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SILT

Silt (silt),t>.i. To percolate through crevices; to ooze.

Sllty (silt'i), a. Consisting of or resembling silt; full of silt.

Silure (si-lur1),». A flsh of the genus Silurus, the sheat-flsh.

Silurian (Bt-lu'ri-an), a. Of or belonging to the SUures, an ancient people of South Wales, or their country. Silurian rocks, strata, system, in geol. the name given by Murchison to a great succession of pttoosota strata intervening between the Cambrian formation and the base of the old red sand

* stone; so called from the district where the strata was first investigated, the region of the Silurcs, a tribe of ancient Britons. The Silurian rocks in Britain have been divided into upper, middle, and lower Silurian; the upper comprising the May hi 11, Wenlock, and Ludlow groups; the middle, the Llandovery rocks; and the lower, the Caradoc and Ltandeilo groups. Silurian strata have been examined in all parts of the world, and co-related with the British types; and though the nature of the rocks may differ, the same facies of life prevails, the fossils exhibiting most of the forms of invertebrate life.

Sllurldae (sHu'ri-de), n. pi. [L. silurus, Gr. silouri.s, the sheat-fish.] A family of fishes, of the order Malacopterygii, placed by Cuvier between the Esocidae or pikes and the Salmonidee or salmon. The family Siluridsc (otherwise named shcat-flsheB) constitutes a very extensive section of fishes, the species of which are, for the most part, confined to the fresh waters of warm climates. They present great diversity of form, but their most obvious external characters are the want of true scales; the skin is generally naked, but in parts protected by large bony

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Sly Silurus (Silurusgiants).

plates; the foremost ray of the dorsal and pectoral fins almost always consists of a strong bony ray, often serrated either in front or behind, or on both sides. The mouth is almost always provided with barbules. The only known European species of Silurus is the Silurus glanis, Linn., a fish of a very large size, which is found in the lakes of Switzerland, in the Danube, the Elbe, and all the rivers of Hungary. It takes its prey by lying in wait for it. The flesh, which is fat, is used in some placeB for the same purposes as lard.

Siluridan (si-lu'ri-dan), n. A flsh of the family Silurids.

Silurus (sMu'rus), n. [L.] A genus of malacopterygious flshes, the type of the family Siluridao. See Silurid.k

Sllva (sil'va), n. [L, a wood.] 1. Same as Sylva.—1 A name given to a woodland plain of the great Amazonian region of South America.

Silvan (sil'van), a. [From L. sitca, a wood or grove; hence also savage.] Pertaining to or composed of woods or groves; sylvan. See SYLVAN.

Silvan (sil'van), n. An obsolete name for the element tellurium. Written also Sylvan.

Silvanlte (sil'van-it), n. A mineral composed of tellurium, gold, and silver, called also Graphic Tellurium, of high value as an ore of gold. It is very sectile, is sometimes crystallized, and of a metallic lustre.

Sllvanus (Bil-va'nus), n. A Roman rural deity, so called from L silva, a wood. He is usually represented with a sickle in his right hand and a bough in his left. He is described as the protector of herds and trees from wolves and lightning, the god of agriculture, or the defender of boundaries.

SUvate (sil'vat), n. See Stlvate.

Silver {sil'ver), n. [A- Sax. seolfer, sylfer, IceL sufr, D. zUver, Dan. solv, G. silber, Goth, silubr; cog. Rus. srebro, serebro, Lith. sidabras, Lett, sudrabs— silver. Root doubtful.] Sym. Ag. At. wt. 10*. 1. A metal which in its compact state is of a flue white colour and lively brilliancy. It possesses

the metallic lustre in a remarkable degree, is capable of being highly polished, and has neither taste nor smell. Its sp. gr. is about 10 53. A cubic foot weighs about 660 lbs. lis ductility is little inferior to that of gold. It is harder and more elastic than tin or gold, but less so than copper, platinum, or iron. It is superior to gold in lustre, but inferior to it in malleability; it is, however, so malleable that it may be beaten into leaves not exceeding the 100,000th part of an inch in thickness. It is not altered by air or moisture, but is blackened or tarnished by sulphuretted hydrogen. The numerous uses and applications of silver are well known. In its pure state it is too soft for coin, plate, and most ornamental purposes, and is therefore in such cases alloyed with copper, by which, in proper proportion, its colour is not materially impaired, and it is considerably hardened. The standard silver of our coin is au alloy 222 parts of pure silver, aud 18 of copper. Native silver occurs abundantly, and is generally alloyed with gold, platinum, copper, iron, arsenic, cobalt, «c. ,moBt frequently with platinum. The ores of silver are numerous, and indeed there are few metallic ores which do not contain some traces of it. The principal ores are the following: Monochloride of silver, or hornsilver, a soft bluish-gray mineral found chiefly in Chili and Peru, but also in smaller quantities in Siberia, the Hartz, Norway, Saxony, Brittany, and Cornwall; it contains about 76 per cent of silver. Argentite, vitreous sulphide of silver, or silver-glance, a dark leaden-gray ore, with a metallic lustre when cut, found in Saxony. Bohemia, Hungary, and Mexico; it contains about 86 per cent of silver. Brittle or black sulphide of silver or sUphanite, a brittle, blackish mineral found at Freiberg, in Peru, and Mexico; it contains about 67 per cent of silver. Polybasite, another form of the brittle sulphide, is of an iron-gray colour, and found in Mexico, Chili, Nevada, and Idaho; it contains from 64 to 72 per cent of silver. Darkred silver ore, ruby-silver, or Pyrargyrite, a widely disseminated ore, yields about 60 per cent of silver. Native amalgam, a soft mineral of a bright silver-white appearance, is found in many localities, and contains about 36 per cent of silver. Argent iferotts galena, the sulphide of lead, which yields a variable amount of silver, is reckoned very rich when it contains 0 005. — Fulminating silver, a very explosive powder formed by heating aqueous nitrate of silver with strong nitric acid and alcohol. See Fulminating. —German silver, nickel silver. See GermanSilver, Nickel-silver.—2. Money; coin made of silver.—3. A piece of plate, or utensil for domestic use, made of silver. 'SIpt wine from silver, praising God.' Tennyson. 4. Anything resembling silver; anything having a lustre like silver.

Pallas . . . piteous of her plaintive cries.

In slumber clos'd her silver streaming eyes. Pope.

—Silver Ib used in the formation of many selfexplanatory compounds; as. silver-bright* silver-clehT, silver-coated, silver-sweet, silver-voiced, silver-white, &c. Silver (sil'ver), a. 1. Made of Bilver; as. asilver cup.—2. Resembling silver; having some of the characteristics of Bilver; silvery: as, (a) white like silver; of a shining white hue. 1 Shame to thy silver hair.' Shak. (b) Having a pale lustre; having a soft splendour. 'The silver moon.' Shak.

Yon silver beams
Sleep they less sweetly on the cottage thatch
Than on the dome of kings T Sfulkf.

(c) Bright; lustrous; shining; glittering.

Spread o'er the silver waves thy golden hairs.

(d) Having a soft and clear tone. 'Music with her silver sound.' Shak, (c) Soft; gentle; quiet; peaceful. 'Silver slumber.' Spenser.—Sillier age, the second mythological period in the history of the world, following the simple and patriarchal golden age. It is fabled as under the rule of Jupiter, and was characterized by voluptuousness. See Golden age under Golden, Iron age under Iron. The term silver age is also applied to a period of Roman literature subsequent to the most brilliant period, and extending from about A. D. 14 to Al>. ISO.

Stiver (sil'ver), v.t. 1. To cover superficially with a coat of silver; as, to silver a pin or a dial-plate.

On a tribunal sifver'tt, Cleopatra and himself in chairs of gold Were publicly enthroned. SAak.

SILVER-THISTLE

2. To cover with tin-foil amalgamated with quicksilver; as, to silver glass. — 3. To adorn with mild or silver-like lustre; to give a silvery sheen to. 'And smiling calmness silver'd o'er the deep.' Pope.

The loveliest moon that ever silvtr'd o'er
A shell for Neptune's goblet. Keats,

4. To make hoary; to tinge with gray. 'A sable silver'd.' Shak.

His head was silver'd o'er with age. Gity.

Silver-beater (sii'ver-l>et-er). n. One who beats silver or forms it into a thin leaf or foil.

Silver-bell, Silver-bell Tree (sil'ver-bel. sil'ver-bel tre), n. A name common to the shrubs or small trees of the genus Halesia, nat order Styracacece; snow-berry tree.

Silver-bush (sil'ver-bush), n. An evergreen leguminous plant, a species of Anthyllis, the A. barba Joris.

Sllver-buskined(sil'ver-bus-kind), a. Having buskins adorned with silver. 'Fair silver-buskin'd nymphs.' Milton.

Silver - flr (sH'ver-fer), n. A species of flr, the Abies picea or Picea pectinata.&o called from two silvery lines on the under side of the leaves. It is a native of the mountains of the middle and south of Europe, but has long been common in Britain. It grows to the height of 150 to 180 feet, forming a very fine tree. Its timber is not so much prized as that of some other Bpecies, but is used for various purposes, and is durable under water. It yields resin, turpentine, tar, &c, especially the fine clear turpentine known as Strasburg turpentine. The American silver-fir, the balm of Gilead fir (Abies balsamea), yields the Canada-balsam used far optical purposes. Other species of Picea are also called silver-Mrs.

Silver-flsh (sil'ver- flsh), n. A flsh of the size of a small carp, having a white colour striped with silvery lines. It is a variety of the Cyprinus auratus, or gold-fish.

Silver-fox (sil'ver-foksV n. A species of fox, V'ulpes argentatus, inhabiting the northern parts of Asia, Europe, and America, and distinguished by its rich and valuable fur, which is of a shining black colour, having a small quantity of white mixed with it in different proportions.

Silver-glance (sil'ver-glanB), n. A mineral, a native sulphuret of silver. See under Silver.

Silver-grain (sil'ver-gran), n. A name given to the medullary rays, or vertical plates of cellular tissue which connect the pith of exogenous plants with the bark.

Silver-gray (sil'ver-grA). a. Of a colour resembling silver. Tennyson.

Silver-haired (sil'ver-hard), a. Having hair of the colour of silver; having white or gray hair.

Silvering (sil'ver-ing), n. 1. The art, operation, or practice of covering the surface of anything with silver, or with an amalgam of tin and mercury; as, the sUrering of copper or brass; the silvering of mirrors. — 2. The silver or amalgam laid on.

Silverize (sil'ver iz), v.t. pret. A pp. silverized; ppr. silverizing. To coat or cover with silver.

Silver-leaf (sil'ver-lef), n. Silver foliated or beaten out into a thin leaf.

Sllverless (sil'ver-les), a. Having no silver; without money; impecunious. Piers Plowman.

Silverling (sil'ver-ling), n. A silver coin. 'A thousand vines at a thousand silverlings.' Is vii 23

Sllverly (sil'ver-li), adv. With a bright or sparkling appearance, like silver.

Let me wipe off this honourable dew

That sitx-erly doth progress on thy cheeks. Shak.

This river does not see the naked sky.

Till it begins to progress silver ty

Around the western border of the wood. JCtats.

Silvern (sil'vem), a. Made of silver; silver. [Now archaic or poetical.]

Silver-paper (sil'ver-pa-per), n. Tissuepaper.

Silver-plated (sil'ver-plat-ed), a. Covered with a thin coating of silver.

Silversmith (sil'ver-smith), n. One whose occupation is to work in silver. Actsxix. 24.

Silver - stick (sil'ver-stik), n. The name given to a fleld-offlcer of the Life Guards when on palace duty.

Silver-thistle. Silvery - thistle (sil'verthis-l, sil'ver-i-this-l), n. A plant of the genus Acanthus, the A. spinosus, a native of Southern Europe, but cultivated in this country. Its leaves are supposed to have

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famished to Callimachus the model for the decoration of the capital of the columns in the Corinthian style of architecture.

Silver-tongued (sil'ver-tungd), a. Having a smooth tongue or speech.

Silver- tree (sil'ver-tre), n. A plant of the gtMiusLeueodendron.L. arp^ntfwwi, so called from the appearance of the leaves, which are lanceolate and silky. It is a large evergreen shrub with handsome foliage, a native of the Cape of Good Hope.

Silver-weed (sil'ver-wed), n, A plant of the genus Potentilla, the P. anserina Called also Goose-grass and Wild Tansy. See Potestilla.

8ilvery (sil'ver-i). a. 1. Besprinkled, covered with, or containing silver.—2. Like silver; having the appearance of silver; white; of a mild or silver-like lustre.

Of ill the enamel'd race whose silvery wing
Waves to the tepid «phyrs of the spring. Pofie.

In the hexameter rises the fountain's ri/very column, la the pentameter aye falling in melody back.

Coleridge.

5 Clear and soft, as the sound of a silver bell; as, silvery laughter—4. In hot. bluish white or gray, with a metallic lustre.

Sllybum <sil'i-buiu), n. A genus of composite plants belonging to the thistle group. S. Marianum is the Carduus Marianus of Linn sens, and is popularly known by the name of milk-thistle. It is found in waste places in Great Britain, and is distinguishable at once by the milky veins on its leaves, and the great recurved scales of the involucre. The white veins on the leaves were supposed to have been produced by a drop of the Virgin Mary's milk.

Sima (si'ma). In arch same as Cyma (which s*ei.

Simagret (Bim'a-gra), n. [Fr. timagrte, a srmiaee.J A grimace. Dryden (Rare.]

Simar.t Simare t {si-mar*, si-marO, n. [Fr. sitnarre. It zimarra] A woman's robe; a loose light garment. Written also Cimar, Cymar, Chimmar, and Sitnarre. 'Ladies dressed in rich simars.' Dryden. 'A sima rre of the richest Persian silk.' Sir W. Sc-Xt.

Simaruba (sim-a-ru'ba), n. [The Caribbean name of S. ojlcinalis.] A genus of the nat order Simarubacew. They have compound leaves and small paniculate unisexual flowers. The bark of the root of S. amara or officinalis, a tall tree, a native of Guiana and of Jamaica, is also called simaruba It is a tough, fibrous, bitter bark; the infusion is occasionally used in medicine as a tonic

Simaj^baceaB(sim'a-ru-ba''se-e),n.pi. A nat order of usually bitter trees or shrubs, with simple or compound leaves and regular unisexual flowers, natives chiefly of the torrid zone.

Simblot (sim'blot), n. The harness of a weaver's draw-loom. Simmonds.

Slmeonite (sim'e-on-H), n. Eccles. a follower of the Rev. Charles Simeon, a highly evangelical clergyman of the English Church, who in the end of last century endeavoured to establish a fund, known as 'the Simeon trust,' for the purchase of cures, to which men of similar sentiments with himself might be presented; hence, a name sometimes given to Low-churchmen. Sometimes abbreviated into Sim,

'I>3 you mean to tell me now that you regard chapels as anything but an unmitigated nuisance?' •M"i* certainly I do mean to tell you so, if you a*k

■c.' 'Ah, Iwe-inwl" Farrar.

Simla. (sim'i-a), n. [L. an ape, from simus, nat-nosed.] The generic name applied by Lmnss-us to all the quadrumanoua mammah (monkeys) except the lemurs. The Linn term Simiss are di rided intonumerous sub-genera, to none of which the name Simla is now applied, except by some modern naturalists to the species of the genus Pithecus (which see).

Slmlads (sim'i-a-de), n.pl. A quadrumanous family of mammals now limited to include the higher apes, such as the orangs, gorilla, and chimpanzee.

Simian, Simla! (sim'i-an, sim'i-al), a. Of or pertaining to an ape; resembling an ape; having the character of an ape; ape-like.

We are awire that there may be vulgar souls who, yeIftUig from their simiat selves, may uouM the contu<e3tc of Scipio. jferrold.

It o Bow admitted that the differences between the brain of the highest races of tn;tn and that of tfc* Io«est, thouifh less in degree, are of the same icier as tho-se which separate the simian from the bzioan Wain. Sir C. Lyell.

Similar (sim'i-ler), a. [Fr. simUaire, from a hypothetical form simUaris, from L. simi('■-. like, from a root seen also in E. same. SeeSAMK.J 1. Like; resembling; having a like form or appearance; like in quality. Similar may signify exactly alike, or having a general likeness, a likeness in the princi

f»al points The latter is the ordinary roeanng. 'A duty second and similar to that of the love of God.' Watetland.

There arc other collateral manufactures of so Ji/mit.tr a nature that a workman can easily transfer his industry from one of them to another. Adam Smith.

2.t Homogeneous; of like structure or character throughout. Boyle. Similar arcs. See under Arc.Similar curves, curves whose equations are of the same form, and the ratio of the constants in those equations equal.— Similar rectilineal figures, in geom. such as have their several angles equal each to each, and the sides about the equal angles proportional. Such figures are to one anotheras the squares of their homologous Bides.— Simitar segments of circles, those which contain equal angles. —Similar solids, such as are contained by the same number of similar planes, similarly situated, and having like inclinations to one another. Such solids are to one another as the cubes of their homologous Bides.

Similar (sim'i-ler), n. That which is similar; that which resembles something else in form, appearance, quality, or the like.

The question to be asked is, whether the association established between the two feelings results immediately from the cohesion of the one to the other, or results mediately from the cohesion of each feeling and each relation between them to their respective similars in experience. H. Spencer.

Similarity (sim-i-larl-ti), n. The Btate of being similar; close likeness; perfect or partial resemblance; as, a similarity of features.

From the , . similarity it bore to the spruce, I judged that ... it would make a very wholesome beer. Cask.

Similarly (sim'i-Ier-li), adv. In a similar or like manner; with resemblance in essential points.

Slmllaryt (slm'i-ler-i), a. Similar. 'Rhyming cadences of similary wordB.' South.

Simile (sim'i-le), ?». [L, a like thing, from similis, like. See Similar.] In rhet. the likening together of two things which, however different in other respects, have some strong point or points of resemblance; a poetic or imaginative comparison,

O. sir, Luccntio slipped me like his greyhound, Which runs himself and catches for fits, master. —A good swift simile, but something currish. Shak.

Similes are like songs in love:

They much describe, they nothing prove. Prior.

—Simile, Metaphor, Allegory, Parable, agree in implying likeness between a primary object, or the thing likened, and a secondary, or that to which it is likened. Simile asserts mere resemblance, and states what is literally true; as, man is like grass. Metaphor asserts what, taken literally, is not true, affirming the primary to be the Becondary; as, all flesh is grass. Allegory has been defined to be a continued metaphor, but improperly. Metaphor presents always both objects; allegory, the secondary only, so that its real meaning and application are only to be perceived by inference. The moBt characteristic feature of allegory is the personification of abstract ideas and things without life, and the allegory generally forms an independent whole of some length. Spenser's Faery Queen and Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress are the most perfect examples in modern literature. Parable is usually devoted to the inculcation of some truth or principle by means of an invented case or incident resembling or parallel to a real case, the author of the parable being thus enabled to put prominently and forcibly forward the essential points intended to be emphasized.

Similiter (si-mil'i-ter), adv. [L., in like manner ] In law, the technical designation of the form by which either party in pleading accepts the issue tendered by his opponent.

Similitude (si-mil'i-tud). n. [Fr. similitude, from L.similitudo, from similis, like] 1. Likeness; resemblance; likeness in nature, qualities, or appearance.

Similitude of substance would cause attraction.
Bacon.
I ,et us make now man in our image, man
In our similitude. Milton.

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2. A comparison; a parable or allegory; a simile.

Tasso in his similitudes never departed from the woods, that is, his comparisons were taken from the country. Dryden.

3 A representation; a facsimile; a portrait.

Similitudinary (si-miri-tu"di-na-ri), a. Involving the use of similitudes or similes; marking similitude. Sir E. Coke.

Similor (sim'i-lor), n. A gold-coloured alloy of copper and zinc. Written also Semilor.

Simlous (sim'i-us), a. [L. simia, an ape.] Pertaining to or like the monkey; monkeylike. 'That strange simious school-boy passion of giving pain to others.' Sydney Smith.

Simitar (sfm'i-ter). See Scimitar.

Simmer (sim'er), v.i. [O.E. symper, to simmer; probably imitative of the gentle murmuring sound made by liquids beginning to boil or boiling very slowly] To boil or bubble gently, or with a gentle hissing. 'Till the spirit simmer or boil a little.' Boyle.

Simmer (sim'er), v.t. To cause to boil gently.

Slmnelt (sim'nel),n. [Formerlyalso simenel, from O.Fr. simenel, siminel, a cake of fine flour; L.L. sime?tellus, siminellus (for similellus), from L. simila (with change of I to «), the finest wheat flour.] A cake made of fine flour; a kind of sweet cake; a cracknel. 'Not common bread, but wassel bread and simnels, for his diet' Fuller.

Sodden bread, which be called simnels or cracknels, be verie unwholesome. Bttllein (1595).

Slmoniac (si-m6'ni-ak), n. [Fr. simoniaque. See Simony.] One who practises simony, or who buys or sells preferment in the church.

Slmonlacal (si-mo-nl'ak-al), a. 1. Guilty of simony.

Add to your criminals the simoniacal ladies who seduce the sacred order into the difficulty of breaking their troth. Spectator.

2. Pertaining to, involving, or consisting of simony, or the crime of buying or selling ecclesiastical preferment; as, a simoniacal presentation.

Slmoniacally (si-md-nl'ak-al-li), adv. In a simoniacal manner; with the guilt or offence of Bimony.

Simonian (si-m<5'ni-an). n. A follower of Simon Magus, whose system was a species of gnosticism.

Simonlous (si-mo'ni-us), a. Partaking of simony; given to simony. Milton.

Simonist (sim'on-ist), ». One who practises or defends simony; a simoniac.

Simony (sim'oni), n. [Fr. siwonie, L.L. simonia, from Simon Magus, who wished to purchase the power of conferring the Holy Spirit. Ac. viii.J The act or practice of trafficking in sacred things; particularly, the buying or Belling of ecclesiastical preferment, or the corrupt presentation of any one to an ecclesiastical benefice for money or reward.

Simoom (si-mom'), n. [Ar. samum, from samma, to poison.] A hot suffocating wind that blows occasionally in Africa and Arabia, generated by the extreme heat of the Jtarched deserts or sandy plains. The air, leated by contact with the noonday burning sand, ascends, and the influx of colder air from all sides forms a whirlwind or miniature cyclone, which is borne across the desert laden with sand and dust Its intense, dry, parching beat, combined with the cloud of dust and sand which it carries with it, has a very destructive effect upon both vegetable and animal life. The effects of the simoom are felt in neighbouring regions, where winds owing their origin to it are known under different names, and it is subject to important modifications by the nature of the earth's surface over which it passes. It is called Sirocco in South Italy, Samtel in Turkey, Solano in Spain, Kamsxn in Egypt and Syria, and Harmattan in Guinea and Senegambia.

Simoon (si-mbn'), n. Same as Simoom.

Slmous (Bi'musV a. [L: simus, flat-nosed; Gr. simos.] I. Having a very flat or snub nose, with the end turned up.—2. Concave. "The simous part of the liver.' Sir T. Browne.

Sim pal (sim'pf), n. A beautiful little monkey of Sumatra (Presbytes melalophos), remarkable for Its extremely long and slender non-prehensile tail, and the black crest that traverses the crown of the head.

Simper (sim'per), v.t [Probably, as Wedgwood thinks, the radical meaning is that of a conscious restraint of the lips and mouth,

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as if dosing them in the pronunciation of the sound sipp, this word eipp in L.G. expressing the gesture of a compressed mouth, and an affected pronunciation with pointed lips; comp. mim, mum. Similar words are Prov. O. zimpern, to be affectedly coy; Dan. semper, simper, eoy.J 1. To smile in a silly manner. "Behold yond simpering dame.' Shak. 2.t To glimmer; to twinkle. Yet can I mark how stars above Simper and shine. G. Herbert.

Simper (sim'per), n. A smile with an air of silliness; an affected smile or smirk. 'The conscious simper and the jealous leer.' Pope.

Slmperer fsira'per-er), n. One who simpers.

Simperingly (sim'per-ing-li), adv. In a simpering manner; with a silly smile.

Simplesometer (sim'pi-ez-om'et-er). See Sympiksomktkr.

Simple (sim'pl). a. [ft. simple, from L. simplex, simple, from a root sa, earn, meaning one or unity (also in sincere and in £. same), and that of plica, a fold.] 1. Single; not complex ; consisting of one thing; uncompounded; unmingled; uncombined with anything else; as, a simple substance; a simple idea; a simple sound.

Among1 substances, some are called simple, some compound, whether taken in a philosophical or vulgar sense. Ir'atts.

2 Not given to design, stratagem, or duplicity; undesigning; sincere; harmless. 'Tradition's simple tongue.' Byron.— 3. Artless in manner; unaffected; unconstrained; inartificial; unadorned; plain; as, a simple style of narration; a simple dress.

In simple manners alt the secret lies. Young.

4. Mere; pure; being no more and no less; being nothing else but. 'A simple knight among his knights.' Tennyson.

A medicine . . . whose simple touch
Is powerful to aratse king Pepin. Shak.

A heated pulpiteer,
Not preaching simple Christ to simple men.
Announced the coining doom. Tennyson.

6. Not distinguished by any excellence; of an average quality; common; plain; humble; lowly.

Great floods have flown
From simple sources. Shak.

Clergy and lain- . . . gentle and simpl*, made the

fuel ofthe same fire. Fuller.

6. Not complex or complicated; as, a machine of simple construction.—7. Unmistakable; clear; intelligible; as, a simple statement—8. Weak in intellect; not wise or sagacious; silly.

The simple believeth every word; but the prudent looketh well to his going. Prov. xiv. 15.

I am ashamed that women are so simple
To offer war where they should kneel for peace.
Shak.

9. In hot. undivided, as a root, stem, or spike; only one on a petiole; as, a simple leaf; only one on a peduncle; as, a simple flower; having only one set of rays, as an umbel; having only one series of leaflets; as, a simple calyx; not plumose or feathered, as a pappus.—10. In chem. applied to a body that has not been decomposed or separated into two or more bodies; elementary. See Elementary substances under Elementary. 11. In mineral, homogeneous.— Simple contract, simple equation, simple interest, &c. See under the nouns.—Syn. Single, uncompounded, unmingled, unmixed, mere, uncombined, elementary, plain, artless, sincere, harmless, undesigning, frank, open, unaffected, inartificial, unadorned, credulous, silly, foolish, shallow, unwise. Simple (sim'pl), n. 1. Something not mixed or compounded.

It is a melancholy of mine own, compounded of many simples, extracted from inany objects. Shak.

Specifically, a medicinal herb or medicine obtained from an herb; so called because each vegetable was supposed to possess its particular virtue, and therefore to constitute a simple rem My.

We walked into a large garden, esteemed for its furniture, one of the fairest, especially for simples and exotics. Evelyn.

2. In the R. Cath. Ch. a feast celebrated with less ceremony than a double or semidouble. See Double.

Simple (Bim'pl), v.i. pret. «fc pp. simpled; ppr. simpling. To gather simples or plants. * As simpling on the flowery hills he strayed.' Garth.

Simple-hearted (sim'pl-hart-ed),a. Having a simple heart; single-hearted; ingenuous.

Simple-minded (sim'pl-mlnd-ed), a. Artless; undesigning; unsuspecting.

(Theyt bending oft their sanctimonious eyes
Take homage of the simple-minded throng.

Akenside.

Simple-mindedness (sim'pl-mlnd-ed-nes), n. The Btate or quality of being simpleminded; artlessness.

Slmpleness (sim'pl-nes), n. 1. The state or quality of being simple, sfngle, or uncompounded; as, the simpleMss of the elements

2. Artlessness; simplicity; innocence; plainness.

For never anything can be amiss

When simplrness and duty tender it Shak.

3. Weakness of intellect; silliness; folly.

What slmpleness is this? Shak.

Simpler (sim'pl-er). n. One that collects simples or medicinal plants; an herbalist; a simplist

An English botanist will not have such satisfaction In showing it to a simpler. Barrington.

Simplesse t (sim'ples), n, [Fr.] Simplicity; silliness. Chaucer; Spenser.

Simpleton (sim'pl-ton), n. [From simple, with French term, ton; comp. Fr. simpletle, a silly wench.] One who is very simple; a silly person; a person of weak intellect; a trifler; a foolish person.

A discredit, as lasting as mercenary scribblers or curious simpletons can make it. Pope.

Simplex (sim'pleks), n. [L.] Simple; single.

Simpliciant (sim-plish'i-an). n [O.Fr. sim~ plicien. ] An artless, unskilled, or undesigning person; a simpleton.

Simplicity (sim-plis'i-ti), n, [Fr. timpliciU, L. stmplicitas. See SIMPLE] 1. The state or quality of being simple, unmixed, or uncompounded; as, the simplicity of metals or of earths. 'Discoverable in their simplicity hnd mixture.' SirT. Browne.—2. The state or quality of being not complex, or of consisting of few parts; as, the simplicity of a machine.

We are led to conceive that great machine of the world to have been once iu a state of greater simplicity than it now is. Burnet.

3. Artlessness of mind; freedom from a propensity to cunning or stratagem; freedom fromduplicity;sincerity; harmlessness. 'By the simplicity of Venus' doves.' Shak.

Of manner gentle, of affections mild;

In wit a man, simplicity a child. Pope.

4. Freedom from artificial ornament; plainness; as, the simplicity of a dress, of style, of language, &c.

Give me a look, give mc a face,

That m.ikes simplicity a grace;

Robes loosely flowing, hair as free;

Such sweet neglect more taketh me

Than all th' adulteries of art. B. j*onson.

h. Freedom from subtlety or abstruseness; clearness; as, the simplicity of Scriptural doctrinesor truth.—(J. Weakness of intellect; silliness; folly.

How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity. Prov. L 22.

Simplification (sin)'pli-fl-ka"shon), n, [ft. simplification.] The act of simplifying; the act of making simple; the act of reducing to simplicity, or to a state not complex.

The simplification of machines renders them more and more perfect, but this simplification of the rudiments of languages renders them more and more imperfect, and less proper for many of the purposes of language. Adam Smith.

Simplify (sim'pli-fi), v.t pret. A pp. timplificd; ppr. simplifying. [Fr. simplifier, L.L. simpliticare, from L. simplex, simple, and facio, to make.] To make simple; to bring to greater simplicity; to reduce from the complex state; to show an easier or shorter process for doing or making; to make plain or easy.

Philosophers have generally advised men to shun needless occupations, as the certain impediments of a good and happy life; they bid us endeavour to simplify ourselves. Barrow.

The collection of duties is drawn to a point, and so fat simplified. A. Hamilton.

Simplist (sim'pl-ist), n. One skilled in simples or medicinal plants; a simpler.

A plant so unlike a rose, it hath been mistaken by some good stmplists for amomum. Sir T. Browne.

Simplistic (sim-plis'tik), a. Of or pertaining to simples or a simplist. [Rare. ]

Simplltyt (sim'pli-ti), n. Simplicity. Piers Plowman.

Simploce (sim'plo-sg), n. Same as Symploce.

Simply (sim'pli), adv. 1. In a simple manner; without art; without subtlety; artlessly; plainly.

Subverting worldly strong, and worldly wise
13y simply meek. Milton.

2. Without addition; alone; absolutely. 'I were simply the most active fellow in Europe.' Shah:

They make that good or evil which otherwise of Itself were not simply the one uor the other.

Hooker.

3. Merely; solely.

Simply the thing I am
Shall make mc live. Shak.

4. Weakly; foolishly.

Simulacnret (sim'ii-la-ker), n. [L. simulacrum, a likeness, an image.] An image. Sir T. ElyoL

Slmulart (slm'u ler% n. [See Simulate.] One who simulates or counterfeits something; one who pretends to be what he is not. Christ calleth the Pharisees hypocrites, that »» to say, singulars, and wliited sepulchres. Tyndale.

Slmulart (sim'uler),av Specious; plausible; feigned; counterfeit.

I returned with simittnr proof enough To make the noble Leonulus mad, Soak.

Simulate (sim'u-lat), v.t. pret <fc pp. simulated; ppr. simulating. [L. simulo, Simula turn, from similis, like.] To assume the mere appearance of, without the reality; to assume the signs or indications of, falsely; to counterfeit; to feign.

What though the first smooth C.'esar's arts caressed Merit and virtue, simulating mc? Thomson.

The Puritans . . . prayed, and with no simulated fervour. Atacaulay.

Simulate (sim'u-lat), a. [L. simulatus, pp. of simulo. See the verb.] Feigned; pretended. 'A simulate chastity.' Bale.

Simulation (sim-u-la'shon), n. [L. simulatio. See Simulate.] The act of simulating or of feigning to be that which one is not; the assumption of a deceitful appearance or character. Simulation differs from dissimulation. The former denotes the assuming of a false character; the latter denotes the concealment of the true character.

Simulation is a pretence of what is not; dissimulation a concealment of what is. Steele.

Svy. Counterfeiting, feint, pretence. Simulator (sim'u-lat-er). n. One who simulates or feigns

Slmulatory (sim'u-la-to-ri), a. Consisting in or characterized by simulation.

Jehoran wisely suspects the flight of the Syrians to be but simutalory, . . . only to draw Israel out of their city. Bp. Hmll.

Simulium (si-mnli-um), n. fL simulo, to feign] A genus of dipterous insects of the family Tipulidas. One species is known by the name of sand-fly; its larva; are found on the stems of water-plants, and when anything disturbs the water they become perfectly still and motionless. The species of Simulium are small, and often prove very troublesome from piercing the flesh.

Simultaneity (sim'ul-ta-ne"i-ti), n. State or quality of being simultaneous. De Quince?/.

Simultaneous (sim-ul-ta'ne-us), a. [Fr. simultan/e, L. L. simultaneus, from L. simul, at the same time.] Taking place or happening at the same time; done at the same time; as, simultaneous events; the sitnuttaneous eruption of two volcanoes 'A like mutual and simultaneous exchange.' Gianville. Simultaneous equations, in math. equations In which the values of the unknown quantities entering them are the same in both or in all at the same time.

Simultaneously (sim-ul-ta'nfi-us-li), adc. At a simultaneous time; in a simultaneous manner; together; in conjunction.

lie introduces the deities of both nrting simultaneously. Shenstome.

Simultaneousness (sim-ul-ta'ng-us-nes), n. The state or quality of being simultaneous, or of happening at the same time, or acting in conjunction; as, the simultaneousness of transactions in two different places.

Simultyt (sim'ul-ti), n. [L. simulttu, hostile encounter ] Private grudge or quarrel 'To enquire after domestic simulties.' B. Jonson.

Slmurg fsi-murg'X n. A fabulous monstrous bird of the Persians. See Roc.

Sin (sin), n. [A. Sax. synn, sin, sin, evil, wickedness; Icel. and Dan. syhd, O.D. sundc. Q.sutute, sin. Origin obscure; perhaps connected with the A. Sax. prefix sin, very, exceeding, great, or with sunder, asunder.] 1. The voluntary departure of a moral agent from a known rule of rectitude or duty prescribed by God; any voluntary transgression of the divine law, or violation of a divine command; moral depravity; wickedness; iniquity. Sin is either a positive act

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in which a known divine law is violated, or it is the voluntary neglect to obey a positive divine command, or a rule of duty clearly implied in such command. Sin comprehends not actions only, but neglect of known duty, all evil thoughts, purposes, words, and desires, whatever is contrary to God's commands or law.

Whosoever comraittuth sin transgresseth also the law; tot stn is a transgres-kien of the law. i Jn. iii. 4.

Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doetn it not, to him it is Jm. Jas. iv. 17.

All crimes are indeed Tins, but not all sins crimes. A six may be in the thought or secret purpose of a man. of Which neither a judge, not a witness, nor any roan can take notice. Hobbes.

Sin is spoken of in theology as original or actual. Actual sin is the act of a moral agent in violating a known rule of duty. Original gin, as generally understood, is native depravity of heart; that want of conformity of heart to the divine will, that corruption of nature or deterioration of the moral character of man, which is supposed to t>e the effect of Adam's apostasy; and which manifests itself in moral agents by positive acts of disobedience to the divine will, or by the voluntary neglect to comply with the express command's of God.—Deadly or mortal tin, in the it Cath. Ch. wilful and deliberate transgressions which take away tlivine grace: In distinction from venial sins. The seven deadly sins are murder, lust, covetousness, pride, envy, gluttony, idleness. —2. An offence in general; a transgression; as, a sin against good taste. —3. A sinoffering; an offering made to atone for sin.

Me hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no tin. 2 Cor. v. 71.

41 An Incarnation or embodiment of sin; a man enormously wicked.

Thy ambition. Thoo, scarlet sin, robbed this bewailing Land Of noble Buckingham. ShaJt.

Sin (sinX r.i pret A pp. tinned; ppr. sinning. [.See the noun] 1. To commit a sin; to depart voluntarily from the path of duty prescribed by God to man; to violate the divine law in any particular by actual transgression or by the neglect or non-observance of its injunctions; to violate any known rule of duty.

All have tinned and come short of the glory of Cod. Ki.rn. tii. 33.

Often followed by against.

Against thee, thee only, have I sinned. Ps, U. a.

2. To offend against right, against men, society, or a principle; to transgress; to trespass: with against.

I am a man
More sinn'd against than sinning: Shak.

And who but wishes to invert the laws Of order sins against th' eternal Cause. Pope. It would be dishonest to shun the reference to existing circumstances and the established order of t£mi£s in explaining the fundamental principles of tetrad policy against which the institutions of the *tate arc found clearly to tin. Brougham.

It is occasionally nsed transitively, in sense of to commit, with sin as object 'All is past, the sin is sinn'd.' Tennyson.Sinning one'* mercies, being ungrateful for the gifts of Providence. [Scotch.]

I know your good father would term this' sinning try mercies.'' Sir IP. Scott.

Sin fsinX <"*"- Since. [Old English and
Scotch.]

Knowing his voice, although not heard long sin.
She sudden was revived therewithal!. Sfettser.

SlnaiC (si-na'ikX a. Same as Sinaitic.

Sinai tic (si na-it'ik), a. [From Sinai, the mountain.] Pertaining to Mount Sinai; given or made at Sinai.

Sinamome t (sin'a-mom), n. Cinnamon.

Sinapine (sin'a-pin), n. (C]6HvS05.) An organic base existing as a sulphocyanate in whit* mustard seed.

Slnapis (si-na'pisX n. [L. sinapis, sinapi, <it. sinapi, mustard.] A genus of herbaceous plants of the nat order Cruciferae. The characteristic features of the species are: calyx of four spreading sepals; style small, abort, acute; fruit cylindrical, its valves traversed by one or more prominent nerves; seeds in one row. The seedB of S. mvrra and S. alba, when freed from the basks and ground, form the well-known con>Ument mustard. See Mustard.

Sinapism (sin'a-pizm), n (ft. sinapurme, L. mt lapUatu*. See Sinapis] In phar. a cataplasm or poultice composed of pulverized mu&tird seed mixed to a proper consistence with warm water or vinegar. It is used for exciting redness, and acta as a powerful counter irritant.

Sin-bom (sin'born), a. Born of sin; originating, sprung, or derived from sin. 'The sin-born monster' (Death). Milton.

Sin-bred (sin'bred), a. Produced or bred by sin. 'Honour dishonourable, sin-bred.' Milton,

Since (sins), adv. [O.E. sin*, sinnes, sithens, sithence, all genitive forms from A. Sax. siththan—sith, after, since, and than, that time, a dative form of that, the, that, demonstrative article. Comp. hence, whence.]

1. From that time; after that time; from then till now; in the interval 'St George that swinged the dragon, and e'er rince sits on his horse.' Shak. 'Who since I heard to be discomfited.' Shak.

I cannot abide the smell of hot meat since. Shak.

2. Before this or now; ago.

The world was very guilty of such a ballad some three ages since. Shak.

Sometimes it is nearly equal to token.

Do you remember since we lay all night in the windmill in St. George's fieldf Shak.

Since (sins), prep. Ever from the time of; in or during the period subsequent to; subsequently to; after: with a past event or time for the object

Since his exile she hath despised me most Shak.

Since the beginning of the world, men have not heard . . . what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him. Is. lair. 4

Since (sinsX con/. 1. From the time when. [Here it may be regarded alternately as a preposition governing a clause.]

I have been in such a pickle since I saw you last. Shak.

According to the revelation of the mystery which

was kept secret since the world began. Rev. xvi 25.

2. Because that; seeing that; inasmuch as.

Since truth and constancy are vain.

Since neither love nor sense of pain.

Nor force of reason can persuade.

Then let example be obey'd. Glattville.

Sincere (sin-serO. a. [L- sincerus, sincere, often derived from sine, without, and cera. wax, as if primarily applied to honey without admixture of wax, but modem etymologists do not admit this derivation, and in the element sin recognize the sim of L. simul, the sarn of Skr. sama, all, E. same, and, in cerus, the same root as in Icel. skir, Goth. skeirs, E. sheer, pure, clear, the sense thus being all or wholly clear.] 1. Pure; unmixed. 'A joy which never was sincere till now.' Dryden.

As new-born babes, desire the sincere milk of the word. 1 Pet. ii. 2.

There is no sincere acid in any animal juice.

Arhuthnot.

I would have all gallicisms avoided, that our tongue may be sincere. Fclten.

% t Unhurt; uninjured. 'Th' inviolable body stood sincere.' Dryden.—3. Being in reality what it appears to be; not feigned; not simulated; not assumed or said for the sake of appearance; real; genuine. 'His love sincere.' Shak. 4. Honest; undissembling; guileless; frank; truthful; true.

The more sincere you are the better it will fare with vou at the great day of account. In the meantime give ns leave to be sincere too in condemning heartily what we heartily disapprove. H'aterland.

As a preacher Mr. H. was sincere but not earnest. De Qninety.

Hearty, Cordial, Sincere. See under Hearty. Syn. Honest, unfeigned, unvarnished, real, true, unaffected, inartificial, frank, upright, undissembling. Sincerely (sin-ser'li), ado. In a sincere manner; as, (a) without alloy or mixture; perfectly. 'Everything that is sincerely good and perfectly divine.' Milton, (b) Honestly; with real purity of heart; without simulation or disguise; unfeignedly; as, to speak one's mind sincerely; to love virtue sincerely.

Hear me profess sincerely; had I a dozen sons . . . I had rather had efeven die nobly for their country than one voluptuously surfeit out of action. Sk.i*.

Sincereness (sin-scr'nes), n. Sincerity. Sir W. Temple.

Sincerity (sin-ser'i-ti), n. [ft. tindriU, L. sinceritas. See SINCERE] The state or quality of being sincere; honesty of mind or intention; freedom from simulation or hypocrisy; truthfulness; genuineness; earnestness.

I speak not by commandment, but . . . to prove "of your love. »Cor. viii. 8.

[graphic]

the sincerity of your love.

cerity. is the first characteristic of all men in any way

I should say sincerity, a deep, great, genuine sin■ity. is the first characteristic of all men in any wa heroic. Carlyle.

Sincipital (sin-sip'it-al), a. In anat. of or pertaining to the sinciput.

The parietal bones have been called sincipital. Dunglison.

Sinciput (sin'si-put), n. [L.] The fore part of the head from the forehead to the coronal suture, in contradistinction to the occiput or back part of the head. Sindoc, n. See Sintoc. Slndon t (sin'don), n. [ L., a kind of fine textile fabric; Gr. sindOn, probably from Sindos, the Indus.] 1. A piece of cotton or linen; a wrapper. 'A book and a letter, . . . wrapped In sindons of linen.' Bacon. 2. In surg. a small piece of rag or round pledget introduced into the hole of the cranium made by a trephine. Dunglison. Sine (sin), n, [L. sinus, a bending, a curve, a bosom. ] In trigon. the straight line drawn from one extremity of an arc perpendicular to the diameter passing through the other extremity. Thus, in the circle Ach, let AOH be a diameter, "and let CE be perpendicular thereto; then shall-CE be the sine of the arc CH, or of the angle COH, and of its supplement COA. The sine of a quadrant or of a right angle is equal to the radius. The sine of any arc is half the chord of twice that arc. —Artificial sines, logarithms of the natural sines, or logarithmic sines. —Natural sines, sines expressed by natural numbers. — Versed sine of an arc or angle, the segment of the diameter intercepted between the Bine and the extremity of the arc; thus Eh is the versed sine of the arc CH, or of the angle COH, and of its supplement COA.— Arithmetic of sines, a term employed to denote analytical trigonometry. Its object is to exhibit the relation of the sines, cosines, tangents, Arc. of arcs, multiple arcs, &c — Line of sines, a line on the sector or ("; miter's scale, &c , divided according to the sines, or expressing the sines. Sine (si'ne). A Latin preposition signifying without. See Sine Die, Sine Qua Non. Sin-eater (sin'et-er), n. A person hired at funerals in ancient times to eat a piece of bread laid upon the chest of a dead person, and Bo take his sins on himself, that the soul of the deceased might rest in peace. Sinecural (si'nS-ku-ral), a. Of or relating to a sinecure; of the nature of a sinecure. Sinecure (si'ne-kur), n. [L. sin*-, without, and cura, cure, care. ] 1. Originally and strictly, an ecclesiastical benefice without cure of souls. There are three sorts of ecclesiastical sinecures: (a) where the benefice is a donative, and is committed to the incumbent by the patron expressly without cure of Bouis, the cure either not existing or being intrusted to a vicar; this is the strictest sinecure. (&) Certain cathedral offices, viz. the canonries and prebends, and, according to some authorities, the deanery. (c) Where a parish is destitute of parishioners, having become depopulated. — 2. Any office which has revenue without employment. 'A lucrative sinecure in the excise.' Macaulay.

Sinecure (si'ne-kur), v.L pret & pp. sinecured; ppr. sinecurxng. To place in a sinecure.

Sinecurism (si'ne-kur-izm), «- The state of holding a sinecure.

Sinecurist (si'ne-kur-ist), n. 1. One who holds a sinecure.—2. An advocate for sinecures.

Sine die (si'ne dl'6), adv. [L., without day.] A term used with reference to an adjournment or prorogation of an assembly or meeting, as of a court or of parliament, without any specified day or time for resuming the subject or business, or reassembling. When a defendant is suffered to go nine die he is dismissed the court Sine qua non (si'ne kwa non), n. [L., without which not.] Something absolutely necessary or indispensable; an indispensable condition; as, he made the presence of a witness a sine qua non. Sinew (sin'u).n. [A. Sax. sinewe, sinu; O. IL G. scnewa. Mod. O. sehne, Icel. sin, Dan. sene, a sinew. Perhaps akin to A. Sax. prefix tin, very. Comp. Gr. is, inos, fibre, nerve, strength, force.] 1. The tough fibrous tissue which unites a muscle to n bone; a tendon.

2. Muscle; nerve. Sir J. Danes. [Rare]

3. That which gives strength or vigour; that in which strength consists. 'The portion and sinew of ner fortune, her marriage dowry.' Shak.

Victuals and ammunition.
And money, too, the sinews of the war,
Are stored up. Beau. 6* Ft,

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Sinew (sin'u), v.t. To knit or strengthen, as by sinews. '80 shalt thou sinew both these lands togetlier.' Shak.

We should find that creatures now stuck up for long tortures . . . might, if properly treated, serve to smew the state in tune of danger. Goldsmith.

Sinewed (sin'ud), p. and a. Having sinews;

hence, strong; firm; vigorous; sinewy.

'Strong sinewed was the youth.' Dn/den.

'Until endurance grew gi)ieu-'U with action.'

Tennyson,

He will the rather do it when he sees
Ourselves well sinrn-edlo our defence, SMak.

Sinewiness (sin'u-i-nes), n. The quality of

being sinewy. Sinewisht (sin'u-ish), o. Sinewy. Ifolin

ghed. Sinewless (sin'u-les), a. Having no strength

or vigour.

The arm of the church is now short and sinewless. Bp. Halt.

Sinewouat (sin'u-us), a. Sinewy. 'Amies iind other lima more ginetcoug than fleshy.' llolinshed.

Sinew-Shrunk (sin'u-shrungk), a. In farriery, having the sinews under the belly shrunk by excess of fatigue: said of a horse.

Sinewy (sin'u-i). a. 1. Pertaining to, consisting of, or resembling a sinew or sinews.

The sinervy thread my brain lets fall. Donne.

2 Well braced with sinews; nervous; strong; vigorous; firm; as, the sinewy Ajax. Shak.

The northern peon!.- are large, fair-complcxinned, strong, sinewy, and conrageoiis. Sir Af. Hate.

The smith, a mighty man is he.
With lar^e and sinewy hands. Longfellow.

Sinful (sin'ful). a 1. Tainted with or full of sin; wicked; iniquitous; criminal; unholy; as, sinful men.

Ah, sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity 1
Is i. 4-
A sinful heart makes feeble hand. Sir hY. Scott.

2. Containing sin or consisting in sin; contrary to the laws of God; as, sinful actions; sinful thoughts; sinful words.

Nature herself, though pure of sinful thought,

Wrought in her so, mat, seeing me, she turned.

Milton.

—Criminal, Sinful, Wicked, Immoral, Depraved. See under Criminal. Sinfully (sin'ful-li), adv. In a sinful manner; wickedly; iniquitously; criminally.

The humble and contented man pleases himself Innocently and easily, while the ambitious man attempts to please others sinfully and difficultly.

South.

Sinfulness (sin'ful-nes), n. The quality of being sinful or contrary to the divine will; wickedness; depravity; moral corruption; Iniquity; criminality; as, the sinfulness of an action; the sinfulness of thoughts or purposes. 'Supernal grace contending with sinfulness of men." Milton.

Sink (sing), v.t. pret. sang, sung (it would be difficult to say which is the commoner); pp. sung; ppr. singing. [A. Sax. singan, pret. sang, pp. sungen; common to the Teutonic tongues: IceL singja, Dan. synge, G. singe n, Goth, siggvan, to sing; perhaps onomatopoetic; comp. Gar], scinn, to ring as a bell, to play on an instrument, to sing.] 1. To utter sounds with musical inflections or melodious modulations of voice, as fancy may dictate, or according to the notes of a song or tune.

The noise of them that sing do I hear. Ex. xxxii. 18.

2 To utter sweet or melodious sounds, as birds; to produce continuous murmuring, rhythmical, or pleasing sounds.

When he was by, the birds such pleasure look.

That some would sing. Shak.

At eve a dry cicala sung. Tennyson.

3. To give out or cause a small shrill or humming sound; as, the air sings in passing through a crevice.

O'er his head the flying spear Sang innocent, and spent its force in air. Pope. Dry sang the tackle, Jii«,f the sail. Tennyson. The kettle was singing, and the clock was ticking steadily towards four o'clock. George Eitot.

4. To tell or relate something in numbers or verse.

Birl her . . . sing Of human hope by cross events destroyed. Prior.

Sing (sing), v.t. 1. To utter with musical modulations of voice.

And they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb. Rev. xv. 3,

A merry song we sang with hlrn. Tennyson.

2. To celebrate in song; to give praises to in verse; to relate or rehearse in numbers, verse,

or poetry. 'While stretch'd at ease you sing your happy loves.' Dryden.

The last, the happiest British king.
Whom thou shaft paint or I shall sing. Addison.
Arms and the man 1 sing. Dryden.

3. To usher, attend on, or celebrate with song; to accompany or convoy with singing; as, to sing the old year out and the new year in.

I heard them sirgtng home the bride;

And a* I liitcnett to their bong,

I thought my turn would come ere long.

Longfellow.

4 To act or produce an effect on by singing. 'Sing me now asleep.' Shak.

She will sing the savagencss out of a bear. Shak.

Singe (sinj), v.t pret. it pp. singed; ppr. singeing. [A. Sax. sengan, to singe, lit. to cause to sing, a caus. of singan, to Bing; so also O.sengen, to singe] 1. To burn Blightly or superficially; to burn the surface of; to burn the ends or outside of; to scorch; as, to singe the nap of cloth or the hair of the head; to singe off the beard.

Thus riding on his curls, he seem'd to pass

A rolling tire along, and singe the grass. Dryden.

Specifically—2. In calico printing, to remove the nap from, to prepare the calico for dyeing or printing, by passing it over a red-hot roller, through a gas flame, or the like.

Singe (sfnj), n. A burning of the surface; a slight burn.

Slngelng-machine (sinj'ing-ma-shen), n. A machine in which the fibrous down is removed from cotton cloth by passing it through a gas flame.

Singer (sing'er), n. 1. One who sings — 2. One whose occupation is to sing; a skilled or professional vocalist; as, a Boio singer; a trained singer.

I gat me men-singers and vtomensingers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments. Eccl. ii. 8.

Singer (sinj'er). n. One who or that which singes; specifically, in calico-inanuf. (a) a person employed in singeing the nap off the cloth, (b) A singeing-machiue.

Singeress t (sing'er-es), n. A female singer. Wicklijre.

Singhalese (sing-ga-lez'), n. sing, and pi. A native or natives of Ceylon; Cingalese.

Singhara-nut (sing-ha'ra-uut), n. In Hindustan, the name given to the fruit of a species of Trapa, the T. bispinosa. (See Trapa.) These nuts are sweet and edible, and form an extensive article of cultivation in Cashmere and other parts of the East.

Singlng-hlrd (sing'ing-berd), n. A bird that sings; a song-bird.

Singing-book (sing'ing-buk), n. A book containing music for singing; a song-book.

Singing - bread (sing'mg-bred), u. In the H Cath. Ch. the larger bread used by the priest in offering mass: so called because its manufacture was accompanied by singing. Called also Singing-cakes and Hanseling bread.

Slnglngly (sing'ing-ll), adv. In a singing manner; with sounds like singing. 'Speaking lispingly, and answering singingly.' North.

Singing-man (slng'ing-man), n. A man who sings or is employed to sing, as iu cathedrals. Shak.

Singing - master (slng'lng.mas-ter), n. A teacher of vocal music or the art of Bulging. Addison.

Singing - woman (sing'iug-wu-man), n. A woman employed to sing.

Single (sing'gl), a. [L.singulus, single, from root sin, sim, seen in simple, sincere (which see).] 1. One only, as distinguished from a number; consisting of one alone; not double or more; as, a single star; a single city; a single act. 'A double heart for his tingle one.' Shak. 'Scants us with a single kiss.' Shak. It is often emphatic: even one; as, I shall not give you a single farthing.

O for a single hour of that Dundee
Who on that day the word of onset gave.

IVordsit'orth.

2. Individual; particular; considered as apart. 'For my single self, I had as lief not be.' Shak. 'Trust to thy single virtue.' Shak.

No single man Is bom with a right of controlling the opinions of all the rest. Pope.

3. Alone; having no companion or assistant 'Each man apart, all single and alone.' Shak.

For what, alas, can these my single armsl Shak.
Well hast thou fought
The better fight, who single hast maintain'd
Against revolted multitudes the cause
Of truth. Milton.

4. I f ii married; as, a single, man; a single woman; a single life. '.So single chose to live, and shunn'd to wed.' Dryden.—5. Not twisted, doubled, or combined with others; as, a single thread.—6. Performed by one person, or by one person only opposed to another; as, a tingle combat. 'In single opposition, hand to hand.' Shak. 'Thy appellant, who now defies thee thrice to single fight.' Milton.—7. Not double or deceitful; simple; honest; unbiased; sincere. 'I speak it with a single heart.' Shak. 8. Not compound.

As simple ideas arc opposed to complex, and single to compound, so propositions arc distinguished.

It atts.

Q.t Small; weak; silly. 'He utters such single matter in so infantly a voice.' Beau, d' Fl—10. In bot. applied to a flower when there is only one on a stem; in common usage, applied to a flower not double. — Single perianth, a perianth of one verticil, as in the tulip and lily.-—Single ale, single drink, single beer, old terms for small-beer, as double beer was for strong.

The very smiths . . . drink penitent single ale.
Beau. cV Ft.
Dawson the butler's dead, although I think
1'oets were ne'er infus'd with single drink,
I'll spend a farthing, muse. Bp. Corbet.

—Single blessedness, the unmarried state; celibacy. 'Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness.' Shak.—Single entry. See BookKEEPING.

Single (sing'gl), v.t. pret. A pp. singled; ppr. singling. 1. To select individually from among a number; to choose out separately from others; with out or similar words. 'Dogs who can single out their master in the dark.' Bacon.

I saw him in the battle range about.

And how he singled C\iffutd forth. SAak.

2.t To sequester; to withdraw; to retire. 'An agent singling itself from consorts.' Uooker. — 3. t To take alone or apart.

Many men there are than whom nothing w more commendable when they are singled. Hooker.

Single-acting (sing'gl-akt-ing). a A term applied to a steam-engine in which steam is admitted to one side only of the piston.

Single-block (sing'gl-blok), n. A block having but a single sheave; a single sheave in a pair of cheeks.

Single-breasted (sing'gl-brest-cd), a. Applied to a coat or waistcoat which buttons only to one side, and has not flaps for overlapping.

Below his single-breasted black surtout, which was buttoned up to his chin, appeared the usual number of pcpper-and-siilt-coloured legs. Dickens.

Single-cut (sing'gl-kut), a. A term applied to a file which has but a single rank of teeth; that is, having the teeth cut iu one direction only, and not crossing.

Single-banded (sing'gl-hand-ed). a. 1. Having one hand or workman only.—2. Unassisted; by one's self; alone; as, to lift a heavy article single-handed.

Single-hearted (sing'gl-hart-ed),a. Having a single or honest heart: without duplicity.

Single-minded (sing'gl-niind-od). a Having a single or honest mind or heart; free from duplicity; ingenuous; guileless.

Singleness (sing'gl-nes), n. The state or uuality of being single; (a) the state or condition of being one only or separate from all others; the opposite of doubleness or multiplicity. (&) Simplicity; sincerity; purity of mind or purpose; freedom from duplicity; as, singleness of heart

It is not the deepness of their knowledge, but the singleness of their belief, which God accepteth.

Hooker.

Singles (slng'glz), n. The reeled filaments of silk, twisted into a thread. Bee SILK.

Single-stick (sing'gl-stik). n. 1. A cudgel, called also a Backsword. Hence—2. A game at cudgels, in which he who first brings blood from his adversary's head is pronounced victor.

Single-thorn (sing'gl-thorn). n. The popular name for a Japanese fl&h (Monocentris Japonicvs) of the family Beryc'dw, remarkable for the sire of Its head, its strong thornlike spines, and its mailed suit of hard projecting scales. It is of a silvery-white colour, and about 6 or 7 inches long. It is the only known species of the genus.

Slngle-tree(sing'gl-tre),n. Same i&SwingUtree.

Slnglo (sin'glo), n. A sort of fine tea, with large, flat leaves, and not much rolled. Simmonds.

Singly (sing'gli), adv. 1. Individually; particularly; separately. 'Demand them singly.'

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