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Cesar's favour.
That film'n down greatness on his friends.
He spoke not, only shower'd
His oriental (rifts on every one. Tennyson.

Shower (shou'er). wX To rain in showers; to fall as a shower; as, tears showered down his cheeks.

Down shower the g-imbolling waterfalls. Tennyson.

Shower-bath (shou'er-bath). 7i. A bath in which water is showered upon the person from above; also, the apparatus for pouring ■poll the body a shower of water.

Showeriness (shou'er-i-nes), iu The state of Wins showery.

Showerless (shou'er-Ies), a. Without ■showers. A rmstrong.

Showery (shnu'er-i). a. Raining in Bhowers; abounding with frequent falls of rain. Addison.

ShOW-glass (shd'glas), n, A glass in or by means of which anything is seen; a showman's glass; a mirror.

Showily" (ahd'i-li), O*/b. In a showy manner; pompously; with parade.

Showlness (sho'i-nes), n. State of being ■howy; pompousne3s; great parade.

Showing (shd'ing), n. A presentation to exhibition; representation by words.

The first remark which suggests itself is, that on thU showing, the notes at least of private banks arc not money. 7- S. Mill.

Showlsh (Bho'ish). a. Splendid; gaudy; ostentatious. [Rare.]

The escutcheons of the company are showish, and wiil look magnificent. Swift.

Showman (shd'man), n. One who exhibits a *how, especially the proprietor of a travelling exhibition.

Shown (sh6n), pp. of show.

Show-place (sho'plas), n. t. A place for public exhibitions. — 2. A translation by North (Plutarch's Lives) of the Greek word gymnasion, gymnasium, adopted by Shakspere. * The common show-place where they exercise,' Ant, 6 Cleop. iiL 6. See Gymxasicx.

Show-room (sho'rom), n. 1. A room or apartment in which a show is exhibited.

The dwarf kept the gates of the show-room,

A rbut knot

2- A room or apartment, as in a warehouse or the like, where goods are displayed to the best advantage to attract purchasers, or to a hotel an apartment set aside for the use of commercial men in which they can exhibit samples to their customers.

Show-stone (-ho'stonX»i. A glass or crystal ball by means of which fortune-tellera have professed to show future events.

Showy (sho'i). a. Making a great show or appearance; attracting attention; splendid; gaudy; gay; ostentatious; brilliant

The men would make a present of everything that is rich and showy to the women. Addison.

Men of warm imaginations neglect solid and substantia) happiness for what is showy and superficial, Addison.

St*. Splendid, gay, gaudy, gorgeous, fine,

magnificent, grand, stately, sumptuous,

pompous, ostentatious. Shrag t (shrag), n. [Probably a softened

form of scrag, a branch or stump.] A twig

of a tree cut off.

Shrag t (shrag), v.t. To lop. Huloet Shraggert (shrag'er), n. One who lops;

one who trims trees. Huloet. Shram I (shram), v.t. To cause to shrink or

shrivel, as with cold; to benumb. LLocaL] Shrank (shrangk). pret. of xhrink.

His generous nature shrank from the indulgence «S* a selfish sorrow. Prescott.

Henry, proud and self-willed as he was, shrank, not without reason, from a couflict with the roused spirit of the nation. Afacanlay.

Shrap.' Shrapet (shrap, shrap), n. A place baited with chaff to invite birds. Bp Bedell

Shrapnel-shell (shrap'nel-shel), n. [After ih:i\HTu\ Shrapnel, the inventor] A shell filled with bullets and a small bursting charge Just sufficient to split the shell open and release the bullets at any given point, generally about 80 yards before reaching the object aimed at After opening, the ballets and fragments fly ouwards in a shower with the remaining velocity of the shell, and when fired against bodies of troops the effect under favourable circumstances is great. Called also Spherical Case-shot.

Shread - head (shred'hed), n. The same as Jerkin-head (which see).

Bhred (shred % v.t. pret. & pp. shred; ppr. shredding. [A Sax. screddian, to shred;

Sc. screed, a piece torn off; O.Fris. skrida, D. schrooden, O. H. O. scrdtan, to tear. Shroud is from this stem.] 1. To tear or cut into small pieces, particularly narrow and long pieces, as of cloth or leather; to tear or cut into strips; to strip—2. t To prune; to lop; to trim.

Shred (Bhred), n. 1. A long narrow piece torn or cut off; a strip; any torn fragment.

A beggar might patch up a garment with such shreds as the world throws away. Pop*.

2. A fragment; a piece; as, shreds of wit.

His panegyric is made up of half a dozen shreds like a schoolboy's theme. Swift.

Shredding (shred'ing), n. 1. A cutting into shreds. — 2. That which is cut off; a piece. 'A number of short cuts or shreddings.' Hooker.—3. pi. In carp, short, light pieces of timber, fixed as bearers below the roof, forming a straight line with the upper side of the rafters.

Shreddy (shred'i), a. Consisting of shreds or fragments.

Shredless (shredles), a. Having no shreds.

Shreetalum (shre'ta-lum), n. An East Indian name for the talipot palm (Corypha umbraculifera). Cye. of India.

Shrew (slirO), n. [O.K. shrew, wicked, evil, a wicked or evil person (the shrewe was the devil, the evil one); hence the obsol. shrewe, shrewen, to curse, to beshrew, whence the adjective xhrewd. The word seems to occur in A. Sax. only as the name of the mouse. screawa, the shrew-mouse, lit. the evil or venomous mouse. It is allied probably to Dan. skraa, O. sehriia, oblique, awry. ]

1. Originally, a wicked or evil person of either sex, a malignant, spiteful, or cantankerous person, but now restricted in use to females; a woman with a vile temper; a virago; a termagant; a scold.

Come on, fellow; it is told me thou art a shrew. Bi>. Stilt. By this reckoning he is more a shrew tlt&n she. Shak. The man had got a shrew for his wife, and there could be no quiet in the house with her.

Sit K. VEstrange.

2. A shrew-mouse.

Shrew t (shrb), v.t. To beshrew; to curse.

Shrew me.
If I would lose it for a revenue
Of any king's in Europe. Shak.

Shrew-ash (shrb'aah), n. An ash-tree into a hole in the body of which a shrew-mouse has been plugged alive. Its twigs or branches, when applied to the limbs of cattle, were formerly supposed to give them immediate relief from the pains they endured from a shrew-mouse having run over them. See RANPIKE.

Shrewd (shrbd), a. [Originally much the same in sense as cursed or curst, from old shrewe, to curse, shreioe, evil. See SHREW.]

1. Having the qualities of a shrew or wicked person; evil; iniquitous.

Is he shrewd and unjust in his dealings with others? South

2. Vixenish; scolding; shrewish.

When she's angry she is keen and shrewd. Shak.

3. Vexatious; troublesome; annoying; painful; mischievous.

Every of this happy number That have endured shrewd i\ays and nights with us Shall share the good of our returned fortune. S/utk. No enemy is so despicable but he inav do a body a shrewd turn. Sir R. L' Estrange.

4. Sly; cunning; artful; arch. 'Thatsftr^iorf and knavish sprite.' Shak—5. Astute; sagacious; discriminating; discerning; as, a shrewd man of the world.—6. Involving or displaying an astute or sagacious judgment; as, a shrewd remark. 'Shrewd, keen, practical estimates of men and things.' IF. Black. [The word is now hardly used except in the last two senses.]— Syn. Sly, cunning, arch, subtle, artful, astute, sagacious, discerning, acute, keen, penetrating.

Shrewdly (ihrodqlVodti. [See Shrewd.] In a shrewd manner: (a) in a high or mischievous degree; mischievously; destructively.

This practice hath most shrewdly passed upon thee. Shak.

(b) Vexationsly; aunoyingly; sharply; somewhat severely.

The obstinate and schismatics! are like to think themselves shrenrfty hurt by being cut from that body they chose not to be of. South.

Yet scem'd she not to wince though shrewdly pain'd. Dryden.

(c) Sharply; painfully; keenly.

The air bites shrewdly; it is very cold. Shah.

(d) Astutely; in a discerning or discriminating manner; sagaciously. 'Any man at first hearing will shrewdly suspect. Locke.

Shrewdness (shrbd'nes), n. The state or quality of being shrewd; as, (a) sly cunning; archness.

The neighbours round admire his shrewdness
For songs of loyalty and lewdness. Swi/T.

(b) Mischievousness; vexatiousness; painfulness. (c)t Wickedness; iniquity.

Fornothe the erthc is corupt before God and is fulfilled with shrewdies. WickUffe. (d) Sagaciousness; sagacity; the quality of nice discernment; as, a man of great shrewdness and penetration.

Shrewish (shro'ish). a. Having the qualities of a shrew; given to exhibitions of illtemper; vixenish: said of women. My wife is shrewish when 1 keep not hours. Shak.

Shrewlshly (shrb'ish-li). adv. In a shrewish manner; peevishly; ill-naturedly. 'He speaks very shrewishly.' Shak.

Shrewishness (shrb'ish-nes), n. The state or quality of being shrewish.

I have no gift in shrewishness,

I am a right maid for my cowardice. Shak.

Shrew-mole(shrb'm61), n. An insectivorous mammal (Scalops aquat&BUt) found in North America. The muzzle is long and cartilaginous at its tip, and the nose is proboscislike. The claws of the fore-feet are long and powerful, and well adapted for burrowing. The outer ears are undeveloped, and the eyes are small. The fur is fine and closely set, like that of our mole. The length of the animal is about 7 inches. It is usually found near rivers and streams, and burrows much like the common mole.

Shrew-mouse (Bhro'mons), n. [A. Sax. scredwa, a shrew-mouse. The name is equivalent to venomous mouse, their bite having been believed to be fatal See SHREW.] A harmless little animal, resembling a mouse, but belonging to the genus Sorex, order Insectivora, while the mice proper belong to the Rodentia. The common shrew or Bhrew-mouse (5. araneus) may be easily


Common Shrew-mouse {Sorex araneus).

distinguished by its prolonged movable muz2le and its reddish-brown fur. It is about 4 inches long, the square-shaped tail taking up half of this measurement It feeds upon insects and their larvte, and inhabits dry places, making a nest of leaves and grasses. These little animals are very voracious, often killing and devouring each other. In former times its bite was considered venomous, while its body, variously treated, was regarded as a cure for many complaints. Besides the common shrewmouse, two other species, the water-shrew and the oared-Bhrew, inhabit this country. The habits of both are aquatic, as their names import

Shricb, t v.i. To shriek. Chaucer.

Shriek (shrek), v.i. [A softened form of screak (which see), and parallel witli screech, only in the latter the final guttural is softened, while in this it is the initial guttural that is softened.] To utter a sharp shrill cry; to scream, as in a sudden fright, in horror or anguish.

It was the owl that shriek'd. Shak.

At this she shrieked aloud. Dryden.

Shriek (shrek), n. A sharp shrill outcry or scream, such as is produced by sudden terror or extreme anguish; a shrill noise.

A solitary shriek, the bubbling cry Of some strong swimmer in his agony. Fyron. My pulses closed their gates with a shock on mv heart as I heard The shrill-edged shrtek of a mother divide the shuddering night. Tennyson.

Shriek (shrek), v.t To utter with a shriek or with a shrill wild cry.

On top whereof aye dwelt the ghostly owl.
Shrieking bis baleful note. Spenser

She shrieked his name to the dark woods. Moore.

Shrieker (shrfck'er), n. One who shrieks. Bhriek-OWl (shrek'oul), n. Same as Screechowl.

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Shrieval' (shrev'al), a. Pertaining to a

■tariff. Shrievalty (RhreVal-ti), n. [From shrieve,

a sheriff.] The office or jurisdiction of a


It wis ordained by 28 Edw. I. that the people shall have election of sheriff in every shire, where the shrievalty is not of inheritance. Blackstone.

Shrlevet (shrev), n. Sheriff.

Now may'rs and shrieves all hush'd and satiate lay. Pop*.

Shrieve (shrev), pi. Same as Shrive.

It is the Hermit good!
He'll shrieve my soul, he'll wash away

The albatross's blood. Coleridge.

Shrift (shrift), n. [A. Sax. serift, from serif an t to receive confessiou. See Shrive]

1. Confession made to a priest; as, to make thrift to a priest.

Shrift was no part of the Church of England system, yet she gently admonished the dying penitent to confers his sins to a divine, and empowered her ministers to soothe the departing soul by an absolution which breathes the very spirit of the old religion. Afacaulay

2. The priestly act of shriving; absolution.

I will give him a present shrift and advise him for a better place. Shak.

Shrift-father (shrift'fa-THer), n A father confessor. Fairfax.

Shrightt (shrit). Shrieked. Spenser.

Shright t 1 -In 111. u. A shriek. Spenser.

Shrike (tfirik), n. [From its harsn, shrieking cry.] A general name applied to the u n-nii.ri s of a family (Laniida) of insessorial birds belonging to the dentirostral division of the order. The family is conveniently divided into two groups, the Laniina?, or true shrikes, and the Thamnophilina), or bush-shrikes. The genus Lanius is distinguished by the broad base of the bill, which

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Great Gray Shrike (Ltinint excubitor)

is hooked at the tip. The nostrils, which are situated laterally, are surrounded by bristles. The fourth quill is longest in the wings, and the tail is of graduated or conical shape. The great gray shrike {L. excubitor) makes its appearance in liritain during the winter. This specieB is coloured gray on the upper and white on the under parts; the quills of the tail being black with white tips, whilst a band of black crosses the forehead, surrounds the eyes, and terminates at the ear covers. The average length is about 0 or 10 inches. The food consists of mice, shrew-mice, small birds, frogs, and insects; and these birds have the habit of impaling their prey on thorns or suspending it on the branches of trees, in order to tear it to pieces with greater ease, a habit which has obtained for them the name of butcherbirds. The red-backed shrike {Lanius or Enneoctonns collurio), a summer visitant to Britain, is our most common species. Its

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nine creatures together before beginning to eat them. The woodchat shrike (L. or E. rufus) sometimes appears in Britain. In the Thamnophiliuse, or tree-shrikes, the bill is long and possesses an arched keel, the tip being hooked and bristles existing at the base. Some of the species attain a length of from 12 tol3inches. They are common in South America The name of drongoa or drongo-shrikes has been given to certain birds allied to the shrikes, and forming the family Dicrurinae (which see). The forked-tail crested shrike, a bird inhabiting India, about 10 inches in length, is an example of these.

Shrill (shril), a. [Also by metathesis thirl, softened from an older skrill; Sc. skirl, a screech or shrill sound, to make a shrill sound; N. skryla, to cry in a high note; L.O. skrell, Q. schrill, shrill. Probably onomatopoetic in origin. Shill Is also a form.] 1. Sharp or acute in tone-having a piercing sound; as, a shrill voice; shrill echoes. 'The shrill matin song of birds on every bough.' Milton.—2. Uttering an acute sound; as, a fthrill trumpet.

Shrill (shril), v.i. [G. schrillen, Sw. skrdlla. See above.] To utter an acute piercing sound.

Break we our pipes that shrilCd as loud as lark. Spenser The shattering trumpet shrilleth high. Tennyson.

Shrill (shril), v.t. 1. To cause to give a shrill Bound.—2, To utter in a shrill tone.

The blood-red light of dawn Flared on her face, she shrilling ' Let me die!" Tennyson.

Shrill (shril), 71. A shrill sound. Spenser. Shrill-edged (shril'ejd). a. Acute, sharp, or

piercing in sound. 'The shrill-edged Bhriek

of a mother.' Tennyson. Shrill-gorged (shril'gorjd), a. Having a

gorge or throat that gives a shrill or acute

sound; having a clear or high-pitched voice

or note. 'The shrill-gorged lark.' Shak. Shrillness (smil'iies), «. The quality of

being shrill; acuteuess of sound; sharpness

or fineness of voice. Shrill-tongued (shril'tungd), a. Having a

shrill voice. 'When shrill-tongued Fulvia

scolds.' Shak. Shrill - voiced (shrirvoiat), a. Having a

shrill or piercing voice.

What shrill-voiced suppliant makes this eager cry* Shak.

Shrilly (shril'li), adv. In a shrill manner; acutely; with a sharp sound or voice.

Mount up aloft, my muse; and now more shrilly sing- Dr //. More

Shrilly (shril'i). a. Somewhat shrill.

Some kept up a shrilly mellow sound. Keats.

Shrimp (shrimp), n. [Prov.E. shrimp, anything small; Sc. scrimp, to deal out sparingly to. to give to in insufficient quantity. The word is allied to A. Sax. serymman, to dry, to wither, 0. schrumpfen, to shrivel; perhaps also to E. crumple, D. krimptn, to wrinkle, shrink, diminish] 1. A small crustacean of the genus Crangon, order Decapoda, and Biib-order Macroura, allied to the lobster, crayfish, and prawn. The form is elongated, tapering, and arched as if humpbacked. The claws are not large, the fixed finger being merely a small tooth, the movable finger hook-shaped; the beak is very short, which distinguishes it from the prawn; and the whole structure is delicate, almost translucent. The common shrimp (C. vulgaris) is abundant on our sandy beaches; it is about 2 inches long, of a greenish-gray colour, dotted with brown. It burrows in the sand, and is taken in large numbers by a drag-net, being esteemed as an article of food. Various allied forms belonging to different genera are also called by this name.—2. A little wrinkled person; a dwarfish creature; a manikin: in contempt

It cannot be this weak and writhled shrimp
Would strike such terror to his enemies. Shak.

Shrimpt (shrimp), v.t. [See the noun.] To contract; to shrink.

Shrimper (shrimp'er), n. A fisherman who catches shrimps.

Shrimp-net (shrimp net), n. A smallmeshed bag-net, mounted on a hoop and pole, for catching shrimps.

Shrine (shrin), n. [Softened from older serine (which see) ] 1. A reliquary or box for holding the bones or other remains of departed saints. The primitive form of the shrine was that of a small church with a high-ridged roof. (See woodcut.) Shrines were often richly ornamented with gold,

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Portable Shrine, Malmesbury Abbey.

figuration; the mausoleum of a saint in a church; as, the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury.

It was a as well as a religious feeling that drew multitudes to the shrine of Becket. the first Englishman who since the Conquest had been terrible to the foreign tyrants. Macaulay■.

Hence —3. Any sacred place or object; an altar; a place or thing hallowed from its history or associations; as, a shrine of art.

Shrine of the mighty I can it be

That this is all remains of thee? Byron.

Shrine (shrin), v.t. pret. A pp. shrined; ppr. shrining. To place in a shrine; to enshrine. 'Shrined in his sanctuary.' Milton. 'Methinks my friend is richly shrined.' Tennyson,

Shrink (shringk). v.i. pret shrank and shrunk; pp. shrunk and shrunken (but the latter is now rather an adjective); ppr shrinking. [A.Sax. scrinean, O.D.schrineken. Bw.tkrynka, to shrink. From root of shrimp, shrug. The same root non-nasalized is also seen in D. schrikken. to start back, to startle: G. schreeken, erschrecken, to be terrified. ]

1. To contract spontaneously; to draw or be drawn into less length, breadth, or compass by an inherent quality; as, woollen cloth shrinks fn hot water; a flaxen or hempen line shrinks in a humid atmosphere.

Water, water everywhere.

And ajl the boards did shrink. Coleridge.

2. To shrivel; to become wrinkled by contraction, as the skin. 'And shrink like parchment in consuming Are.' th-yden.

3. To withdraw, or retire, as from danger; to decline action from fear; to recoil, aa in fear, horror, or distrust.

Feeble nature now I find Shrinks back in danger, and forsakes my uiind. Dryden. ■\Vhat happier natures shrink at with affright. The hard inhabitant contends is right. Pop*.

4. To express fear, horror, or pain by shrugging or contracting the body.

I'll embrace him with a soldier's arm.
That he shall shrink under my courtesy. Shak.
Enid shrank far back into herself. TettxysrTt.

Shrink (shringk), v.t To cause to contract; as, to shrink flannel by immersing it in boiling water. 'Shrink the com in measure." Mortimer.—2. To withdraw. "The Lybic Hammon shrinks his born.' Milton. [Rare.] —To shrink on, to fix firmly by causing to shrink, as the tire of a wheel or a hoop round a cannon is shrunk on by making it slightly smaller than the part it is to fit, expanding by heat till it can be slipped into place, and then allowing it to cooL

Shrink (shringk), »». 1. The act of shrinking; a spontaneous drawing into less compass; contraction. 'A shrink or contraction in the body.' Woodward.—± A withdrawing from fear or horror; recoil.

Not a sigh, a look, or shrink bewrays The least felt touch of a degenerous fear. Daniel

Shrinkage (shringk'aj). n. l. The contraction of a material into less compass, either by cooling, as metals, after being heated, or by desiccation or drying, astimber and clay. 2. Diminutiou in value; as, shrinkage of real estate.

Shrlnker (shringk'er), ». One that shrinks; one that withdraws from danger.

Shrinking - head (shringk'ing-hed), n. A mass of molten metal to pour into a mould to compensate for the shrinkage of the first casting. Called also Sinking-head.

Shrinkingly (shringk'ing-li), adv. In a shrinking manner; by shrinking.

Shrite (shrit), n. A name of the thrush.

Shrivalty (shriv'al-ti). See Shrievalty.

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ShriV© (shriv). v.t pret. throve, shrived; pp. thriven, shrived; ppr. thriving. [A. Sax. scri/,tn, getcrifan. to enjoin, to impose a duty upon, henee to impose penance or rules for guidance, to shrive; sometimes regarded as borrowed from L. seribo. to write, but its early occurrence and distinctive meaning, as well as the fact of its being originally a strong verb, render this very doubtful. It may. however, be from the same ultimate r»»ot, skrabh, whence also Gr. graphO, to write. The Latin word would seem, however, to have had a considerable influence on the corresponding verb in the allied tongues; comp. feel. *krifa, to scratch, to

fialnt, to write; Dan. ttkrive, to write.] 1. To lear or receive the confession of; to administer confession to, as a priest does. * He thrives this woman.' Shak. 2. To confess and absolve; to grant absolution to.

Let me go hence. And in some cloister's school of penitence. Across these stone*, that pave the way to heaven, Walk barefoot, till my guilty soul is shriven.

Lonpfellvtv. %. To confess: used reflexlvely.

Bui call the ghostly man
Hither, and let me i A rive me clean and die.


Shrive (shrfv), v.i To administer confession. * Where holy fathers wont to shrive.' Spenser,

Shrivel (shriv'el), v.i pret. & pp. shrivelled; ppr. shrivelling. [Probably based partly on mwi, to shrink or shrivel, partly on shrink; comp. Prov. E. shravel, dry wood, faggots. ] To contract; to draw or be drawn into wrinkles; to shrink and form corrugations: as, a leaf shrivels in the hot sun; the skin shrivels with age.

Shrivel (shriv'el), r.f. To contract into wrinkles; to cause to shrink into corrugations.

And shrnrTd herbs on »i:hering steins decay.
Dry den.
His eyes, before they had their will.
Were shrivtlTd into darkness in his head.


Shriven (shriv'n), pp. of shrive.
Shrlver (shriv'er), n. One who shrives; a

When he was made a sh river, twas for shrift.

Shriving (shriv'ing), n. Shrift; confession taken Spenser.

Shriving-pew (shriv'ing-pfl), n. A term sometimes applied to a confessional.

Shroff (shrof). n. In the East Indies, a banker or money-changer.

Shroffage (shrofaj), n. The examination of coins, and the separation of the good from the debased. Simmonds.

Shrood (shrod), v.t See Shroud, v.t

Shroud (shroud), n. (A. Sax. scriid, an article of clothing, a garment, a shroud; in the nautical sense directly from the kindred Scandinavian form: Icel. skrud. shrouds, tackle, gear, furniture, a kind of stuff; N. ttrf'id. shrouds, tackle. From root of shred.) 1. That which clothes, covers, protects, or conceals; a garment; a covering. 'Swaddled,as new-born,in sablesAroud*.' Sandys. •Jura answers, through her misty shrmtd.' Byron, —2. The dress of the dead; a winding-sheet 'The knell, the shroud, the mattock, and the grave.' Young.— 3.t A covered place serving for a retreat or shelter, as a den or cave; also, a vault or crypt, a* that under a church. 'The shroud to which he won his fair-eyed oxen.' Chapman. 4. NauL one of a range of large ropes ex

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which they belong; they are the main, fore, and mizzen shrouds; the main - top - mast, foretop-mast, or mizzen-top-mast shrouds; and the main-top-gall ant, foretop-gallant, or mizzen-top-gall ant shrouds. There are also futlock shrouds, bowsprit shrouds, <fcc. 5. The branching top or foliage of a tree. Wharton.—0, One of the two annular plates at the periphery of a water-wheel which form the sides of the buckets. Shroud (shroud), v.t pret. & pp. shrouded; ppr. shrouding. 1. To shelter or conceal with a shroud or covering; to protect completely; to cover; to hide; to veil. 'Some tempest rise ... to shroud my shame.' Dryden.

So Venus from prevailing Greeks did shroud The hope of Rome, and saved him in a cloud. Walter. Beneath an abbey's roof One evening sumptuously lodged; the next Humbly, in a religious hospital; Or haply shrouded in a hermit** cell. Wordsworth.

2. To put a shroud or winding-sheet on; to dress for the grave; to cover, as a dead body.

The ancient Egyptian mummies were shrouded in several folds of linen besmeared with gums. Bacon.

3. [See Shroud, n. 5.] To lop the branches from. 'By the time the tree was felled and shrouded.' T.Hughes. Written also Shrood. [Local.]

Shroud (shroud), v.i. To take shelter or harbour.

If your stray attendance be yet lodg'd

Or shrcitd within these limits. Milton.

Shrouding ( shroud'ing). n. The plates at the periphery of water-wheels which form the sides of the buckets.

Shroudless (shroud'les),a. Without ashroud. * A mangled corpse . . . shroudless, uuentombed. Dodsley.

Shroud-plate (shroud'plat), n. 1. Naut. an iron plate of a futtock-shroud. —2. In much. see Shrotjp, 6.

Shroud-rope (shroud'rop), n. A finer quality of hawser-made rope used for shrouds.

Shroud-stopper (shroud's toper), n. A piece of rope made fast above and below the damaged part of a shroud which has been injured by shot or otherwise, in order to secure it.

Shroudy (shroud'i), a. Affording shelter. [Rare.]

Shrove t (shr6v), v.i. To Join in the festivities of Shrove-tide. * As though he went a-shrovinq through the city.' J. Fletcher.

Shrove-tide (shrdv'tid), n. [Shrove, pret. of shrive, and tide, time, season.] Confession tide or time; specifically, that time when the people were shriven, preparatory to the Lenten season; the period between the evening of the Saturday before Quinquageainia Sunday and the morningof Ash-Wednesday. See Shrove-tuespay.

'Tis merry in hall when beards wag all.
And welcome merry Shrovetide. Shot.

Shrove-Tuesday (shrdv'tuz-da). n. Confession-Tuesday; the Tuesday after Quinquagesima Sunday, or the day immediately preceding the first of Lent, or Ash-Wednesday, on which day all the people of England, when Roman Catholics, were accustomed to confess their sins to their parish priests, after which they passed the day in sports and merry-making, and dined on pancakeB or fritters. The latter practice still continues, and it has given this day the appellation of Pancake TueBday. The Monday preceding was called Collop Monday, from the primitive custom of eating eggs on collops or slices of bread. In Scotland ShroveTuesday is called Pastern's E'en ov Fasten's Ken.

Shroving (shrdv'ing), n. Performing the ceremonies or enjoying the sports of Shrove* Tuesday.

Eating, drinking, merry-making, . . . what else, I beseech you, was the whole life of this miserable man here, but in a manner a perpetual shroving I Hales.

Snrowt (shrou), n. A shrew; a vixen. 'Beshrew all shrows.' Shak.

Shrub (shrub), n. [A. Sax. scrob, scrobb; Dan. (dial.) skrub, a bush; perhaps from same root as shrivel, shrimp. Scrub, low shrubby trees, is the same word.] A low dwarf tree; a woody plant of a size less than a tree; or more strictly, a plant with several permanent woody stems dividing from the bottom, more slender and lower than in trees. All plants are divided into herbs, Bhrubs, and trees. A Bhrub approaches the tree in its character, but never attains the height of a tree, and is generally taller than

the herb. For practical purposes shrubs are divided into the deciduous and evergreen kinds. There are many ornamental flowering shrubs, among the best known of which are those belonging to the genera Rosa, Rhododendron, Azalea, Kalmia, Viburnum, Philadelphus. Vaccinium, <fcc. Among the evergreen shrubs are the box, various heaths, dec.

Gooseberries and currants are shrubs; oaks and cherries are trees. Locke.

Shrub (shrub), v.t. pret. & pp. shrubbed; ppr. shrubbing. To prune down so as to preserve a shrubby form. Ant. Anderson.

Shrub (shrub), n. [at. shurb, drink, anything drunk; allied to syrup $.w\ sherbet.) A liquor composed of acid, usually the acid of lemons, and sugar, with spirit (chiefly rum) to preserve it.

Shrubbery (Bhrub'er-i), n. 1. Shrubs in general.—2. A plantation of shrubs formed for the purpose of adorning gardens and pleasure-grounds.

Shrubbiness (shrub'i-nes), n. The state or quality of being shrubby.

Shrubby (shrub'i), a. 1. Full of shrubs; as, a shrubby plain. 'Due west it rises from this shrubby point' Milton.—2. Resembling a shrub: specifically applied to perennial plants having several woody stems.— S. Consisting of shrubs or brush. 'The goats their shrubby browze gnaw pendant.' J. Philips.

Shrubless (shrub'les), a. Having no shrubs.

Shruff (shruf), n. [A form of scurf or scruf. ] Refuse; rubbish; dross of metals; light dry wood used as fuel. [A local word.}

Shrug (shrug), v.t. pret. & pp. shrugged; ppr. shrugging. [From root of shrink; allied to D. schnkken, to startle, to tremble] To draw up; to contract; as. to shrug the shoulders: always used with regard to the shoulders, and to denote a motion intended to express dislike, dissatisfaction, doubt, <tc.

He shrugs his shoulders when you talk of securities. Addison.

Shrug (shrug), v.i. To raise or draw up the shoulders, as in expressing dissatisfaction, aversion, &c.

They grin, they shrup.
They bow, they snarl, they scratch, they hug.

Shrug (shrug), n. A drawing up of the shoulders, a motion usually expressing dislike.

The Spaniards talk in dialogues

Of heads and shoulders, nods, and shrugs.


Shrunk (shrungk), pret. & pp. of shrink.

His youthful hose well sav'd, a world too wide
For nis shrunk shank. Shak.

Shrunken (shrungk'n). p. and a. [See Shrink.] Having shrunk; shrivelled up; contracted; as, a shrunken limb. 'Shrutiken sinewes.' Spenser.

Shtshob (shchob), n. [Rus.] A machine used in Russia lor making calculations, something similar to the abacus. It consists of a small wooden box without a lid, a number of wires being stretched across it, on each of which wires ten movable wooden rings are placed.

Shuck (shuk). ?i. 1. [Perhaps from shock, shaggy.] A shell or covering; a husk or pod; especially, the covering of a nut, as a walnut, chestnut, or the like. — 2. A shock; a stook. [Provincial in both senses. ]

Shuck (shuk), v.t. To remove the husks or shells from, as grain; to shell, as nuts. [Provincial.]

Shudder (shud'er), v.i. [L.G. schuddern, O.D. schvdderen, G. schiittem, to shake, to shiver, freq. forms from L.G. and D. schudden, G. schiitten, O.H.G. scuttan, to shake: allied to E. shed, to cast. ] To tremble or shake with fear, horror, aversion, or cold; to shiver; to quiver; to quake. 'The fear whereof doth make him shake and shudder.' Shak. 'The shuddering tenant of the frigid zone.' Goldsmith. 'O ye stars that shudder over me.' Tennyson.

Shudder (shud'er), n. A tremor; a shaking with fear or horror. 'Into strong shudders and to heavenly ngues.' Shak.

Shuddering (shud'er-ing), p. and a. Trembling or shaking with fear or horror; quaking; quivering. 'Shudderingfear.' Shak. 'Blows the shuddering leaf between his lips.' Hood.

Shudderingly (Bhud'er-ing-li), adv. With tremor.

Shude (shud), n. [Perhaps connected with shoddy, and verb to shed. ] The husks of rice and other refuse of rice mills, largely used to adulterate linseed-cake. Simmonds.

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Shue (aim), interj. See SHOO.

Shuffle (shuf'l), v.t pret. tt pp. shuffled; ppr. shuffling. [A dim. from shove; cog. L.O. schuffeln, schujeln, to shuffle, to shove hither ami thither. Scuffle is another form. J 1. Properly, to shove one way and the other; to push from one to another; as, to shuffle money from hand to hand.—2. To mix by pushing or shoving: to confuse; to throw into disorder; specifically, to change the relative positions of, as cards in the pack.

Inmost things good and evil lie shuffled and thrust up together in a confused heap. South.

A man may shuffle cards or rattle dice from noon to midnight, without tracing a new idea in his mind. Rambler.

3. To remove or introduce by artificial confusion.

It was contrived by your enemies, and shuffled into the papers that were seized. Dryden.

To shuffle off, to push off; to rid one's self of. 'When we have shuffled of this mortal coil.* Shale.

If, when a child is questioned for anything, he persists to shuffle it off with a falsehood, he must be chastised. Lock*.

—To shuffle up, to throw together in haste; to make up or form in confusion or with fraudulent disorder. 'To shuffle up a summary proceeding by examination, without trial of jury-' Bacon.

Shuffle (shufl), v.i. 1. To change the relative position of cards in a pack by little shoves. 'A sharper both shuffles and cuts.' Sir R. L'Estrange. 2. To change the position; to shift ground; to prevaricate; to evade fair questions; to practise shifts to elude detection.

I myself sometimes. . . . hiding my honour in my necessity, am fain to shuffle. Shak.

Every one who has seen the consequence of severity in parents upon the characters of children, and marked its direct tendency to make them shuffle, and conceal, and prevaricate, and even lie, will admit that fear generated by despotic power necessarily makes its slaves false and base. Brougham.

3. To struggle; to shift

Your life, good master,
Must shuffle for itself. Shak.

4. To move with an irregular or slovenly and dragging gait

The aged creature came Shuffling along with ivory-headed wand. Keats,

5. To shove the feet noisily to and fro on the floor or ground; to scrape the floor in dancing—To shuffle off, to move off with low, short, irregular steps; to evade.—Syn. To equivocate, prevaricute, quibble, cavil, evade, sophisticate.

Shuffle (shufl). ». 1. A shoving, pushing, or jostling; the act of mixing and throwing into confusion by change of places. 'The unguided agitation and rutle shuffles of matter.' BenUey.—2. An evasion; a trick; an artifice.

The gifts of nature are beyond all shams and shuffler. Sir/t. ISF.strange.

3. In dancing, a rapid scraping movement with the feet; a compound Bort of this is the double shuffle.

Shuffle-board (shuf'l-bdrdX n. Shovelboard.

Shuffle-cap (shuf'1-kap), n. A play performed by shaking money in a hat or cap.

He lost his money at chuck/arthing, shuffle-tap, and all-fours. Arvuthnot,

Shuffler (shuf I-er), n. One who shuffles; as, (a) one who mixes up cards previous to dealing. (6) One who moves with a dragging irregular gait, (c) One who prevaricates or plays evasive mean tricks.

Shuffle-wing (shuf 1-wing), n. A local name for the hedge-sparrow (Accentor modularis), from it> peculiar flight

Shuffling (shuf'1-ing), p. and a. 1. Moving with irregular gait.

Mincing poetry, Tis like the forced gait of a shuffling nag. Shak.

2 Evasive; prevaricating; as, a shuffling excuse.

Shufflingly (shuf'1-ing-li), adv. In a shuffling manner; with shuffling; prevaricatingly; evasively; with an irregular gait or pace.

I may go shufflingly, for I was never l>efore walked in trammels. Dryden.

Shug (shug), v.i. 1. To shrug; to writhe the body, as persons with the itch; to scratch. [Provincial.]—2.f To crawl; to sneak.

There 111 shug in and get a noble countenance.

Shulde,t ShuldeiLt Should. Chaucer.
Shule (shiil), n. A shovel. |Scotch.]
Shulle, Shullen-t Sha11 Chaucer.
Shumach (shu'mak). See Sumach.

Shun (shun), v.t. pret. & pp. shunned; ppr. shunning. [O.K. shune, shonne (sometimes to shove as well as to shun); A. Sax. scuniant ascunian, to shun; allied to D. sehuin, sloping, oblique, schuincn, to slope; perhaps to E. shove or to shy. Shunt is from shun] 1. To keep clear of; to keep apart from. to get out of the way of; to keep from contact with; to avoid; to elude; to eschew.

But shun profane and vain babblings, t Tim. u. 16.

So chanticleer, who never saw a fo*.

Yet shunn'd him, as a sailor shuns the rocks.


Thoult shun misfortunes or tliou'lt learn to bear them. Addison.

2. To decline; to neglect

I have not shunned to declare the whole counsel of <jod. Acts xx. 27.

Shunless (shunts), a. Not to be avoided;

inevitable; unavoidable. 'Shunless destiny.'

Shak. Shunt (shunt), v,i. [From shun. See Shun.]

1.1 To step aside; to step out of the way.

I shunted from a freyke For I would no wight in the world wist who I were. Little yohn .Vobody, 1550 (quoted by Haltiwli).

2.t To put off; to delay—a In rail, to turn from one line of rails into another; as, we shunted at the station. Shunt (shunt), v.t. 1. To shun; to move from. [Provincial.] —2. To give a start to; to shove. [Provincial.]—3. To move or turn aside; as, (a) a railway train, or part of it, from the main line into a siding; to switch off. (ft) To shift to another circuit, as an electric current. Hence—4. To shove off; to put out of one's way; to free one's self of, as of anything disagreeable, by putting it upon another. 'Shunting your late partner on to me.' T. Hughes.

It is not wonderful that old-fashioned believers in •Protestantism' should shunt the subject of Papal Christianity into the Limbo of unknowable things, and treat its renascent vitality as a fact of curious historical reversion. Card. Manning.

[This is an example of a word, which had become obsolete in cultivated language, brought again from its provincial obscurity into general use, probably by railway employees.]

Shunt (shunt), n. 1. A turning aside; especially in rail, a turning off to a siding or short line of rails that the main line may be left clear.—2. A wire connected across the terminals of an electric coil, so as to divert a portion of the current

Shunter (shunter), n. One who shunts; specifically, a railway servant whose duty it is to move the switches which shunt a train or carriage from one line to another.

Shunt-gun (shunt'gun), 11. A rifled cannon with two sets of grooves, down one of which the ball passes in loading, passing out by the other when fired, having been shunted from one set to the other by turning on its axis.

Shure (shur), pret. of shear. [Scotch.]

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Shurf (shurf). n. A puny, insignificant person; a dwarf. Hogg. [Scotch.)

Shurkt (sherk), v.i. To shark.

Shut (shut), v.t. pret. & pp. shut; ppr. shutting. [Q.E.shutte,8hitte,shette,A.S&x.scyttan, scittan, to bolt, to lock, to shoot the bolt, from sceo'tan, to shoot; hence, also scyttel, a bolt. See Shoot. A shuttle is what is shot or cast. ] 1. To close so as to prevent ingress or egress; as. to shut a door or gate; to shut the eyes or mouth. 'His own doors being shut against his entrance.' Shak. 'Ami shut the gates of mercy on mankind.' Gray.— 2. To close up by bringing the parts together; as, to shut the hand; to shut a book.—3. To inclose; to confine; to surround on all sides. 'Shut me round with narrowing nunnery walls.' Tennyson.

Is all thy comfort shut in Gloster's tomb! Shak.

4. To forbid entrance into; to prevent access to; to prohibit; to bar; as, to shut the ports of a country by a blockade.

Shalt that be shuf to man which to the beast
I s open I Milton.

6. To preclude; to exclude. 'Shut from every shore and barred from every coast' Dryden.

I will not shut toe from my kind, Tennyson.

—Tonhut in,(a)to inclose; toconflne. 'And the Lord shut him in.' Gen. vli. 16. (6) To cover or intercept the view of; as, one point shuts in another. —To shut off, (a) to exclude;

to intercept; as. shut off from assistance or supplies. (b) To prevent the passage of. as steam to an engine, by closing the throttlevalve.—To shut out, to preclude from entering; to deny admission to; to exclude; as, a tight roof shuts out the rain. 'In such a night tosh ut me out.' Shak.—To shut vp.

(a) to close; to make fast the openings or entrances into; as, to shut up the house.

(b) To inclose; toconflne; to imprison; to lock or fasten in; as, to situt up a prisoner. 'Wretches shut up in dungeons.' Addison.

But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. CaL iu. jrj.

(c) To bring to an end; to terminate; to conclude.

Death ends our woes, And the kind grave shuts up the mournful scene. Dryden.

(d) To unite, as two pieces of metal by welding, (e) To cause to become silent by argument, authority, or force; to put an end t» the action of. [Colloq.]

It shuts them «/; they liaven't a word to answer. Dickens. Our artillery seemed to shut the hostile guns up, and to force them back. It'. M. Russrif.

Shut (shut),D.i. To close itself; to be closed; as, the door shuts of itself; certain flowers shut at night and open in the day.—To shut up, to cease speaking. [Slang. ]

On this occasion he seemed to be at some loss (or words: he shuf uf, as the slang phrase goes.


Shut (shut), a. L Not resonant or sonorous: dull: Baid of sound—2. In orthoepy, having the sound suddenly interrupted or stopped by a succeeding consonant, as the t in pit, the 0 in got, Ac—3. Rid; clear; free.—To be shut of, to be cleared or rid of; to be shot of. [Colloq]

Shut (shut), n. 1. The set of closing; close;
as, the shut of a door. 'Just then returned
at shut of evening flowers.' Milton.
Since the shut of evening none had seen him.

It was the custom then to bring away
The bride from home at blushing shut of day.

2. A small door or cover; a shutter.

At a round hole, . . . made in the shut of a window, I placed a glass prism. Aettton.

3. The line where two pieces of metal aie united by welding— Cold shut, the imperfection of a casting caused by the flowing of liquid metal on partially chilled metal; also, the imperfect welding in a forging caused by the inadequate heat of one surface under working.

Shutter (shut'er), n. 1. One who or that which shuts or closes.—2 A covering of some strength for a window designed to shut out the light, prevent spectators from seeing the interior, or to act as an additional protection for the aperture. There are inside and outside shutters; the former are usually in several hinged pieces which fold back into a casing in the wall called a boxing. The principal piece is called the front shutter, and the auxiliary piece a back flap. Some shutters are arranged to l>e opened or closed by a sliding movement either horizontally or vertically, and others, particularly those for shops, are made in sections, so as to be entirely removed from the window.

Shutting (shutting), n. The act of joining or welding one piece of iron to another.

Shuttle (shut'l), n. [A. Sax sceutel, scytel. a shuttle, from sceotan, to shoot; so called because shot to and fro with the thread in weaving; so Icel. skutul, Dan. skyttel, D. schietsjtoel (schieten, to shoot, and spoel, a weaver's quill or reed), shuttle. See SHOOT, Shut.] 1. An instrument used by weavers for passing or shooting the thread of the weft from one side of the web to the other between the threads of the warp. The modern shuttle is a sort of wooden carriage tapering at each end and hollowed out in the middle for the reception of the bobbiu or pirn on which the weft is wound. The weft unwinds from this bobbin as the shuttle ruus from one side of the web to the other. It is driven across by a smart blow from a pin called a picker or driver. There is one of these pins on each side of the loom, and they are connected by a cord to which a handle is attached. Holding this handle in his right hand, the weaver moves the two pins together in each direction alternately hy a sudden jerk. A shuttle propelled in this manner is called a fly-shuttle, and was invented iu 1738 by John Kay, a SHUTTLE



mechanic of Oateh—tar. Before the invention the weaver took the shuttle between the finger anil thumb of each hand alternately and threw it across, by which much time was lost in the operation—2 In srwing-vuteMne*. the sliding thread holder *» hie h carries the lower thread between the needle and the upper thread to make a luck-stitch.— 3. The gate whieh opens to allow the water to flow on to a water-wheel. 4. A small gate or stop through which metal is allowed to pass from the trough to the mould. —5. t A shuttle-cock. Shuttle (shutlX fci To scuttle; to hurry,

1 had to fly far and wide, shuttling athwart the big Babel, wherever his calls and pauses had to be.


Shuttle-box (sbutl-boks). n. A case at the end of a weaver's lay for holding shuttles so as to facilitate the weaving of eloth composed of yarns of more than one colour.

Shuttle-COCk (?hut'I-k"k). n, [Shuttle and cork.) A cork stuck with feathers made to be struck by a battledore in play; also, the play.

Shuttle-COCk (shutl-knk), V.t To throw or bandy backwards and forwards like a shuttle-cock. 'If the phrase is to be shuttlecocked Iwtween us' Thackeray.

Shuttle-corkt (shutT-kork), n. Same as SkmttUcee*

Shuttle-race (shut'l-ras), n. A sort of smooth shelf in a weaver's lay along which the shuttle runs in passing the weft

Shwanpan (shwan'pan).n. A calculating Instrument <>f the Chinese similar in shape and Oflssstnettoo to the Roman abacus, and used in the same manner.

Shy (shi), a. [Dan sky, shy, skittish, skye, to shun, to avoid; Icel. skjarr, G. scheu, ahy. timid. There are also similar forms with flnnl guttural, as O.E. schiech, A. Sax. tceoh, Sc, skieeh, Sw. skygg, with similar meaninga Perhaps allied to *Aun) 1 Fearful of near approach; keeping at a distance through caution or timidity; timid; readily frtehtened; as. a shy bird; a ahy horse.—

2. Sensitively timid: not inclined to be familiar: retiring; coy: avoiding freedom of intercourse: reserved. 'Ab shy, as grave. as just, as absolute, as Angelo.' Shak, 'A shy retiring posture.' Addison.

What makes you so shy, my good friend?

Arbulhnot. Shy she was. and I thought her cold. Tennyson.

3. Cautious: wary; careful to avoid committing one's self or adopting measures: followed by of.

I an wy thy of man; corrosive liquors in the preuioo of medicines. Boyle.

We grant, altho* he had much »

He was very shy <•/ using it. Hudibras

4- Suspicious; jealous: often with of.

Frmces are by wisdom of state somewhat shy of their successors. If'otten.

Shy (ihl). v. L pret * pp. ahied; ppr. shying. To turn suddenly aside or start away from any object that causes fear: said of a horse.

This hone don't shy. does he? inquired Mr. Pickwick. Shy. ml He wouldn't shy it he was to meet 'load of monkeys with their tails burnt off Dickens.

(shi), n. A sudden start aside made by

Shy (shi), r.t [See Shir] To throw; as, to Ay a stone at one. [Colloq. ]

Though the world does take liberties with the rood-tempered fellows, it shies them many a stray 'MSB Lever.

Shy (shi), n.. A throw; a fling. [Colloq]

Had Sir Richard himself been on the spot, Frank Cruhtm would still, we may say, have had his fine rhtes at that unfortunate one. y >..'./<■.

Shyly (shili), adv. In a shy or timid manner; timidly: coyly: diffidently.

Shyne t (shin), ft. Light: shine. Spenser

Shyness (shi'nes), n. The quality or state of being shy; fear of near approach or of familiarity, reserve; coyness. *My shyness or my self-distrust.' Tennyson.

Si (**)- In music, a name given in some systems to the seventh note of the natural or normal scale (the scale of C); In others to the seventh note of any diatonic srale. It was popularly adopted as a solfeggio syllable on the suggestion of JLe Maire of Paris about IflOO.

Sl-affTush (si'a-gnsh), n. A feline quadruped, th* Felu caracal See CARACAL.

SlAlagOfflie (si-ala-gog). ». See SialcBJi -:t K.

SLailds (si-aTi-de). n. j*l {From Sialis, one of the cvnera, and Or. eidot. resemblance.) A saamtt group of neuropterous insects, having

very large anterior wings. They frequent the neighbourhood of water, and pass their larva state in that element. The may-fly (Sialis lutaria) is a well-knowu bait with the angler See Mayfly.

Sialogogue (sl-al'o-gog), n. [C.r. sinlon, saliva, and agogos, leading] A medicine that promotes the salivary discharge, as pyrethrum, the various preparations of mercury, Ac.

Slamang (sl'a-mang), n. The llylobates syndactylus. a quadrumanous animal belonging to that division of apes called gibbons. It inhabits Sumatra, and has very long fore-arms. It is very active among trees.

Siamese (si-a-mezO.n- I. sing, and pi. An inhabitant or native or inhabitants or natives ofSiam.—2 sing. The language of the people of Siam See Monosyllabic.

Siamese (si-a-mez'), a. Belonging to Siam.

Slht (sib), ». [A. Sax. sib, peace, alliance, relation; L.G. Fris. and O.D. sibbe, G. sippe, sippschaft, relationship. The word is still retained In English in gossip-God-sib. See Gossir.] A relation. 'Our puritans very sibs unto those fathers of the society'(the Jesuits). Mountain. .

Sib.t Sibbet (sib).rt. [See the noun] Akin; in nihility: related by consanguinity. (Retained in the Scottish dialect]


The blood of mine that's sib to him, be stirk'd
From me with leeches. Bean. cV Ft.

Sibary (sib'a-ri), n. Same as Serery.

Sibbaldla (si-bal'di-a), n. [In honour of Robert Sibbald, a professor of physic at Edinburgh.] A genus of dwarf evergreen alpine plants, nat. order Rosacea?. S. procumbens is a British plant, and found on the summits of the higher mountains of Scotland as well as in similar localities in Europe and America. It has trifoliate leaves and heads of small yellowish flowers.

Slbbens, Siwens (sib'enz. siv'enz), n. A disease which is endemic in BOtne of the western counties of Scotland. It strikingly resembles the yaws in many respects, but entirely differs in others. It Is propagated like syphilis by the direct application of contagious matter. This disease has not yet been thoroughly investigated.

Siberian (si-be'ri-an), a. Pertaining to Siberia, a name given to a great and Indefinite extent of Russian territory in the north of Asia; as, a Siberian winter. — Siberian crab, a Siberian tree of the genus Pyrus (P. prunifulia), having pink flowers.— Siberian dog, a variety of the dog, distinguished by having its ears erect, and the hair of its body and tail very long; it is also distinguished for Its steadiness, docility, and endurance of fatigue when used for the purpose of draught. Id mauy northern couu


Sibariaa Dog

tries these docs are employed in drawing sledges over the frozen snow. — Siberian pea-tree, a leguminous tree or shrub of the genus Caragana, growing in Siberia

Siberite (si-be'rit), n. Red tourmalin or rnhellite.

Sibilance(sib'i-lans)rn. The quality of being sibilant: a hissing sound as of s.

Sibilancy (sib'i-laii-si), n. The characteristic of being sibilant, or uttered with a hissing sound, as that of s or z.

Certainly Milton wotild not have avoided them for their sibilanty, he who wrote . . . verses that hiss like Medusa's head in wrath. J R. Lowell.

Sibilant (sib'i-lant), a. [L. sibilant, sibilantis, ppr. of sibilo, to hiss.] Hissing; making a hissing sound; as, s and z are called sibilant letters.

Sibilant (sib'i-lant), n. A letter that is tittered with a hissing of the voice, as * and z.

Sibilate (sib'i-Iat), v.t. pret. »fc pp. sxbUattd;

ppr. sibilating. [I,, sibilo, sibilatum, to hiss.]

To pronounce with a hissing sound, like that

of the letter s or z\ to mark with a character

indicating such a pronunciation. Sibllatlon (sib-i-la'shon), n. The act of

sibilating or hissing; also, a hissing sound;

a hiss. 'A long low sibUation.' Tennyson. Sibilatory (sib/i-la-to-ri), o. Hissing; sibi

lous. Sibllous (sib'i-lus), a. Hissing; sibilant.

The grasshopper lark began his stbilous note in my fields yesterday. G. H'hite.

Slbthorpla (sib-thor'pl-a), n. A genua of plants, named after Dr. Humphry Sibthorp. formerly professor of botany at Oxford, it belongs to the nat. order Scrophulariacea\ and contains a few species of small, creeping, rooting, hairy herbs, with small alternate uniform leaves, and axillary, solitary, inconspicuous flowers, natives of Europe, North Africa, and the Andes. S. europcea is a native of Europe, and is found in Portugal, Spain, and France, and in some parts of England, especially in Cornwall, whence it has received the name of Cornish moneywort.

Sibyl (sib'il).Tt. [L. and Or. Sibylla.] 1. A name common to certain women mentioned by Greek and Roman writers, and said to be endowed with a prophetic spirit. Thcirnumber


Sibyl of Delphi.

is variously stated, hut is generally given as ten. Of these the most celebrated was the Cumtean sibyl (from Cuma? in Italy), who appeared before Tarquin the Proud offering him nine books for sale. Herefused to buy them, whereupon she went away, burned three, and returned offering the remaining six at the original price. On being again refused she destroyed other three, and offered the remaining three at the price she had asked for the nine. Tarquin, astonished at this conduct, bought the books, which were found to contain directions as to the worship of the gods and the policy of the Romans. These books, or books professing to have this history, were kept wi th great care at Rome, and consulted from time to time by oracle - keejwrs under the direction of the senate. They were destroyed at the burning of the temple of Jupiter. Fresh collections were made, which were finally destroyed by the Christian emperor Honorius. The Sibylline Oracles referred to by the Christian Fathers belong to early ecclesiastical literature, and are a curious mixture of Jewish and Christian material, with, probably, here and there a snatch from the older pagan source.—2. A prophetess; a sorceress; a fortune-teller; a witch.

A sibyl, that had uumher'd in the world

The sun lo course two hundred compasses. Shak.

A sibyl o\a\, bow-l»ent with crooked age.

That far events full wisely could presage Milton.

Sibylline (sib'il-lin). a. Pertaining to the sibyls; uttered, written, or composed by sibyls; like the productions of sibyls; prophetical; as, sibylline leaves ; sibylline oracles; sibylline verses.

Some wild prophecies we have, as the Ilaramel in the elder Edda ; of a rapt, earnest, sibyUin* sort. Carlyle

Sibylline books, sibylline oracles. See Sin vi,.

SibylUst (sib'il list), n. A devotee of the sibyls; a believer in the sibylline prophecies.

Celsus charges the Christians with being Sifiytltfts. S. Sh.irft.

SlC (sik), adv. [L.] Thns, or it is so: a word often used in quoting within brackets In

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