flexures. 'By zig-zag paths, and juts of pointed rock.' Tenny ton, Zigzag Moulding, inarch, see Chevron.dancette.

Zigzag (zig'zag), ivr To form with short turns or angles. T. Warton.

Zigzag (zig'zag), 9.4. To move or advance in a zigzag fashion; to form zigzags; as, the path zigzag*.

Zigzaggery (zig-zag'er-i), n. The quality of Iwing zigzag; crookedness. 'The zigzaggery of my father's approaches/ Sterne. [Rare.]

Zigzaggy (zig'zag-!), a. Having sharp and quick turns; zigzag. * The zigzaggy pattern by Saxons invented.' H. B. Barham.

Zlllah (zil'lo), n. In Hindustan, a local division of a country; a shire or county.

Zimb i/inn. it [Ar. zimb.a fly.] A dipterous insect of Abyssinia, resembling the tsetse of the more southern parts of Africa, to whose


Zimb, from Unices Travels.

family it probably belongs, in being very destructive to cattle. It is somewhat larger than a bee, and thicker in proportion.

Ziment-water (zlm'entwa-ter), n. [Q. cementwasser, lit. cement or cementation water; comp. cementkupfer, copper deposited in water.] A name given to water found in copper mines; water impregnated with copper.

Ziraome (zi'mom). See Zyhomk.

Zinc (zingk), n. [Fr. zinc. G. Sw. and Dan. zink; allied to G. zinn, tin] Sym. Zn. At. wt. 65. A metal frequently called spelter in commerce. It has a strong metallic lustre and a bluish-white colour. Its texture is lametlated and crystalline, and its specific gravity about 7. It is a hard metal, being acted on by the file with difficulty, and its toughness is such as to require considerable force to break it when the mass is large. At low or high degrees of heat it Is brittle, but between 250* and 300' F. it is both malleable and ductile, and may be rolled or hammered into sheets of considerable thinness and drawn into wire. Its malleability is considerably diminished by the impurities which the zinc of commerce contains. It fuses at 773" F., and when Blowly cooled crystallizes in four- or six-sided prisms. Zmc undergoes little change by the action of air and moisture. When fused in open vessels it absorbs oxygen and forms the


white oxide called flowers of zinc. Heated strongly in air it takes Are and bums with a beautiful white light, formiug oxide of zinc. Zinc is found in considerable abundance. It does not occur in the native state, but is obtained from its ores, which are chiefly the sulphide, or zinc-blende, and the carbonate or calamine. The oxide of zinc (ZnO) is a flue white powder insoluble in water, but very soluble in acids, which it neutralizes, being a very powerful base, of the same class as magnesia. It combines also with some of the alkalies. Zinc forms a series of compounds with organic radicles, such as zinc methyl, Zn(<' II;v,;.u< I zinc ethyl, /ii(i'.11 >_. Several of the Baits of zinc are employed in medicine, as the sulphate or white vitriol (ZnS04), the chloride or butter of zinc (/.ni 'lj), the acetate and the cyanide. Sheet-zinc is largely employed for lining water cisterns, baths. &c., for making spouts, pipes, for covering roofs, and several other architectural purposes. Plates of this metal are used as generators of electricity in voltaic batteries, Ac.; they ore also employed in the production of pictures, <fcc, in the style of woodcuts. (See Zincography.) Zinc is much employed in the manufacture of brass and other alloys, and in preparing galvanized iron. See Galvanized.

ZlllC (zingk). v.t. To coat or cover with zinc. See Galvanized.

Zinc-axnyl (zingk'am-il), n. A colourless, transparent liquid, composed of zinc and amyl. When exposed to the air it absorbs oxygen rapidly, emitting fumes, but does not take fire spontaneously.

Zinc-blende (zingk'blend), n. Native sulphide of zinc, a brittle transparent or translucent mineral, consisting essentially of sulphur and zinc, but often containing a considerable proportion of iron. It occurs crystallized, massive, or in other forms, and of various colours, but usually yellowish, red, brown, or black. Called also simply Blende.

Zinc-bloom (ziugk'bltim), n. A mineral substance of the same composition as calamine.

Zinc-ethyl (zingk'e-thil). n. (JUtdOJSM A colourless volatile liquid composed of zinc and the radicle ethyl. It has powerful affinities for oxygen, igniting spontaneously on exposure to air. It is formed by heating zinc with iodide of ethyl under pressure. Brande if- Cox.

Zinciferous (zing-klf'er-us), a. [Zinc, and L. fero, to bear.] Producing zinc; as, zinciferous ore.

Zlnclte (zingklt). n, In viineral. a native ferriferous oxide of zinc, found at Franklin and Stirling-Hill in New Jersey. It is brittle, translucent, of a deep red colour, sometimes Inclining to yellowish. It owes its colour to the presence of a small quantity of oxide of manganese.

Zlncky (zingk'i), a. Pertaining to zinc; containing zinc; having the appearance of zinc. Written also Zinky.

The ti'icky ores are said to be grayer than other ores, Kir-wan.

Zinc-methyl (zingk'meth-iT), n. (Zn(CH,)j.) A volatile liquid of very fetid smell and with poisonous vapours. It takes Are spontaneously on exposure to the atmosphere. Called also Zinc-methide.

Zincode (zingk'od), n [Zinc, and Gr. hodos, a way.] The positive pole of a galvanic battery.

Zlncographer (zing-kogVafer), n. One who practises zincography.

Zincographic, Zincbgranhical (zing-kograf'ik, zmg-kd-graf'ik-al), a. Relating to zincography.

Zincography (zing-kog'ra-fi), ft, [Zinc, and Gr. graphd, to write.] An art in its essential features similar to lithography, the stone printing-surface of the latter being replaced by that of a plate of polished zinc. A form of this art called anastatic printing is described under Anastatic.

Zincold (zingk'oid). a. [Zinc, and Gr. eidos, likeness.] Resembling zinc; pertaining to zinc; a term applied to the zincous plate which is in connection with a copper plate in a voltaic circle, and denoting the positive pole or zincode; the chlorous plate which is in connection with a zinc plate being termed the chloroid plate, or negative pole.

Zlncolysis (zing-koll-sis), n. [Zinc, and Gr. Iy6, to decompose] A term in etectro-chem. equivalent to Electrolysis, denoting a mode of decomposition occasioned by the induc


tive action of the affinities of zinc, or the positive metal.

Zincolyte (zingk'ol-it), n. [See above.] A term equivalent to Electrolyte, denoting a body decomposable by electricity, the decomposition being occasioned by the action of zinc, or the positive metal Zinco-polar (zingk'6-pdl-er), a. In galr. a term applied to the surface of the zinc, in a battery, presented to the acid. Hoblyn. Zlncou.8 (zingk'us), a. Pertaining to zinc, or to the positive pole of a voltaic battery. —Zincous element, the basic or primary element of a binary compound —Zincous vole, that pole of a particle of zinc, or of hydrochloric acid, which has the attraction or affinity which is characteristic of zinc, or the zincous attraction. Zinc-vitriol (zingk'vit-riolX n. In ehem. sulphate of zinc; white vitriol (ZnSOA Zinc-white (zingk'whlt), n. Oxide of zinc, a pigment now largely substituted for whitelead as being more permanent and not poison Oub. Zingel (tsing'el), n. [G.] A teleostean flsti of the genus Aspro, closely allied to the perch family. The body is very elongated in form, reaching in one of the species t .1. zingel of the Danube and its tributaries) a length of 12 to 15 inches. The mouth is situated under a rounded and projecting snout, the scales are remarkably rough, the dorsal fins are widely separated, and the ventral fins are large. The only other species (A. vulgaris), abundantly found in the Rhine, the Rhone, and their tributaries, is a much smaller fish. Both axe considered very palatable.

Zinghot (zing'go), n. Same as Zinc. Walpote. Zlnglan (zin'ji-an), a. In phUol, a name sometimes given to the South African family of tongues: called also Bantu and Chuana, One peculiarity of this family, especially of the Kafir branch, is the use of clucks or clicks in speaking. See Cluck. ZinglberaceouB (zm'ji-ber-a"Bhus). a. Of or pertaining to ginger, or to the Zingiberaccct. Written also Zinziberaceous. Zinkenite (zingk'eu-It). n. [After a German director of mines of the name of Zinken.] A steel-gray ore of antimony and lead. Zinky (zmk'i), a. See Zinckt. Zinziber. Zingiber (zin'zi-ber, zin'ji-ber\ n. [L. zingiber, zinziber, ginger.] A genus of plants, nat. order Zinziberaceee. The species are natives of hot climates, and are widely cultivated in both the East and West Indus, as well as in China and Africa. The most important is Z. officinalis, the rhizome of which is the well-known ginger of the shops. See Ginger.

Zlnzlberacea, Zinglberacea (zin'zi-Wr

iV'se-e, zin'jt-ber-a"se-e), n. pi A nat. order of

plants, of which the genus Zinziber is the

type. The species are all tropical plants or

_ nearly so, the greater number inhabiting

'various parts of the East Indies. They are

generally objects of great beauty, on account

of the development of their floral envelopes

and the rich colours of their bracts; bat

they are chiefly valued for the sake of the

aromatic and stimulating properties of the

rhizome or root, such as are found in ginger.

galangal, zedoary, cardamoms, &c

ZinzlberaceouB(ziu'zi-ber-a"shus), a. Same

as Ziiigiberaceous.

Zion (zl'on), n. 1. A mount or eminence in Jerusalem, the royal residence of ] >«v i<1 and his successors. Hence —2. The theocracy or church of God.

Let Zion and her sons rejoice. WatU.

Ziphius (/if i n-0. n. A genus of cetaceans belonging to the family Rh> nchoceti, closely allied to the sperm-whales. See Rhtxcbo


Zircon (zer'konX n. [Cingalese] (ZrSoO,) A mineral originally found In Ceylon, in the sands of rivers, along with spinel, sapphire, tourmalin, and Iron sand. Zircon, hyacinth, and zirconitc are regarded as varieties of the same species. They are essentially silicates of zirconium, generally containing minute portions of iron. The primitive form of the crystals is an octahedron, composed of two four-sided prisms. The common form is a rectangular four-sided prism. Called sometimes Jargon,

Zlrconla (zer-ko'nia), n. (ZrO*.) A u oxide of the zirconium, discovered by Klaproth in the year 1789 in the zircon of Ceylon, and subsequently in the hyacinth of }.\j ,u Ij in France. It resembles alumina in appeor auce. It is so hard as to scratch glass.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

When pure it is a white powder. It forma Bitl ts with acids.—Z tram ia light, an intensely brilliant light, differing from the oxyhydrogeu or lime light only in that it is produced from zircon coneB acted on by oxygen and a highly carburetted gas. In place of the less durable lime balls of the other process.

Zlrconic (zer-kon'ik), a. Of, pertaining to, or containing zirconium.

Zirconite (zer'kon-It), it, A variety of the zircon.

Zirconium (zer-k&'ui-um), n. 8ym. Zr. At wt. 896. The metal contained in zirconia. Berzelius first obtained zirconium in 1824; but Davy had previously rendered its existence quite probable. It is commonly obtained in the form of a black powder, but it is also known in the crystalline state, forming blackish-gray highly lustrous lamina1, having a specific gravity of 4*15. Zirconium forms a chloride ZrCl4, and an oxide ZrOj, commonly known as zirconia. It exists in a few rare minerals, notably in zircon or hyacinth, which is a silicate of zirconium. It appears to form a link between aluminium and silicon.

Zither, Zlthern (tsit'er, tsit'ern), n. [G., from L. eithara. SeeClTHARA] A stringed musical instrument consisting of a sounding-box pierced with a large circular soundhole near the middle, the strings, to the number of thirty-one in the more perfect forms of the instrument, being made of steel, brass, catgut, and silk covered with fine silver or copper wire, and tuned by pegs at one end. Five of the strings are stretched over a fretted keyboard, and are


Elsgie Zither.

used for playing the melody, the fingers of the left hand stopping the Btrings on the frets, the right-hand thumb armed with a metal ring. Btrlking the strings. These strings, which are tuned in fifths, have a chromatic range from C in the second space of the bass stall to D on the sixth ledgerline above the treble. All the remaining strings, called the accompanying strings, are struck by the first three fingers of the right hand, and being unBtopped produce only the single tone to which tney are tuned. The instrument while being played rests on a table with the keyboard side nearest the performer. Tyrol seems to be the native country of this instrument.

Zlzanift (zi-za'ui-a), n, [Or. zizanion, darnel.) A genus of grasses, the best-known species of which is Z. aquatica, the Canadian wild rice. It is common in all the waters of North America from Canada to Florida, where it is known also by the name of Tusearora. The seeds afford a nutritious article of diet to the wandering tribes of North-west America. It was introduced into this country in 1793 by Sir Joseph Banks.

Zizel (zi'zel), n. Same as Suslik.

Zizyphus (zi'zi-fus). n. [From zizouf, the Arabic name of the lotus.] A genus of plants, nat order Rhamnacea?. The species are shrubs with alternate leaves, spiny sti pules, and mucilaginous fruit, which is edible. Z. vulgaris, or common jujube, is a native of Syria, and is now cultivated in many parts of Europe. In Spain and Italy the fruit is eaten as a dessert, and in the winter season as a dry sweetmeat Z. Lotus is a native of southern Europe and northern Africa. (See Lotus.) There are numerous other species.

Zoadulae (zo-ad'u-leX ft pi In hot. the locomotive spores of some Confervas.

Zoantharia(zo-an-tha'ri-a), n.pi [Or. zoon, a living animal, and anthos, a flower.] The helianthoid polyps or 'animal flowers,* constituting the first order of the class Actinozoa, characterized by the disposition of their soft parts in multiples of five or six, and by the possession of simple, usually numerous tentacles. They have their name

from their resemblance to flowers, are more or less elongated, and very contractile. They are divided into three sub-orders— Zoantharia Malacodermata, in which the corallum is absent or very rudimentary, Z. Scle.robasica, in which it is sclerobasic, and Z. Sclerodermata, in which it is sclerodermic. (See Sclerobasic, Sclerodermic.) Eminent zoologists have questioned the validity of the distinction between sclerobasic and sclerodermic corals.

Zoanthidse (zo-an'thi-de). n. pi A family of polyps of the order Zoantharia, and suborder Z. Malacodermata. These polyps form colonies united by a fleshy or coriaceous cocnosarc in the shape of a cruBt or of creeping roots, and they have no power of locomotion. The ccenosarc is sometimes found strengthened by imbedded spicules, adventitious grains of sand, and otlier foreign substances.

Zoanthropy (z&an'thro-pi), n. (Gr. zoon, an animal, &ndanthropos, man ] In pathol. a species of monomaniacal delusion, in which the patient believes himself to be transformed into a beast.

ZobO (zo'bo), n. A hybrid between the common Hindu ox and the yak, and in appearance not unlike the English ox. It is reared in the western parts of the Himalaya, where it is employed as a beast of burden, and its flesh and milk form important articles of food.

Zocco (zok'ko), A, A zocle or socle

Zocle, Zoccolo (zo'kl, zok'k&ld), ft. [It zoccoto; from I. soccus, a sock.] A square body under the base of a pedestal, (fee., serving for the support of a bust, statue, or column. Written alio Zocco, Socle. See Socle.

Zodiac (zd'di-ak), n. [Fr. zodiaque, L. zodiacus, the zodiac, from Gr. zodiakos (kyklos, circle, understood), from z&dion, dim. of zOon, an auimaL] 1. An imaginary belt or zone in the heavens, extending about 8" on each side of the ecliptic. It is divided into twelve equal parts called signs. (See SIGN.) It was marked out by the ancients as distinct from the rest of the heavens because the apparent places of the sun, moon, and the planets known to them were always within it. This, however, is not true of all the newly discovered planets.—2. A girdle; a belt; a zone. [Rare and poetical.]

By his side
As in a glistering tsdiac, hung his sword. Mitten

Zodiacal (zo-di'ak-al), a. Pertaining to the zodiac; as, zodiacal signs; zodiacal planets. Zodiacal light, a luminous tract of an elongated triangular figure, lying nearly in the ecliptic, its base being on the horizon, and Its apex at varying altitudes, seen at certain seasons of the year either in the west after suuset or in the east before Bunrise. It appears with greatest brilliance within the tropics, where it sometimes rivals the Milky Way. Its nature is unknown, the most plausible hypothesis, supported by many of our most eminent modern astronomers, being that it is the glow from a cloud of meteors revolving round the sun.

Zoea (zS'e-a), n, The name given by Bosc to the larva? of decapod crustaceans, under the impression that they were adults constituting a distinct genus. The mistake was due to the fact that the young decapod leaves the egg in a form very different from that I of the full-grown animal, this stage of the animal's existence being now known as the zoea-stage.

Zoetrope (z6'e-tr6p), n. [Gr. zdf, life, and trope, a turning, from trepo, to turn.] A toy for children, consisting of an optical instrument, which exhibits pictures as if alive and in action, depending like the thaumatrope on the persistence of vision. It consists of a cylinder, open at the top, with a series of slits in its circumference, through which a person applying his eye to them can see the interior. A series of pictures representing the different attitudes successively assumed by an object in performing any act from its beginning to its close, as by a horseman in leaping a gate, an acrobat performing a somersault, and the like, is arranged along the interior circumference. The instrument is then set in rapid motion, and the person looking through sees the horseman, Ac, as if endowed with life and activity, performing the act proper to his character.

Zohar (zo*har). n. [Heb ] A Jewish book of cabalistic commentaries on Scripture, and highly esteemed by the rabbis.

Zoilean (zo-i-le'an), a. [See Zoilish] Relating to Zoilus, a severe critic; hence, a term applied to bitter, severe, or malignant criticism or critics.

Zoillsm (zd'il-izm), u. [After Zoilus, a sophist and grammarian of Amphipolis, who criticised Homer, Plato, and Isocrates with exceeding severity.] Illiberal or carping criticism; unjust censure.

Bring candid eyes unto the perusal of men's works, | and let not zoilism or detraction blast any well-intended labours. Sir T. Brewnt.

Zoisite (zoisTt), n. [From Van Zois, its discoverer.] A mineral regarded as a variety of epidote. It occurs in deeply striated rhomboidal prisms, much compressed and rounded; its colours gray, yellowish or bluish

! gray, brown, grayish yellow, or reddish white. Zollverein (tsol'ver-In), n, [ G. zoll, toll, custom, duty, and verein, union or association.] The German commercial or customs

, union, founded about the year 1818, and afterwards greatly extended through the

I example and efforts of the government of Prussia. Its principal object was the estab

i lishraent of a uniform rate of customs duties throughout the various states joining the union. The territories of the Zollverein now coincide with those of the new German Empire (with the notable exceptions of Hamburg and Bremen), and include Luxemburg.

Zomboruk (zom'bo-ruk), n, Same as Zumboaruk.

A section of some eighteen or twenty camels . . . with xomboruks, or swivel guns, mounted on their backs, and an artilleryman or two to each.

W. H. RusttU.

Zonal (/'viiili), a. Having the character of a zone, belt, or stripe.

Zoiiar (zd'nar), n. [Gr. zdnarion, dim. of zone, a girdle.] A belt or girdle which native Christians and Jews in the East were obliged to wear to distinguish them from the Mohani med ans.

Zonate (zon'at), a. In hot marked with zones or concentric bands of colour.

Zone (zon), 7i. [L. zona, a belt or girdle, a zone of the earth, from Gr. zoni, a girdle, from zOnnymi, to gird.] 1. A girdle or belt

An embroider'd xont surrounds her waist Drydtn,

Hence—2. Any well-marked band or stripe running round an object—3 t Circuit; circumference. Milton— 4. In geog. one of the five great divisions of the earth, bounded by circles parallel to the equator, and named according to the temperature prevailing in each. The zones are: the torrid zone, extending from tropic to tropic, or 23$* north and 23}* south of the equator; two temperate zones, situated between the tropics and polar circles, or extending from the parallel of 234* to that of 66}* north and south, and therefore called the north temperate and the south temperate zone respectively; and


two frigid zones, situated between the polar circles and the north and south poles — 5. In nat. hist any well-defined belt within which certain forms of plant or animal life are confined; as the different belts of vegetation which occur in mountains and the like; specifically, one of the five belts or regions into which naturalists divided the sea-bottom in accordance with the depth of water covering each, this being BUpposed to determine its fauna and flora. They were called respectively littoral, circumlittoral, median, inframedian, and abyssal. Subsequent researches, notably those of the Challenger, have demonstrated that the assumed facts were to a great extent erroneous, organisms supposed to be'confined to the littoral zone having been found at the greatest

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

depths.—0 In math a part of the surface of a sphere included baVND fcwo parallel planes. — Ciliary zone, in MOt Die black impression of the ciliary processes on the vitreous humour of the eye.

Zoned (zoud).a. 1. Wearing a zone —2. Having zones or bands resembling zones.

Zoneleas (z6u'les),a. Destitute of u zone or girdle; ungir«le«l. 'That reeling goddess with tile zonekxK waist.' Cvioper.

Zonict (zOn'ik), n. A girdle; a zone.

1 know that the place where I was brerl stands upon a nonic of coal. bmolltit.

Zonnar (zuu'ar), "• Same as Sonar,

Zonular (zou'u-b'-r), a. Of itr rirlntfng to a ion*; /one-shaped. 'The zonular type of a placenta.' Dana.

Zonula (/.On'ulj, n. A little zone, baud, or belt

Zonulet (zdn'u let), n. A little zone; a zonule 'That riband 'bout my Julia's waist. . . that zonulet of love.' Herrick

ZOO-. [Or. zoon,A living creature.] A common prefix in Greek compounds signifying animal; as, zoology, a description of animals; zoophyte, an animal plant.

Zoocarp (zo'o-karp). ((Jr. zoon. an animal, and karpnH, fruit.] Hue ZoosroiiE.

Zoochemlcal (zo-o-kem'i-kul), a. Of or pertaining to zoochemy or animal chemistry. Dunglison.

Zoochemy (zo-ok'e-rai), n. Animal chemistry. Dunglison.

Zoogen, Z6ogene(zo'o-jen,zo'o-jen),«. [Or. z-niii, ;m animal, and gvnnno, to produce. ] A glairy organic substance found on the surfiicr of the thermal waters of linden and elsewhere.

Zoogenic (zd-o-Jen'lk). a. Of or pertaining to animal production.

Zoogony, Zoogeny (zo-og'o-ni, zo-oj'e-ni), n. [Or. z»on, and the gun , gen- of yon?, genesis. generation] The doctrine of the formation of the organs of living beings.

Zoograpner (zo-og'ra-fer), n. One who practises zoography or describes animals, their forms and habits.

Zoographic, Zoographical (zS-o-graf'ik, zd-o-graf'ik-al). a. Pertaining to zoography or the description of animals.

Zoographlst (zo-og'ra-llst), n. One who describes or depicts animals; a zoologist.

Zoography (z6-og'ra-fl), 71. lOr. zoon, an animal, and graphn, to describe] A description of animals, their forms and habits.

Zooid (zd'oid), a. [Gr. Zoom, a living being, an animal, and eitlos, likeness.] Resembling or pertaining to an animal.

Zooid (zo'oid), n. (See the adjective.] In biot. (a) an organic body or cell, sometimes free and locomotive, as a spermatozoon, which resembles, but is not, an animal or plant, (ft) One ol the more or less completely Independent organisms well seen in /h,,|,1i\ t<\ t:api worms, Ac, produced by gemmation or nssion, whether these remain attached to one nnother or are detached and set free. The term has also been applied to the animals produced in the phenomena of alternate generation internudiiit. ly between the type from which the series began and the original type.

Zoolatry (zo-ol'a-tri), n. [Or. zoon, an animal, and latreia, worship.] The worship of animals, as in the religion of the ancient Kgyptians.

Zoolite (z6'ol-R), n. [Or. zoon, an animal, and lithos, stone. ] An animal substance petrified or fossil.

Zoologert (zo-ol'o-jer), n, A zoologist.

Zoological (zo o loj'ik-al), a. Pertaining to zoology or the science of animals.—Zoological garden, a public garden in which a collection of animals is kept.

Zoologically (zd-o-loj'ik-al-li), adv. In a ecological manner; according to the principles of zoology.

Zoologist (zo-oVo-jist), n. One who studies or is well versed in zoology or the natural history of animals.

Zoology (zd-ol'o-ji), ». [From Gr. zoon, an animal, and !w;cs, discoursed That science whii h treats of the natural history of animals, or their structure, physiology, classification, habits, and distribution. T"h- term 'natural history'has been frequently used as synonymous with zoology, but such a term is obviously of wider significance, and should be used to indicate the whole group of the natural sciences. Zoology is a branch of biological science, constituting, in fact, with it* neighbour branch botany, the science of biology. Its study comprehends luoh brauehes as the morphology of ani

mala, or the science of form or structure, which again includes comparative anatomy, by which we investigate external and internal appearances, the positions and relatious of organs and parts; the development of animals, which treats of the various stages leading from the embryonic to the mature state; the physiology of animal*, which includes the study of the functions of nutrition, reproduction, and of the nervous system; classification or taxonomy, which assigns to the various individuals their proper place in the scale of life. A new department has been added in recent times, sometimes called etiology, which investigates the origin ami descent of animals, or treats of the evolutionary aspects of zoological science. Various systems of classification have been framed by zoologists. Linnaeus divided the animal kingdom into six classes, viz. Mammalia, Birds, Fishes, Amphibia, Insects, and Worms (Vermes). Cuvier proposed a more scientific arrangement. He divided the animal kingdom into four Bub-kingdoms, viz. Vertebrata, Mollusca, Articulator and Jtadiata. Recent classifications are more strictly based on morphological characters. Professor Huxley recognizes the following sub-kingdoms: Vertebrata, Mollusca, Molluseovia, Cotlenterata, Annulosa, Annuloida, Infusoria, and Protozoa. See these terms.

Zoouiornhle (zoo mor'rlk), n. [Gr. zoon, a living being, an animal, and morpki, shape.] Pertaining to animal forms; exhibiting animal forms. 'That peculiarly Celtic fonn of interlacing zoomorphic decoration, united with coloured designs of diverging spirals aud trumpet scrolls.' Jos. Anderson.

Zoomorphism (z&o-mor'nzm),». The state of being zoomorphic; characteristic exhibition of animal forms.

But it also exhibits other features . which present as their peculiar and prevailing characteristic that toemorphixm of ornamentation which in this CMS is only parti.dly present Jos. Anderson

ZooniC (z6-on'ik), a. [Gr. zfion, an animal.] Pertaining toanimalB; obtained from animal substances. — Zoonic acid, a name given by Berthollet to acetic acid, combined with animal matter, and obtained by distilling animal matter.

Zoouite (zo-on-it),n. In physiol. one of the theoretic transverse divisions of any segmented body; specifically, one of the segments of an articulate animal.

Zoonomy (zo-ou'o-mi), ?i. [Gr. zfion, an animal, and nomas, law.] The laws of animal life, or the science which treats of the phenomena of animal life, their causes and relations.

Zoophaga (zO-ofa-ga), n. [Gr. zoon, an animal, aud phago, to eat.] A name given to those tribes of animals which attack and devour living animals, such as the lion, the tiger, the wolf, &c. The term has no scientific value.

Zoophagan (z&-ofa-gan), n. One of the zoophaga; a sarcophogan.

Zoophagoua (zo-of'a-gus), o. [Gr. zf>on, an animal, and phago, to eat] Feeding on animals; sarcophagous.

Zoophilist (zo-of Mist), n, A lover of aniBULhi or living creatures; one whose sympathy embraces all living creation. Southey.

Zoophily (zo-of i li), n. [Gr. zoon, an animal aud philia, love.] A love of animals; a sympathy or tender care for living creatures which prevents all unnecessary acts of cruelty or destruction. Cornhilt Mag.

Zoophite (zO'o-fit). See Zoophyte.

Zoophoric (z6o-for'ik),a. [Gr.zoon,an animal, and phero, to bear.] Bearing an animal; as, a zoophoric column, that is one which supports a figure of an animal.

Zoophorus (zo-of'o rus). n. [Gr. zoophoros.] In anc. arch, the same with the frieze in modern architecture; a part between the architrave and cornice: so called from the figures of animals carved upon it

Zoophyte (zo'o-fit), n. [Gr. zoon, an animal, aiu\ phiiton, a plant] The name given by Cuvier to his fourth and last primary division or sub-kingdom of animals, includiughis Kchinodermata, Kntozoa. Acalepha, Polypi, and Infusoria, from their structure outwardly presenting a likeness to that of vegetables and the polyps often resembling Rowel's. Owing to their parts being more or less distinctly arranged round an axis he gave them the alternate name of Radiata. The term zoophyte is no longer employed by scientific naturalists. It is now loosely applied to many plant-like animals, as

[merged small][graphic][ocr errors][graphic][ocr errors][graphic]

taneously for a short time after ln?ing discharged from the spore-case of the parent plant. The motion is probably dne to changes of hygrometric or electric conditions, the purpose served being the wider diffusion of the seeds. Their cessation from motion after a time permits the seel to liecome fixed in order to germination. Zoospores occur in characew, alga?, fungi, and lichens.

Zoosporic (z&-os-por'ik\ a. Pertaining to or having the characters of zoosporea

Zoothecafzo-o-the/ka), n. [Gr. zoom, a living being, an animal, and tlithf, a case ] In physiol. a cell containing a spermaiozooid.

Zootic (zo-of ik), a. Containing the remains of organielife: applied torocks,soil,caTe*.Ae.

Zootomies! (zd-o-toni'ik-al), a. [See Zootomy.] Pertaining to zootomy.

The diagram is very instructive, and *ell e*pn*se% the more important relationships exiatifid between the groups as far as their aftimties have been deanmbtrated or shown to be probable by the present kiate of Mmmw/ science. A«aflura.

Zootomlst (z6-ot'o-mist). n. [See ZOOTOMY.] One who dissects the bodies of animals; a comparative anatomist.

Zootomy (zo-ot'o-mi). n. [Gr. zC^on. an animal. and tome, a cutting, from temno. toeut ] The anatomy of the lower animals; that brand) of anatomical science which relates to the structure of the lower animaU

Zoo-ZOO (zo'z6). «- [Onomatopoetic] A wood-pigeon. (Provincial J

Zopilote (x6-pi-16'te), n. See Vnrsr.

ZopiS&a (zo-pis'sa), n, [Gr .Ktpuaa,] In med. a mixture of pitch and tar, n, i :•■. nated with salt water, scraped fn>iu \Ur sides of ships, formerly used in external applications as resolutive and «U>iiv.itnt Simmonds.

ZorlL ZoiiUe (zor'il). n. [Fr zorille. Sp. zoriUa, zorillo, dim. of zorra, zorru, a fox | An animal of the genus Zorilla («hich aeeV The name is occasionally given also to s varieties of the skunk.

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Zorllla (zd'ril-la), n. A genus of carnivorous quadrupeds closely allied to the weasels and skunks, of which a species, the zoril or mariput {'/. striata or Viverra zorilla) is found in Africa and Asia Minor. It burrows in the ground, is nocturnal in its habits, and lives on mice, birds, insects, Ac. Like the skunk It can emit a fetid fluid iu its defence.

Zoroastrian (zor-o-as'tri-an), a. Of or pertaining to Zoroaster, the great legislator and prophet of the ancient Bactrians, whose system of religion was the national faith of Persia, and is embodied in the Zend-Avesta; of or pertaining to the system of Zoroaster.

Zoster (zos'ter), n. [Gr. zoster, a girdle, from zonnymi, to gird] In pat hot. a kind of vesicular disease (herpes zoster), in which the vesicles are pearl-sized, often spreading in clusters round or partially round the body like a girdle; shingles.

ZOfltera (zos-te'ra), n. [From Or. zdstSr, a girdle, from their ribbon-like leaves.] A genus of marine grass-like plants, of which the beBt-known Bpecies is Z. marina, the common grass-wrack or sea-wrack. See Grass-wrack, ZosterAcem.

Zosteracese (zos-ter-a'se-e), n. pi. A small order of monocotyledons, of extremely low organization, separated from Naiadacem, consisting of marine plants resembling algrc (among which the Bpecies live), but bearing long, grass-like, sheathing leaves and perfect flowers. They are found in the seas bordering Europe, Asia, North Africa, the West Indies, and Australia. The order includes the genus Zostera and four or five small genera separated from it.

Zosterlte (zos'ter-it), n. A genus of fossil plants of the Wealden and lower green sand, so named from its resemblance to Zostera marina.

Zosterops (zos'tor-ops), n. [Or. ztistifr, a girdle, and ops, the eye.] A genus of perching birds, closely allied to the warblers, and seemingly intermediate between them and the titmice. One distinguishing characteristic of the species belonging to this genus is that the eyes are enci rcled by a ring of snowwhite feathers. Hence they have been named White-eye. They are small birds, found chiefly in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Zotheca(z6-th6'ka), n. [Gr. zdthikt.] In anc. arch, a small apartment or alcove which might be separated from an adjoining apartment by a curtain.

Zouave (zo-aV or zwav), n. [Fr., from the name of a tribe inhabiting Algeria.] A soldier belonging to the light infantry corps In the French army, organized in Algeria, and originally intended to be composed exclusively of a tribe of Kabyles, but which, having gradually changed its character, is now constituted almost exclusively of Frenchmen. These corps still,however, wear the picturesque dress, which consists of a loose, dark-blue jacket and waistcoat, baggy Turkish trousers, yellow leather leggings, white gaiters, a sky-blue sash, and a red fez with yellow tnssel. The few corps filled with Algerines still connected with the French army are now known as Tureos.

Zounds (zoundz). An exclamation contracted from ' God's wounds,' formerly used as an oath and an expression of anger or wonder.

Zoutch (coach), v.t. To stew, as flounders, whitings, gudgeons, eels, Ac, with Just enough of liquid to cover them. [Local.]

ZuchettO (too-kef to), n. [It. zucchetta, a small gourd, anything in the form of a gourd, from zncca, a gourd.] In the R. Cath. Ch. the skull-cap of an ecclesiastic covering the tonsure. A priest's ia black, a bishop's purple, a cardinal's red, and the pope's white.

Zuffolo, ZufolO (zuffolo or zo'fo-lo), n. [It. zu/olo. from zufolare, to hiss or whistle.] A little flute or flageolet, especially that which is used to teach birds.

Zulu(zb'lborzn-lo'),". Amemberofawarlike branch of the Kafir race inhabiting a territory in South Africa situated on the coast of the Indian Ocean, immediately north of the British colony of Natal.

Zumbooruk (zum-bd'ruk), n. In the East, a small cannon supported by a swivelled rest on the back of a camel, whence it is fired.

Zumological (zu-m6-loj'ik-al), a. Same as Zymologic.

Zumologist (zu-mol'o-jist), n. Same as Zymologist.

Zumology (zu-mol'o-ji), n. Same as Zymology.

Zygsena (zl-ge'na). n. [Gr. zygaina, the hammer-headed shark.] 1. A genus of chondropterygiouB fishes, belonging to the shark family, and distinguished by the horizontally flattened head, truncated in front, its sides extending transversely like the head of a hammer, whence the species have received the common name of Hammerheaded Sharks. They are found in the Mediterranean and Indian seas. See Shark. 2. A genus of lepidopterous insects, having a general resemblance to the moths, but which fly during the daytime, living in the open sunshine. Z. Jllipendula is a common British species.

ZygapophysiB (zlg-a-pof 1-sis). n. [Gr. zygon, what joins, a yoke, and E. apophysis.} The name given to the processes by means of which the vertebra; or joints of the spine articulate with each other.

Zygnemaceae (zig-ne-ma's€-€), n. pi. [Gr. zeugnymi, to join. ] A nat. order of confervofd alga?, abounding in fresh water, and remarkable for the structure of the endochrome and the phenomena attending the formation of the zoospores, the principal mode of reproduction being by conjugation (whence the name), followed by a mixture of the entire contents of the united cells and their conversion into a spore.

Zvgodactyla (zl-gd-dok'ti-Ia), n. pi. [Pee Zygodactyuc] A section of the Pachydermata, in which the foot is composed of two principal hoofs on which the animals walk, separated by a cleft. It comprises only one family, the Suida? or pigs.

Zygodactyli(zI-g6-dak'ti-li), [SeeZvooDactylic.] A name given by some ornithologists to an order of birds which have the toes disposed In pairs. Synonymous with ScanMores (which see).

Zygodactylies, Zygoda ctylous (zl'g6-dakurik, zi-go-dak'til-us), a. [Gr. zygon, what joins, and daktylos, a finger or toe.] Having the toes disposed in pairs: commonly used of birds, such as the parrots, that have two toes directed forwards and two backwards.

Zygoma (zi-gd'ma), n. [Gr. zygdma, the zygomatic arch, from zygon, a yoke. ] In anat. the process of the cheek-bone, a bone of the upper jaw; also, the cavity below the zygomatic arch.

Zygomatic (zi-g6-mat'ik), a. [See Zygoma.] Pertaining to a bone of the head, called alBO os jugate or cheek-bone, or to the bony arch under which the temporal muscle passes. The term zygoma is applied both to the bone and the arch.—Zygomatic arch, a bony bridge in the cheek formed by the zygomatic process articulating with the cheek-bone.— Zygomatic bone, the cheekbone.— Zygomatic muscles, two muscles of the face which rise from the zygomatic bone and are inserted into the corner of the mouth.— Zygomatic processes, the processes of the temporal and cheek bones which unite to form the zygomatic arch.— Zygomatic suture, the suture which joins the zygomatic processes of the temporal and cheek bones.

Zygomaturus (zi'g6-ma-tu"rus). n. A large fossil marsupial, so named from the great width of the zygomatic arches of the skull,

found in the poat-tertiary deposits of Australia.

Zygophyllacea (zi'g6-fll-la"sS-e), n. pi. [Gr. zygon, a yoke, and phyllon, a leaf.] A nat. order of polypetalous, exogenous plants, nearly related to Oxalidacerc and Rutacenc. The species are herbs, shrubs, and trees, having a very hard wood, and the branches often articulated. The greater part of them are distributed throughout the temperate regions. To the order belong the caltrops (Tribulus), the bean-caper (Zygophyllum), lignum vitas (Guaiacum), honey-flower (Melianthus), <fcc.

Zygophyllum (zi-g6-fllTum\ n. A genus of plants, nat. order Zygophyllacerc, natives of the Cape of Good Hope, the Cape de Verd Isles, and the Levant. Z. Fabago is the bean-en per.

Zygosis (zi-gd'sis), n. In biol. same as O/njugation,

Zygbsphene (zl'gS-sfen), n. [Gr. zygon, a yoke, and sphtn, a wedge. ] In compar. anat. the wedge-shaped process from the fore-part of the neural arch of the vertebra? of serpents and some lizards.

Zymic (zim'ik), a. [Gr. zymi, leaven] A term applied by Pasteur to the Infusoria which act as ferments only when the air is excluded as distinguished from those which require the presence of air.

Zymologic, Zymological (zl-mS-loj'ik, zlm6-loj'ik-ai),a. Of orpertainingtozymology*.

Zymologist (zl-moro-jist), n. One who is skilled in zymology, or in the fermentation of liquors.

Zymology (ri-mol'o-ji), n. [Gr. zymi. ferment, and logos, discourse.] A treatise on the fermentation of liquors, or the doctrine of fermentation.

Zymome (zt'mom), n. [From Gr. zymi, leaven. 1 An old name for the gluten of wheat that is insoluble in alcohol.

Zymometer (zl-mom'e-ter), n. [Gr. zymi, ferment, and metron, a measure.] An instrument for ascertaining the degree of fermentation of a fermenting liquor.

Zymoscope (zl'mo-skop), n. [Gr. zymi, ferment, and skoped, to examine.] An instrument contrived by Zenneck for testing the fermenting power of yeast by bringing it in contact with sugar-water and observing the quantity of carbonic anhydride evolved. Watts.

Zymosimeter (zl-md-sim'e-tor), n. [Gr. zymosis, fermentation, and metron, a measure.] Same as Zymometer,

Zymosis (zl-md'sts), n. [Gr., fermentation.] In pathol. an epidemic, endemic, or contagious affection produced by some morbific influence acting on the system as a ferment; a zymotic disease. Dunglison.

Zymotic (zi-mof ik), a. [Gr. zymdtikos, causing to ferment, from zymoo, to ferment, from zymi, ferment.] Of, pertaining to, or produced by fermentation.— Zymotic diseases, a name applied to epidemic, endemic, contagious, or sporadic diseases, because they are supposed to be produced by some morbific principle acting on the system like a ferment. See Gkrm-theory.

Zymotically (zi-mot'ik-al-li), ado. In a zymotic manner; according to the manner or nature of zymotic diseases.

Zymurgy (zi'mer-ji), n. [Gr. zymi, a ferment, and ergon, work.] A name applied to that department of technological chemistry which treats of the scientific principles of wine-making, brewing, distilling, and the preparation of yeast and vinegar, In which processes fermentation plays the principal part. Watts.

Zythepsary t (zi-thep'so-ri), n. [Or. zythos, a kind of beer, and hcps6, to boil.] A brewery or brew-hoUBe.

Zythum (zl'thum), n. [L. zythum-Gr. zythos, a kind of beer.] A kind of ancient malt beverage; a liquor made from malt and wheat.

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »