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ABBKEVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS

COMMONLY USED IN WRITING AND PRINTING.

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A. or a. Adjective. I In music, alto. A. or am. Answer, a. or (& (L ad). To or at. d. or t>~), in med. of each the

same quantity. A.B. (L. Artium Baccalaureus).

Bachelor of Arts. See B.A. A.B. Able-bodied seaman. Abbr. or Abbreo. Abbreviated or

abbreviation. Abl. Ablative. Abp. Archbishop. A.C. (L. Ante Christum), Before

Christ.
Ace. Accusative.
Ace. or AccL Account or ac-
countant
A.D. (L. Anno Domini). In the

year of our Lord.
A D.C. Aide-de-camp.
Adj. Adjective.
Adjt. Adjutant.

Ad lib. or Ad libit. (L. ad libit-
um). At pleasure.
Adm. Admiral.
Adv. Adverb.
Je. or at. (L. cetatis). Of age;

aged. A.F.A. Associate of the Faculty

of Actuaries. Ag. (L argentum). Silver. Agr. or Agric. Agriculture. Agt. Agent A.H. (L. Anno Hegircs). In the

year of the Hegira. A I.J. Associate of the Institute

of Actuaries. A.K.C. Associate of King's College (London). Al. or Ala. Alabama (United

States). Aid. Alderman. Alex. Alexander. Al/. Alfred. Alg. Algebra. A.M. (L. Anno Mundi). In the

year of the world. A.M. (L. Ante Meridiem). Before

noon. A.M. (L. Artium MagUter). Master of Arts. Am. or Amer. America or American. Ami. Amount. An. (L. anno). In the year. Anal. Analysis. Anat. Anatomy or anatomical. Anc. Ancient. Anon. Anonymous. Ans. Answer. Ant. or Antiq. Antiquities or

antiquarian. Aor. Aorist. Ap. Apostle. Ap. or Apt. April. Apo. Apogee. Apoc. Apocalypse. App. Appendix. Apr. April. Aq. (L. aqua). Water. A.R. (L. Anno Regni). In the

year of the reign. Ar. or Arab. Arabic. At. or Arr. Arrive -s; arrival. A.R-A. Associate of the Royal

Academy. Arch. Architecture. Archd. Archdeacon. A.RM.A. Associate of the Royal

Hibernian Academy. A rith. Arithmetic or Arithmetical. Ark. Arkansas (United States). Arm. Armenian; Armoric. Armor. Armoric. Arr. Arrive -s -d or arrival. A.R.R. (L. Anne Regni Regis or Regince). In the year of the king's (or queen's) reign. A.R 8.A. Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.

AR.S.M. Associate of the Royal School of Mines.

A. R.S. S. ( L. Antiquariorum RegiceSocietatisSocius). Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries.

Art. Article.

A.S., A.-S, or A.-Sax. AngloSaxon.

Asst. Assistant.

Astrol. Astrology.

Astron. Astronomy or astronomical.

Att. or Atty. Attorney.

Atty. Gen. Attorney-general.

An. (L. aurum). Gold.

A.U.C. (L. Anno Ifrbis Conditas or Ab l/rbe Conditd). In the year from the building of the city (=Rome>

Aug. Augmentative.

Aug. August.

Aur. (L. aurum). Gold.

A.V. Artillery Volunteers.

A. V. Authorized Versiou (of the Bible)

Avoir. Avoirdupois.

B. In music, bass or base.
B. or Bk. Book.

B. or Brit. British.

6. Born.

B.A. Bachelor of Arts.

Bank. Banking.

Bap. or Bapt. Baptist.

Bar. Barrel.

Bart, or Bt. Baronet.

B.C. Before Christ.

B.C.L. Bachelor of Civil Law.

B.D. Bachelor of Divinity.

Bd. Bound.

Bds. Boards (bound in).

Beds. Bedfordshire.

Belg. Belgic.

Ben. or Benj. Benjamin.

Berks. Berkshire.

Bib. Bible or biblical

Biog. Biography or biographical.

Bk. Bank.

Bk. Book.

B.L. Bachelor of Laws.

B.LL. (L Baccalaureus Legum). Bachelor of Laws.

[Note. The initial letter of a word is frequently doubled, as in the above instance, to indicate the plural]

B.M. (L. Baccalaureus MedicinaA Bachelor of Medicine.

B.Mus. Bachelor of Music.

Bn. Battalion.

Bot. Botany or botanical.

Bp. Bishop.

Br. or Bro. Brother.

Brig. Brigade or brigadier.

Brta.-gen. Brigadier-general.

Brit. Britain, Britannia, British Briton.

B S. Bachelor in Surgery.

BSc. Bachelor of Science.

B.S.L. Botanical Society, London.

Bt. Baronet.

Bucks. Buckinghamshire.

Burl. Burlesque.

Bush. Bushel.

B V. Blessed Virgin.

B. V.M. Blessed Virgin Mary.

C Cent or Cents.

C. Centigrade.

C. Centime or centimes.
C. (L. centum). A hundred.
C. or Cap. (L. caput). Chapter.
C.A. Chartered Accountant.
Ca. or Cat. California.
Cam. or Camb. Cambridge.
Cant. Canterbury.
Cant. Canticles.

Cantab. (L. Cantabrigiensis). Of
Cambridge.

Cantuar. (L. Cantuaria). Can-
terbury.
Cap. Capital.
Cap. (L. caput} Chapter.
Caps. Capitals.
Capt, Captaiu.
Card. Cardinal.
Carp. Carpentry.
Catfi. Catharine.
Cath. Catholic.
C.B. Companion of the Bath.
C.D.V. Carte-de-visite.
CE. Civil Engineer.
Cel. Celsius (thermometer).
Celt. Celtic.

Cent (L. centum). A hundred.
Centig. Centigrade (thermome-
ter).
Cf. (L. confer). Compare.
CO. Coast-guard.
CO. Commissary-general.
CG.S. (used adjectively). Centi-
metre, Gramme, Second (the
units of length, mass, and time,
widely adopted in modern
scientific calculation).
Ch. or Chap. Chapter.
Ch. Church.
Chat Chaldron.
Chal. or Chald. Chaldce or Chal-

daic.
Chanc. Chancellor.
Chap. Chapter.
Chas. Charles.

Chem. Chemistry or chemical.
Chin. Chinese.
CAr. Christ or Christian.
CAr. Christopher.
Chron. Chronicles or chronology.
C I. Order of the Crown of India.
CLE. Companion of the Order

of the Indian Empire.
Cit. Citation.
Cit. Citizen.
ao. Civil.
C.J. Chief-Justice.
CI. Clergyman.
Class. Classical.
Clk. Clerk-
cm. Centimetres.
CM. Certificated Master.
CM. (L. Chirurgiae M agister).
Master in Surgery.
CM. Common Metre.
CM.O. Companion of the Order
of St. Michael and St. George.
Co. Company.
Co. County.

COD. Cash (or Collect) on De-
livery.
Col Colonel.
Col. Colonial.
Col. Colossians.
Col. Column.
Coll. College.
Colloq. Colloquial, colloquialism,

or colloquially.
Com. Commander.
Com. Commerce.
Com. Commissioner or commit-
tee.
Com. Commodore.
Com. Common.
Comm. Commentary.
Comp. Compare or comparative.
Comp. Compound or com-
pounded.
Compar. Comparative.
Com. Ver. Common Version.
Con. (L. contra). Against.
Conch. Conchology.
Con. Cr. Contra Credit or Credi-
tor.
Cong or Congreg Congregation

or Congregationalism
Cong. Congress.
Conj. Conjunction.
Conn. Connecticut (United

States).
Con. Sect. Conic Sections.
Contr. Contracted orcontraction
Cop. or Copt. Coptic.

Cor. Corinthians.

Cor. Mem. Corresponding Member.

Corn. Cornish or Cornwall.

Corrupt. Corrupted or corruption.

Cor. Sec. Corresponding Secretary.

Cos. Cosine.

C.P. Clerk of the Peace.

CP. Common Pleas.

C. P. C Clerk of the Privy Council

C.P.S. (L. Custos Privati Sigilli). Keeper of the Privy Seal

Cr. Credit or Creditor.

CR. (L. Civis Romanus). Roman Citizen.

C. R. (L. Custos Rotulorum). Keeper of the Rolls.

Cres. Crescendo.

Crim. Con. Criminal Conversation or adultery.

CS. Clerk to the Signet

CS. Court of Session.

CS./. Companion of the Star of India.

Ct. Cent.

Ct. (L. centum). A hundred.

Ct. Connecticut (United States).

CT. Certificated Teacher.

Cu. (L cuprum). Copper.

Cwr.orCurt. Current; thismonth.

Cwt. (L. centum, a hundred, and Eng. weight). A hundredweight or hundredweights.

Cyc. Cyclopaedia.

D. Deputy.

d. (L. denarius, denarii). A penny or pence.

d. Died.

Dan. Daniel.

Dan. Danish.

Dat. Dative.

Dav. David.

DC. (It. Da Capo). From the beginning; again.

D.C.L. Doctor of Civil Law.

D.C.S. Depute Clerk of Session.

D.D. (L Divinitatis Doctor). Doctor of Divinity.

De. Delaware (United States).

Dec. December.

decim. Decimetres.

Decl. Declension.

De/. Definition.

De/t. Defendant.

Deg. Degree or Degrees.

Del. Delaware (United States )

Del. (L. delineavit). He (or she) drew it.

Dep. or Dept. Department.

Dep. Deputy.

Deut. Deuteronomy.

D.F. Dean of the Faculty.

D.F. Defender of the Faith

D.G. (L. Dei Gratia). By the Grace of God.

Diet. Dictionary.

Dim. or Dimin. Diminuendo.

Dim. Diminutive.

Dis. or Disct. Discount.

Div. Divide, dividend, division, or divisor.

D.L. Deputy Lieutenant.

D. hit Doctor of Literature

D.LO. Dead Letter Office.

D.M.ox D.Mus. Doctor of Music

Do (It ditto). The same

Dols. Dollars.

Dom. Econ. Domestic Economy

Dot. Dozen.

Dpt. Deponent.

Dr. Debtor.

Dr. Doctor.

Dr. Dram or drams.

DS. (It Dal Segno). To the sign.

D.Sc. Doctor of Science.

D. T. (L. Doctor Theologia). Doctor of Divinity.

Du. Dutch.

Dub. Dublin.

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J.U.S. Seel.H.S.

Jno. Juhn.

Join. Joinery.

Jona. Jonathan

Jos. Joseph.

Josh. Joshua.

Jour. Journal.

J. P. Justice of the Peace.

Jr. Junior.

J. U D. or J. V.D. (L. Juris Utriusque Doctor). Doctor of both Laws (that is, civil and canon. Note. IT and V were formerly regarded as the same letter.

Jud. Judith.

Judg. Judges.

Jul. July or Julius.

Jul, Per. Julian Period.

Jun. June.

Jun. or Junr Junior.

Juris. Jurisprudence.

Jus. P. Justice of the Peace.

Just, Justice.

J. W. Junior Warden.

K. King.

K Knight

Kan. Kansas (United States).

KB. King's Bench.

KB. Knight of the Bath.

K.C.B. Knight Commander of

the Bath. K.C.H. Knight Commander of

the Guelphs of Hanover. K.CM.G. Knight Commanderof

St. Michael and St. George. K.C.S. Knight of the Order of

Charles ILL of Spain. K.C.S.I. Knight Commander of

the Star of India. K.E. Knight of the Eagle, Prussia. Ken. Kentucky (United States). K.G.C. Knight of the Grand

Cross. KG.C.B. Knight of the Grand

Cross of the Bath. K G.F. Knight of the Golden

Fleece, Spain. K GM. Knight of the Guelphs

of Hanover. Ki. Kings. Kil Kilderkin. KUog. Kilogramme. Kilom. Kilometre. Kingd. Kingdom. K.L.B. Knight of Leopold of

Belgium. K L.U. Knight of the Legion of

Honour. KM. Knight of Malta. Km. Kingdom. K.N.S. Knightof theRoyalNor

thern Star. Sweden. Knt. Knight.

K.P. Knight of St. Patrick.
Ks. Kansas (United States).
K.3. Knight of the Sword, Swe-
den
Kt. Knight

A' T. Knight of the Thistle.
KT. Knight Templar.
K.T.3. Knight of Tower and

Sword, Portugal.
Ky. Kentucky (United Stages).

L. Latin.

L. Lake.

L. Lord or Lady.

L , I , or £ (L. Libra). Pound or pounds (sterling).

L., lb , or lb. Pound or pounds (weight).

La. Louisiana (United States).

L.A. Law Agent.

LA. Literate in Arts.

L.A.C. Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Company.

Ladp. Ladyship.

Lam. Lamentations

Lapp. Lappish.

Lat. Latin.

Lot Latitude.

Lb. or lb. Pound or ponnds (weight).

i.C Lord Chamberlain.

L.C. Lord Chancellor.

L.c. Lower-case (in printing).

Lc. (L. loco citato). In the place quoted.

L.C.B. Lord Chief-baron.

L.C.J. Lord Chief-justice.

L C /*. Licentiate of the College of Preceptors.

Ld. Lord.

L.D.S. Licentiate of Dental Surgery.

Leg. or legis. Legislature.

Leip. Leipzig or Leipsic.

Lett. Lettish.

Lev. Leviticus.

Lex. Lexicon.

Lexieog. Lexicography or lexicographer.

L.O. Life i.; nurds.

L.I. Light Infantry.

L. I. Long Island (United States).

Lib. (L. liber). Book.

Lib. Librarian.

Lieut. Lieutenant

Lieut-Col Lieutenant-colonel.

Lieut.-Gen. Lieutenant-general.

Lieut.-Gov. Lieutenant-governor.

Linn. Linnaeus or Limuean.

Li'j Liquor or liquid.

Lit Literature, literary, or literally.

Lith. Lithuanian.

Lie. Livre.

L.I, or L.Lat. Low Latin.

LL.B. (L. LegumBaccalaureus). Bachelor of Laws. See B.LL.

LL.D. (L Legum Doctor). Doctor of Laws. See B.LL.

L.L.I, Lord-lieutenant of Ireland.

L.M. Long metre.

Loti. or Lond. London.

Lon. or long. Longitude.

Log. (L. loquitur). Speaks.

Lou. Louisiana (United States).

Lp. Lordship.

L.P. Lord Provost.

L.S. Leftside.

L S. (L. locus sigilli). Place of the seal

LSD. (L. Librae, Solidi, Denarii). Pounds, shillings, pence.

Lt Lieutenant.

Lt Inf. Light Infantry.

M. Marquis.

M. Middle.

M. (L. mille). Thousand.

M. (L. meridies). Meridian or noon.

.1/ Mile or miles.

M. Monday.

M. Monsieur.

M. Morning.

tn. Married.

m. Masculine.

m. Metre or metres.

m Minute or minutes.

MA. Master of Arts See A.M.

Ma. Minnesota (United States).

Mac. or Mace. Maccabees.

Mack, or machin. Machinery.

Mad. or Madm. Madam.

Mag. Magazine.

May. Major.

Maj.-Gen. Major-general

Mai. Malachi.

Malay. Malayan.

Man, Manege or horsemanship.

Manuf. Manufactures or manufacturing.

Mar. March.

Mar. Maritime.

Marq. Marquis.

Mas. or masc. Masculine.

Mass. Massachusetts (United States).

M.AstS. Member of the Astronomical Society.

Math, Mathematics, mathematical, or mathematician.

Matt Matthew.

M.B. (L. Medicines Baccalaureus). Bachelor of Medicine.

M.B. (L. Musicoe Baecalaureus). Bachelor of Music.

M.C. Master of Ceremonies.

M.C. Member of Congress.

Mch. March.

M. C. P. Member of the College of Preceptors.

M.D. (L. Medicince Doctor). Doctor of Medicine.

Md. Maryland (United States).

Mdlle. Mademoiselle.

M.E. Military Engineer, Mining Engineer, or Mechanical Engineer.

Mc. Maine (United States).

Mech. Mechanics or mechanical.

Med. Medicine or medical.

Mem. Memorandum or memoranda.

Messrs. Messieurs, Gentlemen, or

Met. Metaphysics or metaphysical.

Metal. Metallurgy.

Meteor. Meteorology or meteorological.

Mcth. Methodist

M.Hon. Most Honourable.

M.H.S. Member of the Historical Society.

Mi. Mississippi (United States).

Mic. Mi call.

Mich. Michaelmas.

Mich. Michigan.

Mid. Middle.

Mid. Midshipman.

Mil. or MUit. Military.

Min. Mineralogy or mineralogies!

Mm. Minute or minutes.

Minn. Minnesota (United States).

Min. Plen, Minister Plenipotentiary.

Muis. Mississippi (United States).

Mile. Mademoiselle or Miss.

MM. Their Majesties. See B.LL.

MM. Messieurs. See B.LL.

mm. Millimetres.

Mine. Madame or Mrs.

Mn. Michigan (United States).

M.N.S. Member of the Numismatical Society.

Mo. Missouri (United States).

Mo. Month.

Mod. Modern.

Mod. (It. moderato). Moderately.

Mon. Monday.

Mons. Monsieur; Sir.

M.P. Member of Parliament

M.P.S. Member of the Pharmaceutical Society.

M.P.S. Member of the Philological Society.

Mr. Master {pron. Mister).

M.B. Master of the Rolls.

M.R.A.S. Member of the Royal Academy of Science.

M.RA.S. Member of the Royal Asiatic Society.

M.R.C.P. Member of the Royal College of Physicians.

M Il.C.S. Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.

M.RC.V.S. Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons

M.Ji.G.S. Memlwr of the Royal Geographical Society.

M. R. 1. Member of the Royal Institution.

M.R.I.A. Member of the Royal Irish Academy.

Mrs. Mistress.

M.R.S.L. Member of the Royal Society of Literature.

M.S. Master in Surgery.

M.S. (L. memoriae sacrum). Sacred to the memory.

MS. Manuscript.

3/55. Manuscripts.

ML Mount or mountain.

Mug. Museum.

Mus. Music or musical.

Mtts. B. (L. Musicce Baecalaureus). Bachelor of Music.

Mus.D. or Mus.Doc. (L. Musicce Doctor), Doctor of Music.

M.W.G.M. Most Worthy Grand Master.

M.W.S. Member of the Wernerian Society.

Myth. Mythology or Mythological.

iV. Noon.

N. North; Northern (postal district, London).

N. Noun.

N. Number.

A'.A. North America or North American.

Na. Nebraska (United States).

Nak. Nahum.

Nap. Napoleon.

Nat National.

Nat. Natural.

Nat. Hist. Natural history.

Nat. Ord. Natural order.

Naut. Nautical.

N.B. New Brunswick.

N.B. North Britain (Scotland).

N.B, (L. Nota Bene). Note well or take notice.

N.C. North Carolina (United States).

N.E. New England.

N.E. North-east; North-eastern

Neb. Nebraska (United States).

Neg. Negative or negatively.

Nen. Nehemiah.

Nem. Con. (L. nemine contradicente). No one contradicting or unanimously.

Nem. Dis. (L. nemine dissentiente). No one dissenting or unanimously.

Neth. Netherlands.

Neut. Neuter.

New M. New Mexico (United States).

New Test New Testament

N.B. New Hampshire (United States).

N.J. New Jersey (United States).

N.L. or N.Lat. North latitude.

N. M. New Mexico (United States).

N.N.K. North-north-east.

N.N.W. North-north-west.

No. (L. numero). Number.

Nom. Nominative.

Non. Con. Non-content; dissentient (House of Lords).

Non obst. (L. non obstante). Notwithstanding.

Non pros. (L. non prosequitur). He does not prosecute.

Non seq. (L. non sequilur). It does not follow.

Nor. or Norm. Norman.

Nor. Fr. or Norm. Fr. NormanFrench.

Norw. Norway or Norwegian.

Nos. Numbers.

Nott. or Notts. Nottinghamshire.

Nov. November.

N.P. Notary-public.

N.S. New Style.

A*.5. Nova Scotia.

N.S.J.C (L. Noster Salvator Jesus Christwt). Our Saviour Jesus Christ.

N.T. Nevada Territory (United States).

N.T. New Testament

Num. or Numb. Numbers.

Numis. Numismatics.

N. V.M. Nativity of the Virgin Mary.

N. W. North-west; North-western (postal district, London).

N. W. T. North-west Territory.

N. Y. New York.

N.Z, or N. Zeal. New Zealand.

0. Ohio (United States).

0. Old.

06. (L. obiit). Died.

Obad. Obadiah.

Obdt. Obedient.

Obj. Objective.

Obs. Obsolete.

Obt Obedient.

Oct. October.

O.F. Oddfellows.

0.0. Outside Guardian.

O.H.M.S. On Her Majesty's Service.

Old Test Old Testament.

Olym. Olympiad.

O.M. Old measurement.

On. Oregon (United States).

Op. Opposite or opposition.

O.P. Order of Preachers.

Opt. Optics or optical.

Opt. Optative.

Or. Oregon (United States),

Ord. Ordinance or ordinary.

Orig. Original or originally.

Ornith. Ornithology.

0.5. Old Style.

O.T. Old Testament.

Ox/. Oxford.

Oxon. (L. Oxonia, Oxoniensis). Oxford; of Oxford.

Oxonien. (L. Oxoniensis). Of Oxford.

Oz. Ounce. [Note. The z in this contraction, and in viz., represents an old symbol of similar shape which was used to indi■ cate a terminal contraction.]

P. Page.

P. Participle.

P. Past.

P. Pole.

P. Post.

Pa. Pennsylvania (United

States'.
P.A. Participial adjective.

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"!«- St. Strait.

St. Street.

SI. (L. slel). Letitstand(inprint.).

Stat. Statute or statutes.

Stat. Statuary.

S. T. D. (L. Sacra Theologia Doctor). Doctor of Divinity. -ij* Sttr. or Stg. Sterling.

S.T.P. (L. Sacra Theologia! Professor). Professor of Divinity. His Su. Sunday.

Subj. Subjunctive. a Subst. Substantive.

Subst Substitute.

Suff. Sufflx. *a Su.-Ooth. Suio-Gothic.

: ci Sun. or Sund. Sunday.

Sup. Superior.

Sup. Superlative.

Sup. Supplement. rpj- Supert. Superlative.

Supp. Supplement.

Supt. Superintendent.

Surg Surgeou or surgery. ^s Sur.-Oen. Surgeon-general.

Surv. Surveying or surveyor.

Surv.-Gcn. Surveyor-general.

S.v. (L. sub voce). Under the word or title.

S. IT. Senior Warden.

S.W. Southwest; southwestern (postal district, London).

Sw. Sweden or Swedish.

Switz. Switzerland.

Syn. Synonym or synonymous.

Synop. Synopsis.

Syr. Syria or Syriac.

Syr. Syrup.

T. Tenor.

T. Ton or Tun.

T. Tuesday.

Tan. Tangent.

Tart. Tartaric.

Ten or Tenn. Tennessee (United

States).
Term. Termination.
Teut. Teutonic.
Tex. Texas (United States).
Text. Rec. (L. textus receptus).

Received text.
Th. Thomas.
Th. Thursday.
Theo Theodore.
Theol. Theology.

Theor. Theorem.

Thess. Thessalonians.

Tho. or Thos. Thomas.

Thu., 77iur., or Thurs. Thursday.

T.H.W.M. Trinity high-water mark.

Tier. Tierce.

Tim. Timothy.

Tit. Title.

Tit. Titus.

TO. Turn over.

Tab. Tobit.

Tom. Tome or volume.

Tonn. Tonnage.

Topog. Topographyortopographical.

Tr. Translation or translator.

Tr. Transpose.

Tr. Treasurer.

Tr. Trustee.

Trans. Transactions.

Trans. Translation, translator, or translated.

Trav. Travels.

JViii. Trinity.

Ts. Texas (United States).

T.T.L. To take leave.

Tu. or Tues. Tuesday.

Turk. Turkey or Turkish.

Typ. or Typo. Typographer.

Typog. Typography or typographical

U.C. (L. Urbis Condita). From the building of the city (Rome).

Uh. Utah (United States).

U.J.D. See J. U.D.

U.K. United Kingdom.

U.K.A. Ulster King-at-Arms.

Ult. (L. ultimo). Last, or of the last month.

itm. Unmarried.

Unit. Unitarian.

Univ. University.

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U.T. Utah Territory (United States).

V. Verb.

V. Verse.

V. (L. versus). Against.

V. Victoria.

V. (L. vide). See.

V. Violin.

V.a. Verb active.

V.A. Vicar Apostolic

V.A. Vice-admiral.

Va. Virginia (United States).

Vat. Vatican.

F. o«!t. Verb auxiliary.

V.C. Vice-chancellor.

V.C. Victoria Cross.

V. def. Verb defective.

VD.it. (L. Verbi Dei Minister). Minister of the Word of God.

Ven. Venerable.

V.G. Vicar-general.

V.g. (L. verbi gratia). For example.

V.i. Verb intransitive.

Vice-Pres. Vice-president.

Vid. (L. vide). See.

V. imp. Verb impersonal.

V. irreg. Verb irregular.

Vis. or Vise. Viscount.

Viz. (L. videlieit). Namely; to wit. See note under Oz.

V.n. Verb neuter.

Voc. Vocative.

Vol. Volume.

Vols. Volumes.

V.P. Vice-president.

V. R. (L. Victoria Regina). Queen Victoria.

V.r. Verb reflective.

V.Rev. Very Reverend.

Vs. (L. versus). Against

V.S. Veterinary surgeon.

V.t. Verb transitive.

Vul. or Vulg. Vulgate.

Vulg. Vulgar or vulgarly.

W. Wednesday.

W. Week.

W. Welsh.

W. West; western (postal district,

London).
Wall. Wallachian.
W.C. Water-closet.

W.C. Western Central (postal

district, London). Wed. Wednesday. wj. Wrong fount (in printing). Whf. Wharf. W.I. West Indies. Wis. or Wise. Wisconsin (United

States).
Wk. Week.

W. Lon. West longitude.
Wm. William.
W.M. Worshipful Master.
W.X.W. West-north-west.
Wp. Worshipful.
Wp/ul. Worshipful.
W.S. Writer to the Signet.
W.S.W. West-south-west.
W.T. Washington Territory

(United States).
Wt. Weight.
W.Va. West Virginia (United

States).

X. Christ. [Note. The X in this and the following cases represents the Greek X (=CH) in

Xpistsj OwTM'. chrutos).]

Xm. or Xmas. Christmas.
Xn. Christian.
Xnty. Christianity.
Xper. or Xr. Christopher.
XI Christ.
Xtian. Christian.

Y. Year.

Yd. Yard.

Yds. Yards.

Y- The or Thee. [.Vote. The Y in this and similar instances is a substitute for or representative of the Anglo-Saxon b (=th>.)

Y.M.C.A. Young Men's Christian Association.

Yr. Year.

Yr. Younger.

Yr. Your.

Yrs. Years.

l'r». Yours.

Zaeh. Zachary.

Zech. Zecharlah.

Zeph. Zephaniah.

Z.G. Zoological Gardens.

Zool. Zoology or zoological.

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