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CLASSICAL AND SCRIPTURAL NAMES.

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Ste' phen

Su-san'nah ( Ta-lab'ro-ca Tau-rom'e-nos Ter-gem'i-pus The-mis'te-as Thes'ty-lis Til'gath Pil-ne'. yn), 8. =zan), 8. Tal-a-co'ry Tau-ro-po-li'a Te'ri-as

The-mis'ti-us Thes'ty-lus

ser, s.
Ste-phu'sa Su-sa'ri-on Ta-las'si-us Tau-rop'o-lus Ter-i-da'tes The-mis-to-cle'a Theu-do'ri-a Ti'lon, 8.
Ster'o-pe
Su'si, s.
Tal'a-us
Tau-ro'pos Ter'i-gum

The-mis'to-cles Theu'do-tus Ti-mæ'a
Ster'o-pes
Su-si-a'na
Tale-tum
Tau-ru'bu-lee Te-ri'na

Them -i-stog'e- Theu'me-lon Ti-mæn'e-tus
Ster-tin'i-us Su'tri-um
Ta-li'tha Cu'mi, Tax'i-la

Te-ri'o-li

nes

Theu-me'sus Ti-mæ'us Ste-sag'o-ras Sy'a-ger

Tax'i-les
Ter-men'ti-a The-oc'a-nus, 8. Theu'te-a

Ti-mag'e-nes
Ste-se'nor Sy-a'grus
Tal'mai, 8. Tax'i-li

Terme-ra

The-o-cle'a Thi-al-le'la Ti-ma-gen'i-das Ste-sich'o-rus Syb'a-ris Tal'me-na Ta-yg'e-te Ter'me-rus The'o-cles

Thim-na'thah, 8. Tim-a-ge'tes Stes-i-cle'a Syb-a-ri'ta Tal'mon, s. Tayg'e-tus Ter-mes'sus or The'o-clus

Thi-od'a-mas Ti-mag'o-ras Ste-sim'bro-tus Syb-a-ri'tis Tal'sas, 8.

Te-a'num
Ter-me'sus The - 0 - clym'e- This'o-a

Ti-man'dri-des
Sthen-e-hæ'a Syb'e-rus
Tal-thyb'i-us Te'a-rus

Ter'mi-nus

nus

Tho-an-te'a Ti man'ge-lus Sthen-e-la'i-das Syb'o-ta

Ta'mah, 8. Te-a'te-a or Te- Terp-sich'o-re The-oc'ly-tus Tho-an'ti-as Ti-ma'nor Sthen'e-las Syb'o-tas

Ta'mar, 8.

a' te
Ter-ra-ci'na The-oc'ri-tus Tho'a-ris

Tim-a-ra'tus Sthen'e-le Syc'a-mine, s. Tam'a-rus

Te'bah, 8.

Ter-ra-sid'i-us The-o-cy'des Thom'o-i, 8. Ti-marchi-des Sthen'e-lus Sy-ce'ne, s. Tam'e- sa or Teb-a-li'ah, s. Ter'ti-a

The-od'a-mas or Tho-ni'tes

Ti-marchus
Sthe'ni-us
Sy'char, 8.
Tam'e-sis Te'beth, 8. Ter'ti-us

Thi-od'
amas | Thọ-0's4

Ti-mar'e-te
Stii-cho
Sy'e-dra
Tam-i-a'this Tec-mes'sa Ter-tul-li-a'nus The-o-da'mus Tho-o'tes

Ti-ma'si-on Stim'i-con Sy-e'lus, &. Tam'muz, 8. Tec-tos'a-ges or Ter-tullus, 8. The-od'a-tus Tho-ra'ni-us Tim-a-sith'e-us Stiph'i-lus Sy-e'ne Tam'phi-lus Tec-tos'a-gæ Te'thys

The-od'o-cus Tho-re'ce

Ti-ma'vus Sto-bæ'us Sy-e'ne, 8. Ta-my'ra-ca Tec'to-sax Tet-ra-co'mum The-o-do'ra Tho'ri-us

Tim'e-as Stach'a-des Sy-e-ni'tes Ta'nach, 8. Te'ge-a

Tet-ra-go'nis The-o-do-re'tus Thos-pi'tis Ti-me'si-us Sto'i-ci Sy-en'ne-sis Tan'a-ger Te-ge-a'tes Te-trap'o-lis The-o-do-ri'cus Tho'us

Ti-me' us, s. Sto'i-cus Syl'eus Tan'a-gra Teg'u-la Tet'ri cus The-o-do'ri-das Thra'ce

Tim'na, s. Stra-te'gus Sy-li'o-nes

Tan'a-is
Tegy-ra
Teu'cer
The-o-do'ris Thra'ces

Tim'nath, 8. Strat'o-cles Syl'o-son

Tan-a-i'tæ
Te-haph'ne-hes, Teu-chira
The-o-do-ri'tus Thra'ci-a

Ti-moch'a-ris Strat-o-cli'a Syl-va'nus

Tan'a-quil

8.
Teu'cri

The-o-do'rus Thrac'i-dæ Tim-o-cle'a Strat-o-cli'des Sylvi-a

Ta-ne'tum
Te-hin'nah, 8.
Teu'cri-a
The-o-do'si-us Thra'se-a

Tim'o-cles
Strat' o-las Syl'vi-us
Tan-hu'meth, 8. Te'kel, s.

Teu-me'sos The-od'o-ta Thra-se'as, 8. Tim-o-cli'das Strat-o-ni'ce Sym'bo-la

Ta'nis, s.
Te-ko'a, 8. Teu-o'chis
The-od'o-tes Thra'si-us

Ti-moc'ra-tes Stra-ton-i-ce'a Sym'bo-lum Tan-tal'i-des Te-ko'ah, s. Teu-ta'mi-as The-o-do'ti-on Thras-y-bu'lus Ti-moc're-on Strat-o-ni'cus Sym'ma-chus Tan'ta-lus Te'lah, 8.

Teu'ta-mus The-od'o-tus Thras-y-dæ'us Tim-o-de'mus Strat'o-phon Sym-pleg'a-des Ta-nu'si-us Tel'a-im, s. Teu-ta'tes

The-o-du'lus Thra-sym'a-chus Tim-o-la'us Strep-si'a-des Sym-ple'gas Ta-o'ca

Tela-mon
Teu'thras

The-og'e-nes Thras-y-me'des Ti-mo'le-on
Stro-go'la
Syn-cel'lus Ta'o-ce

Tel-a-mo-ni'a. Teu-thro'ne The-o-gi'ton Thra-sym'e-nes Ti-mo'lus Strom - bich'i. Sy-ne'si-us Ta-o'ci

des

Teu-tom'a-tus The-og-ne'tus Thras-y-me'nus Ti-mom'a-chus des Syn'na-da Ta'phath, s. Te-las'sar, 8. Teu'to-ni and The-og'nis

Thre-ic'i-us Ti-mo'nax Stron'gy-le Syn'na-us

Ta phi-e
Tel-chi'nes
Teu'to-nes The-om-nes'tus Thre-is'sa

Ti-mon'i-des Stron'gy-lus Syn'no-on

Ta-phi-as'sus Tel-chin'i-a Thac'co-na The-o'nas and Threp-sip'pas Ti-mon'o-e Stroph'a-des Sy-no'di-um Ta'phihi

Tel-chin'i-us Thad-da'us, 8. The-o-pi'cus Thri-am'bus Ti-moph'a-pes Strợ phi-us Syn'ti-che, . Ta-phi'tis

Tele-a
Thad-de' us or The-on'o-e

Thro'ni-um Ti-mos'the-nes
Stru-thi'a
Syn'ty-che Tap'o-ri

Tel'e-ba
Thad'de-us, 8. The'o-pe

Thu-cyd'i-des Ti-mo'the-us Stru-thoph'a-gi Syr-a-cu'sæ Tap-o-si'ris Te-leb'o- or Te Tha'hash, s. The-oph'a-ne Thu-is'to

Ti-mox'e-nus Stry-be'le Syr-as-tre'ne Tap-pu'ah, 8. leb'o-es

Thal'a-me or The-oph'a-nes Thum'mim, s. Tini-a Strym'o-nis Sy'ri-& Ma'a Ta-prob'a-ne Te-leb'o-as

Thal'a-mæ The-oph'i-la Thu'ri-a

Tiph'sah, 8. Stym'ba-ra

cha, 8.
Ta-pu'ra
Tel-e-bo'i-des Thal'a-mus The-oph'i-lus Thu'ri i

Ti'ras, &
Stym-phal'i-des Syr-i-a'nus Ta-pu're-i Tel'e-cles

Tha-las'si-o The-o-phras'tus Thu-ri'nus Ti-re'si-as Stym-pha'lis Sy'ri-on, 8. Ta-pu'ri Tel-e-cli'des Tha-las'si-us The-o-phy-lac' Thu'ri-um

Tir'ha-kah, s. Stym-phalus Syr'ma-tæ

Ta'rah, 8.
Tel'e-clus
Tha-le'a

tus
Thus'ci-a

Tir ha-nah, s.
Su-a'da
Syr-ne'tho Tara-lah, s. Tel'e-crus
Tha-les'tri-a or The-o-pi'thes Thy'a-des

Tir'i-a, s. Sua-de'la Syr-o-cil'i-ces Tara-nis

Tel-e-da'mus Tha-les'tris The-op'o-lis Thy-a-mi'a or Tir-i-ba'zus Su-ag'e-la Syr-o-me'di-a Tar-che'ti-us Te-leg'o-nus Tha-le'tas

The-op'ro-pus

Thy-a'mi-a Tir-i-da'tes
Su'ah, 8.
Sy-ro-phe-ni'. Tar-chon-dim'o Te'lem, 8.

Tha-li'a
The-oʻris
Thy'a-mis

Tir'sha-tha, 8. Su-a'na

ci-a, 8.

tus
Te-lem'a-chus Tha'li-us

The-o'rus

Thy'a-mus Tirzah, s. Su-ar-do'nes Syr - 0-pha-ni Ta-re'a, s. Tel'e-mus

Thal'pi.us The-o-ti'mus Thy-a-ti'ra Ti-sæ'um
Su-as-te'ne

ces
Tar-en-ti'nus Te'le-on

Tha'mah, 8.
The-ot'o-cos Thy-es'ta

Ti-sag'o-ras
Su'ba, &.
Syr-o-phoenix Ta-ren'tum or | Te-leph'a-nes Tha'mar, s. The-ox'e-na Thy-es'tes

Ti-sam'e-nus Sub-al-pi'nus Syr'ti-ca Ta-ren'tus Tel-e-phas'sa Tham'na-tha, s. The-ox-e'ni-a

Thy'ias

Tish'bite, s. Sub-laq'ue-um Sys-pi-ri'tis Tar-i-che'a Tel'e-phus

Tham'y-ras or The-ox-e'ni-ins Thym-bra'us Tis'i-a Su-blic'i-us

(Egypt)

Tel-e-sar'chi-des Tham’y-rus The-ram'e-nes Thym'bri-a Ti-si'a-rus Sub-mon-to'ri

Ta-rich'e-a (Pa-
Te-le'si-a
Tham/y-ris The-rap'ne Thym'e-le

Tis'i-as um

lestine)
Te-les'i-cles Than'a-tos

The'ras, 8.

Thy-me'na Ti-sic'ra-tes Su'bu-lo

Tar-i-o'tæ
Tel-e-sil'la

Thap'sa-cus Ther'i-cles Thym'i-lus Ti-siph'o-ne
Su-bu'ra
Ta'a-nach, s. Tar-pe'ia

Tel-e-si'nus Thap-si-ta'ni The-rid'a-mas Thy-moch'a-res Ti-siph'o-nus Su-burra Ta'a-nath Shi' Tar-pe'ius Tele-son

Tha'rah, 8. The-rim'a-chus Thy-me'tes Tis-sa-pher'nes
Su'ca-thites, &. loh, 8.
Tar pel-ites, 8. Tel-e-stag'o-ras Thar'ra, 8. Ther'i-nus Thyn'i-as

Ti-tae a
Suc'ca-bar Ta-au'tes
Tar-quin'i-a Tel-e-thu'sa
Thar'shish, s. The-ri'tas

Thy-od'a-mas Ti'tan or Ti-ta'.
Suc'coth, s. Tab'a-lus
Tar-quin'i-i Te-leu'ti-as Tha'si-us

Ther'ma-leth, 8. Thy-o'ne

nus Succoth Be'. Tab'a-oth, s. Tar-quin'i-us Tel Hare-sha, 8. Thas'si, 8. Ther-mo'don Thy-o'neus Tit'a-ne noth, 8. Tab'ba-oth, s. Tar-quit'i-us Tel-le'ne Thauma-ci Ther-mop'y-læ Thyr'e-a

Ti-ta'nes Su-de'ti Tab'bath, s. Tar' qui-tus Telli-as

Thau-ma'ci-a The-rod'a-mas Thyr-e-a'tis Ti-ta'ni-a Su'di-as, s. Tab'e-al, 8. Tar-ra-ci'na Tel'me-ra

Thau'ma-cus Ther-sil'o-chus Thyr'i-des

Ti-tan'i-des
Su-e'bus
Tab'e-el, 8. Tarra-co

Tel'o-bis
Thau - man'ti-as Ther-si'tes Thyr'i-on

Tit'a-nus Su-es-sa'nus Ta-belli-us, 8. Tar-ru'ti-us Tel-phu'sa

and Thau-The-ru'chus Thyr-sag'e-tæ Tit-a-re'si-us Su-es-si-o'nes Tab'e-rah, s. Tar'shish, 8. Te'ma, s.

man'tis
The-se'a

Thyr-sag'e-tes Tit-a-re'sus Sues' so- nes or| Tab-i-e'ni

Tar'si-us
Te'man, 8.
Thau'mas
The-se'i-dæ
Ti'a-sa

Tith-e-nid'i-a Su-es-so'nes Tab'i-tha, 8. Tar-su'ras Tem'a-ni, 8.

The-æ-te'tus The-se'is

Tib-a-re'ni Ti-tho'nus Sue-to'ni-us Ta'bor, 8.

Tarsus, s.
Te-ma'the-a The-ag'e-nes The-se'um

Ti-be'ri-as

Ti-tho're-a
Sue'vi or Su-e'vi Tab'ra-ca
Tartak, 8. Tem'e-ni, 8.

The-a'ges
The'seus

Tib-e-ri'nus Ti-thraus'tes
Sue'vi-us
Tab'ri-mon, 8. Tartan, s.
Tem-e-ni'a The-ag'o-ras The-si'dæ

Tib'e-ris

Tit'i-a
Sue'vus or Su-e' Ta-bu'da

Tarta-rus
Tem-e-ni'tes The-a'no

The-si'des

Ti-be'ri-us Tit-i-a'na vus Ta-ca'pe or Tac - Tar-te'sus Te-me'ni-um The-ar'i-das Thes-moph'o-ra Ti-be'rus

Tit-i-a'nus Su-fe'nas

a-pe
Tar-u-sa'tes Tem'e-nos
The-ar'i-des Thes-mo-pho'ri- Tib'hath, 8.

Tit'i-es
Suf-fe'nus
Tac-a-pho’ris. Tar-vis'i-um Tem'e-nus The-ba'i-des

Tib-i-se'nus Tit'i-i
Suf- fe' tes Tac-a-tu'a
Tas-ge'ti-us Tem'e - sa or Theb'a-is or The Thes-moth'e-tæ

Tib'ni, s.

Ti-tin'i-us Suf'ie-tes Tac-fa-ri'nas Tas'si-to

Tem'e-se
ba'is
Thes'o-a
Ti-bul'lus

Tit'i-us
Su'i-das
Tach'mo-nite, s. Ta-ti-a'nus Tem'pe-a

The-ba'nus Thes-pe'a

Tib-ur-ti'nus Ti-tor'mus
Su-il'i-uus
Tach'o-ri
Ta-ti-en'ses Tem-py'ra

The-be'tha
Thes-pi'a

Ti-burti-us Tit-the'um Su-i'o-nes or Sui Tac'i-ta

Ta'ti-i
Tench-te'rior The'bez, 8.
Thes-pi'a-dae Tich'í-us

Ti-tu'ri-us
O'nes
Tac'i-tus
Ta'ti-us
Tenc-te'ri The-co'e, s. Thes-pi'a-des Tic'i-da

Tit'y-rus Sukkim, 8. Tac'o-la or Ta- Tat'nai, s. Te'ne-a

Thec-tam'e-nes Thes'pi-æ

Ti-ci'nus

Tit'y-us
Sul'ci-us

coola .
Tau-chi'ra Te-ne'e
Theg-a-nu'sa Thes' pi-us

river)

Ti'van, 8. Sul - pit'i-a or Ta-con'i-des Tau-lan'ti-i Ten'e-dos

The'ia

Thes-pro'ti Tic'i-nus(a man) Ti'zite, s. Sul-pic'i-a Tad'mor, 8. Tau-ra'ni-a Ten'e-rus

The'ias
Thes-pro'ti-a Tidal, s.

Tle-pol'e-mus Sul-pit'i-us or Tap-dife-ra Tau're-a

Ten'e-sis
Thel-a-i'ra Thes-pro'tus Ti-fa'ta

Tma'rus
Sul-pic'i-us Tän'a-ros
Tau-re'si-um Te-ne'um
Thel'a-sar, 8. Thes-sa'li-a Ti-fernum

Tmo'lus
Sum-ma'nus Tæ'pa-rum
Tauri-ca Cher-1 Ten'ty-ra

Thel-e-phas'sa Thes-sa'li-on Tig-el-li'nus To'ah, 8.
Su'ni-ci
Ten’a-rus
so-ne'sus Te'rah, s.

The-ler sas, 8. Thes-sa-li'o-tes Ti-gel'li-us To'a-nah, s. Su'ni-um Ta-e'pa Tau-ri'ni

Teraphim, 8. Thel-e-si'nus Thes-sa-lo-ni'ca Tig'lath Pil-e'-To-bi'ah, 8. Su-od'o-na Ta go'ni-us Tau'ri-on

Te-re'don
Thel'i-ne
Thes'sa-lus

ser, s.

To-bi'as, s. Su'pe-rum Ma're Ta'han, s. Tau-ri-o'ne Te-re'i-des

Thel-pu'sa
Thes'ti-a

Ti-gra'nes To'bie, s.
Sur, 8.
Ta-hap'a-nes, s. Tau-ris'ci

Te-ren'ti-a Thel-xi'on Thes-ti'a-dæand Tig-ran-o-cer'ta To-bi'el, 8. Su-re'na Ta'hath, s. Tau'ri um Te-ren-ti-a'n us Thel-xi'o-pe Thes-ti'a-des Tig-u-ri'ni

To'bit, 8. Su-renas Tah'pe-nes, s. Tau-robo-lus Te-ren'ti-us The'man, 8. Thes'ti-as

Tikvah, 8.

Toch'a-ri Su'ri-um Tah-re'a, 8. Tau'ro-is

Ter-e-nu'this The-mis-cy'ra Thes-ti-di'um Tik'vath, s. To'chen, 8. Su'sa, 8. Tah'tim Hod' Tau-ro-ine'ni Te'resh, 8.

Them'i-son Thes'ti-us

Til-a-ta'i

To-gar'mah, 8.

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PRONOUNCING VOCABULARY

OF

MODERN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.

NOTES ON THE SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION.

FOREIGN geographical names are spelled in English German they are sounded like i in pine, in French books either in the same manner as they are spelled mostly like ā. in the language of the country to which they belong, or ko in Portuguese is sounded as oun. phonetically in accordance with the prevailing sounds of au is usually pronounced either with the sounds of the letters of the English alphabet. The first method the vowels separately, or as a diphthong like ou. In can, of course, be adopted only for names belonging to French it is pronounced like o in note. countries in which the Roman alphabet is used with or e is usually sounded like ā or e in met. In Spanish without diacritic marks. In the following notes on the it always has the latter sound. Very often it has an pronunciation of foreign names the sounds indicated as obscure sound as in the English golden. In French it those corresponding to the letters of foreign alphabets is often mute. are explained, where necessary, by the key-line at the e in Polish is sounded like the French ain (an). foot of the page.

é in Bohemian and Servian is sounded as ye or yā. In that key-line it will be seen that six signs are used eau in French has the sound of o in note. to represent un-English sounds. These must be learned ei and ey, like ai and ay, usually have each of the by the ear from those who are able to render them vowels sounded separately, the sound of ā being rapidly accurately, but it may be mentioned that the French followed by that of ē. In Dutch and German they have sound heard long in vủe and short in būt is like the sound the sound of i. In French they are pronounced like ā or e. of u in the Scotch word abune; that that heard long in eu is sounded in Dutch as in French, in German like bleu and short in neuf has some resemblance to the sound oi, in other languages with the sounds of the vowels of e in her; that the sound represented by ń (as in the separately. French on) is produced by emitting voice through the i is usually sounded like ē, or, when short, often like i. mouth and nose at the same time, and is accordingly ie in Dutch, German, and French is sounded like ē not a pure nasal (like the English ng in sing) but a semi except where the letters belong to two syllables. nasal; and that the ch in the German nacht is a strongly ij in Dutch has a sound like that of i in pine, but aspirated guttural like ch in the Scotch word loch. more open, that is, with less of the ē-sound at the close. Strictly speaking two sounds are represented in Ger o is usually sounded like 7 or o, in Danish and Norman by ch, or by g, which is sometimes its equivalent. wegian sometimes like ö. After the vowels a, 0, u it is a guttural as in the Scotch ö or oe is sounded in German, Danish, and Swedish loch, but after the other vowels and after consonants it is like eu in French. produced by the emission of breath between the point o in Danish has a sound similar to ö, but somewhat of the tongue and the fore-part of the palate.

closer. Even with these signs for un-English sounds it must ó in Polish is sounded like o in move. be remembered that the sound indicated for the letters of oi is usually pronounced with the sounds of the foreign alphabets is very often only an approximation to separate vowels, in French it is like wa in war. the true pronunciation, as foreign languages have a great ou in French has the sound of ö, in Dutch and Normany shades of sound which can be acquired only by wegian that of ou. those who have familiarized themselves with these lan u is usually sounded as ö or u; in French, as already guages as they are actually spoken by the people, and mentioned, the sound is peculiar. In Danish, when which, besides, no Englishman would ever think of short, it is sounded like ė; in Dutch, when short and foltrying to reproduce in pronouncing foreign names while lowed by a consonant in the same syllable, like u; when reading or speaking English. It will be observed that, long, like û; in Welsh, without an accent mark, like i. as the key shows, y is always used with its consonantal ü or ue in German is sounded like û or å. or semi-vowel sound as in yes. Thus when it is stated û in Welsh is sounded like ē. that the Hungarian gy has the sound of dy, it is to be ui in Dutch is pronounced like oi in oil. understood that at the end of a word that combination y is usually sounded like ē; in Danish, Swedish, and does not form a separate syllable, but goes to form one Polish like the French 4. In old Dutch it is used syllable with the preceding letters. The Hungarian where the digraph ij is used in modern orthography. prefix Nagy, for example, is pronounced in one syllable In Welsh, without an accent mark, it has the sound of u, Nody, the d being followed by the consonant y with an except at the end of a word when it sounds like i. effect closely resembling that of a very soft zh.

y in Welsh has the sound of e in me (like the Welsh a). A. Some rules for the pronunciation of languages using

CONSONANTS AND CONSONANTAL DIGRAPHS. the Roman alphabet.

Most of the consonants have the same sound in the VOWELS AND VOWEL DIGRAPHS.

languages of the European continent using the Roman

alphabet as they have in English, but the following a is usually sounded ä, but sometimes long sometimes peculiarities are to be noted: short. In Hungarian it is sometimes like o in not.

b at the end of a word is often sounded in German å in Swedish is sounded o.

like p. In Spanish it is pronounced with very feeble ä or ae is usually sounded like ā or e, in Flemish (and contact of the lips so as to be softened almost to a old Dutch) like ä.

V-sound. & in Polish is sounded like the French on.

c before another consonant and before the vowels a, aa in Danish is sounded as o, in Dutch as ä.

o, u is usually sounded like k; in French, Danish, Swedai and ay usually have each of the vowels sounded, ish, and Portuguese it is sounded in other situations like the sound of ä being rapidly followed by that of ē. In | s, in Italian like ch in chain, in Spanish like th in thin, PRONUNCIATION OF MODERN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.

Fāte, fär, fat, fall;

mē, met, hér, golden; pine, pin;

note, not, möve;

tub, bull;

oil, pound;

ch, chain; g, go;

750

in German like ts. In Italian where another vowel follows ci (as well as gi or sci) the i is not sounded. In Spanish America c is usually pronounced as s in those cases in which in Spain it is pronounced th. In Bohemian and Polish it is always sounded like ts, and in Welsh always like k.

ç is used in French and Portuguese to indicate the s-sound of c before the vowels a, o, and u.

ch in Dutch, Polish, and Bohemian, as well as in Gerian, has the sound of ch; in Italian it has the sound of k; in French (except in some words derived from the Greek, in which it is sounded like k) that of sh.

cs in Hungarian has the sound of ch in chain.

cz in Polish has the sound of ch in chain, in Hungarian that of ts.

d at the end of a word in German and Dutch is often sounded like t. In Spanish and Danish between two vowels, and after a vowel at the end of a word, it is softened to the sound of FH, and in the latter language the same sound is given to it even when doubled. Strictly speaking the Spanish d is a dental d, being sounded by placing the tip of the tongue close to the lower edge of the upper front teeth. At the beginning of a sentence and when the d is preceded by another consonant, whether in the same word or another, the tongue is more firmly pressed against the teeth and a sound like that of the English d is produced, but in other cases the contact is so slight as to produce a sound almost exactly like that of th. At the end of words even this sound is almost inaudible. When d comes after 1, n, r in Danish it is not sounded at all, and it is still more frequently silent in the Norwegian pronunciation of the language.

dd in Welsh has the sound of FH. dź in Polish is sounded like dzy.

g before a consonant and before the vowels a, 0, and u mostly has the sound of g in go; and it has the same sound before other vowels also in German and Danish, and in all situations in Polish and Welsh. After a vowel it frequently has in German and Danish a guttural sound, and in the Norwegian pronunciation of the latter lan. guage it is often silent in that situation. In Dutch it is always a deep guttural, except in the combinations gh and ng, the former of which is pronounced like g in go, the latter like ng in sing. In French, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish it has the sound of the j of the same languages in all situations in which it has not the sound of g in yo, and in Italian it is then sounded like our j. (See above under c.)

gh in Italian and Dutch has the sound of g in go.
gl in Italian has the sound of ly.
gn in French and Italian has the sound of ny.

gu in French always, and in Portuguese and Spanish before e and i, has the sound of g in go.

gy in Hungarian has the sound of dy or dzh.

h in French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese is silent or scarcely audible. In Spanish it is heard as a slight aspiration before the combination ue. In Danish it is not sounded before j and v.

j in most languages has the sound of y, in French and Portuguese that of zh, in Spanish that of ch. In Danish the sound of the Danish j (that is, the sound of the consonant y) is always interpolated after the consonants k and g before the vowels æ, ö, ø, y, and i. In Hungarian at the end of a syllable j has the sound of e in me.

k in Norwegian before e, i, j, y, and the modifications of a and o, is sounded like ty.

t represents in Polish a sound peculiar to that language and Russian. It is produced by attempting to sound an 1 with the point of the tongue directed further back in the palate than for the ordinary l, and with very slight contact between the tongue and palate.

Ih in Portuguese has the sound of ly (Ital. gl).

ll in French in formal speech has the sound of ly, but colloquially is generally sounded like the consonant y without any 1-sound. In Spain it always has the former sound, but in Mexico the latter is often substituted. In Welsh it has a peculiar sound, which is approximately rendered when one attempts to pronounce tl at the beginning of a syllable.

m in French and Portuguese often has the sound of i. n. See preliminary remarks. ñ in Spanish ń in Polish ( all have the sound of ny (French X in Bohemian (

and Italian gn). nh in Portuguese)

qu in French always, and in Portuguese and Spanish before e and i, is sounded like k.

r is almost always more strongly trilled than in English.

ř in Bohemian Lo
rz in Polish are both sounded like rzh.

s in German is usually pronounced soft, like English z, at the beginning of a word where a vowel follows; in Hungarian it is sounded as sh.

ś in Polish has the sound of sy.

sc in Italian before e and i has the sound of sh. (See above under c.)

sch in German has the sound of sh, but in Dutch and Italian has that of s followed by the respective sounds of ch, in Dutch accordingly it is equivalent to sch, in Italian to sk.

sk before e, i, j, y, and the modifications of a and is sounded in Norwegian like sh.

stj in Swedish when followed by a vowel has the sound of sh.

sz in Polish La š in Bohemian

{ are both sounded like sh. sz in Hungarian is sounded like s. t in Spanish is dental like the Spanish d.

th in Welsh is sounded like th in thin, in all other European languages using the Roman alphabet like the simple t.

tj in Swedish when followed by a vowel has the sound of ch in chain.

ts in Hungarian is sounded like ch in chain.

w in German and Dutch has a sound closely resembling that of v produced by bringing the lips feebly into contact, not by placing the upper teeth against the lower lip. In Welsh it has the sound of y or o.

x in Portuguese has the sound of sh; in old Spanish spelling it is used where j is now used to represent the sound of ch.

y is usually a vowel, but in Spanish it has also : consonantad sound like the English y, and the same sound is heard in Hungarian after d, g, 1, n, and t.

z in German and Swedish has the sound of ts, in Italian sometimes that of dz sometimes that of ts, in Spanish that of th in thin. In Spanish America this th-sound usually gives place, like the th-sound of c, to that of s in sing.

Ź in Polish has the sound of zy. ż in Polish ž in Bohemian and Servian all have the sound of zh. zs in Hungarian

B. Hints on the pronunciation of geographical names belonging to languages not using the Roman alphabet.

The general rule regarding the spelling of such names is to spell them in English phonetically in accordance with the prevailing sounds of the letters of the English alphabet. In such phonetic spellings, however, the vowels usually receive their continental sounds (as in far, vein, pique, rule). In Indian and some other Asiatic names and in Arabic names a is often used also to represent the sound of the English u in but. The vowel digraph ai usually represents the sound of y in fly, but sometimes (as in all Greek names) that of a in fate; ei, most commonly that of a in fate, but sometimes that of y in fly; au for the most part sounds as ow in nou, but in some cases as a in faū. In the spelling of Indian names this last digraph is often used where á is now mostly used, the sound intended being that of a in far, or perhaps one somewhat broader. The consonants j, w, y, z bave as a rule their characteristic English sounds, as in jet, yet, well, zeal; g usually has its hard sound as in get. Ch usually represents the sound which it has in chain; gh sometimes that of a very rough aspirate, sometimes a sound like that of the Northumberland or Berwickshire burr, sometimes, before e or i, merely the

PRONUNCIATION OF MODERN GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.

751

hard sound of g; kh is the combination most frequently and in which the Russian character representing the used to represent the sound of ch; and th usually stands sound of a in fate or e in met sometimes stands for the for the sound which it has in thin, sometimes for that same sound preceded by that of the consonant y. In which it has in then.

this way are explained such variations as Kief, Kiev; In the spelling of geographical names belonging to Semipolatinsk, Semipalatinsk; Semiryechensk, Semirelanguages which do not use the Roman alphabet (as chensk. also of those which were first put in writing by Euro 7. Lastly, the foreign spelling of a name is sometimes peans) numerous variations are found from different adopted for native names in regions out of Europe causes, and it will throw some light on the pronunciation belonging politically to European powers. Thus Sourato note what the principal causes of these variations are. baya may sometimes be seen spelled in the Dutch

1. Very often the variation is due to the irregularity fashion, Soerabaja. In Spanish and Portuguese America in the use of our own alphabet, which leads one person this is done almost uniformly. to represent the same sound phonetically in one way, In Chinese the digraph ao represents the sound of another in another. From this cause 8 and z are fre a in far gliding into that of o, the whole sound closely quently interchanged, as in Kasan, Kazan; so also are resembling that of ow in now; ei represents the sound oo, ou, and u, where the sound of u in bull or in rule is of a in fate gliding into a very short 7-sound (as in me); intended, as in Moorzook, Mourzouk, Murzuk, &c.; and in ia, ie, iu the sounds of a, e, u are preceded by a very so also are i and y, as in Ustyansk, Ustiansk; Kras short i-sound, a sound almost identical with that of the noyarsk, Krasnoiarsk. Hence likewise those names consonant y; 00 (for which u is often used) usually reprewhich are spelled with a to represent the sound of u in sents the sound of u in bull or in rule, but sometimes but, are also frequently found spelled with u, as in it represents a long o gliding into a very short sound Panjab, Punjab.

like that of u in bull. When o precedes a or ei it is 2. Sometimes the variation is due to the obscurity of sounded very short so as to be almost equivalent to the the sounds themselves, as where a vowel sound is so consonant w; hence we have such spellings as Whangho short that its exact quality can hardly be determined, (or Hwangho) and Kweichoo or Queichoo, as well as as in Bedouin, Bedawin; or where a short vowel sound Hoangho and Koeichoo. The initial ng is a nasal, as seems to one ear to make a separate syllable, while to in the word sing (not as in finger), and this initial sound another ear no such syllable seems to be heard, as in is also met with in names belonging to the other monoBassora, Basra; Wargela, Wargla.

syllabic languages of Eastern Asia, as well as in some 3. In other cases the variation is due to the adoption African and New Zealand names. in English of a continental mode of spelling, as where In Indian, Arabic, and some other names aspirated dj is adopted from the French for j, as in Djebel for consonants occur, and are represented in spelling by an Jebel, or tch from the same language for ch, as in h following the consonant, as in Bhagalpur. The proper Nertchinsk for Nerchinsk, Kamtchatka (the common sound of this combination is accurately represented by spelling) for Kamchatka, or j from the practice of most the letters composing it, but in the English pronunciation continental nations for y, as in Jakutsk for Yakutsk. of such names this peculiarity is commonly disregarded.

When the variation in spelling is due to any of these In African words the consonant m used as a prefix causes, a comparison of the different forms of the name has a shortened sound of um, and in the South African will often serve as a good indication of the correct pro colonies this prefix is so spelled, as in Umtata, U'mzila, nunciation, where any one of them might leave it &c. By travellers in equatorial Africa, however, the doubtful; for the correct pronunciation must be more simple m is always used, as in Mpwapwa. Except at or less consistent with all the different forms. Thus the end of a word y is always the consonant. Lake when Bassora is also found spelled Basra it is clear that Nyassa, for example, is to be pronounced as two syllables, the correct pronunciation cannot be Basso'ra, and when Nyas'sa, not in three as Nī-as'sa. Bedouin is found spelled also Bedawin, Bedaween, &c., For the spelling of Maori names in New Zealand it shows that the accents lie on the first and third syl the Roman alphabet was introduced by the English mislables, and that the i in Bedouin is pronounced as e in me. sionaries, but only fourteen characters are required,

4. Other variations are due to the fact that the sounds namely, a, e, h, i, k, m, n, o, p, r, t, u, w, and the nasal to be represented have no signs for them in the Roman ng. The vowels have the continental sounds, and are alphabet or any of its commonly used digraphs, so that always sounded separately, never coalescing into a proper different signs are adopted to represent them approxi diphthong mately in accordance with the conceptions of different In the following list showing the pronunciation of persons. One of the chief instances of this sort is a geographical names the only diacritic marks which are sound existing in Arabic and Hindu resembling the used are the acute, grave, and circumflex accents ("\^), Northumbrian burr. Usually this sound is represented the modification mark ("), the cedilla (3), and the tilde by gh, but in the case of many Arabic names in North (); and it will be understood that, where the respelling Africa it is often represented by rh or r. Thus Gha of a name indicates the pronunciation of a diacritically dames is often spelled Rhadames, the tribe of the Songhay marked letter not so marked in the name as given in often Sonrhay.

the list, that name is spelled with a letter so marked in 5. In other cases the variation is accounted for by the language of the country to which it belongs. Thus, differences of dialect, or different pronunciations of the when it is stated that the Swedish name Tornea is prosame dialect in different parts of the country or region nounced tor'nā-o, it may be inferred, in accordance with in which a particular language is spoken. In this way the rules just given, that in Swedish that name is spelled arise many of the varieties of spelling in Chinese, Indian, Torneå. In respelling names to indicate pronunciation and Arabic names. In the last one of the most notable the consonants, b, d, f, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, 1, 2, w, and 2, dialectical peculiarities of pronunciation is in the case and the digraphs ng, nk, and sh always have their usual of the Arab character usually sounded as j, but in some English sounds, and s always has the hissing sound as in parts, as in Egypt, as g in get. For this reason the sea. The key-line gives the explanation of the other signs, Arabic Jebel (mountain) is usually spelled in Egyptian Note.-In consulting this List it should be kept in names Gebel, in which g is intended to have its hard and mind that attention to the preceding notes indicating not its soft sound.

the variations that may be looked for in the spelling 6. Another cause of variation is the fact that the strict of foreign names will often be of assistance to those rule of phonetic spelling is sometimes departed from, doing so in finding the name they are in search of, since and the English form of a name is partly accommodated names not found under one spelling may be found under to the spelling of the language to which it belongs, the some other equivalent spelling. Thus many names not same letter in that language being always represented found spelled with c, ch, z, y, &c., may be found under by the same in English, even though the pronunciation the spellings k, kh, s, j, &c. respectively; Spanish names may vary in the original language. This is frequent in in x may be found spelled with j, Dutch names in y may Russian names, in which the sounds of v and f, those of be found in ij, German, Danish, and other names in ae or & and o, &c., are often represented by the same letter, | oe may be found in ä (sometimes e) or ö; and so forth,

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