Imágenes de páginas

cently overturned by the wind ; while day been superseded by a Maronite Stephan Schulz saw twenty. After the chapel, built within the last ten years. lapse of another century, the number of Several persons were residing here the oldest trees, as we have seen, is now during summer, in connection with the reduced to about a dozen. All this chapel ; but we did not learn what sermarks a gradual process of decay; vices were held in it. A part of the and it also marks the difficulty of ex object of these persons seemed to be to act enumeration. This is rightly as wait on travelers, or to supply their cribed by Fürer, and also by Dandini, wants, and thus gain a claim for bakhto the fact, that many of the trees shish. A monk brought us wine for have two or more stems; and were sale, and seemed disappointed when thus reckoned differently by different we declined the traffic. travelers, sometimes as one tree, some The cedars are not less remarkable times as two or more. Dandini, an for their position than for their age and Italian traveler of the seventeenth size. The amphitheatre in which they century, says that while he counted are situated, is of itself a great temple twenty-three trees, another person of of nature, the most vast and magnifithe company made out twenty-one. cent of all the recesses of Lebanon, The Hence it was a matter of popular be- lofty dorsal ridge of the mountain, as it lief that they could not be counted cor approaches from the south, trends rectly. All the travelers of the six- slightly to the east for a time, and then, teenth century speak only of the old after resuming its former direction, trees; they nowhere mention any throws off a spur of equal altitude toyoung ones. Rauwolf, himself a boť wards the west, which sinks down graanist, seems to say expressly, that he dually into the ridge terminating at sought for younger trees, without being Ehden. This ridge sweeps round so able to find any. If this be so, it would as to become nearly parallel with the appear that with the exception of the main ridge ; thus forming an immense few remaining ancient trees, probably recess or amphitheatre, approaching to none of those which now make up the the horse-shoe form, surrounded by the grove can be regarded as reaching back loftiest ridges of Lebanon, which rise in age more than three hundred years. still several thousand feet above it, and

In the minds of the common people, are partly covered with snow. In the an air of sanctity is thrown around the midst of this amphitheatre stand the grove, the river, and the region. The cedars, utterly alone, with not a tree ancient trees are sacred, as coming besides, nor hardly a green thing in down from the times of Scripture and sight. The amphitheatre fronts toSolomon; and the river, which has its wards the west, and, as seen from the source near by, is also sacred, and is cedars, the snows extend round from called el-Kadisha. In former centu south to north. The extremities of the ries, the patriarch of the Maronites arc in front bear from the cedars southimposed various ecclesiastical penal. west and northwest. High up in the ties, and even excommunication, on recess the deep precipitous chasm of any Christian who should cut or injure the Kadisha has its beginning, the the sacred trees; and the story is wildest and grandest of all the gorges recorded, that when some Muslims, of Lebanon. The elevation of the cewho were pasturing in the vicinity, dars above the sea is given by Russegwere so hardened and impious as to ger and Schubert at 6,000 Paris feet; cut some of the trees, they were pun- equivalent to 6,400 English feet. The ished on the spot by the loss of their peaks of Lebanon above rise nearly flocks. In former times, too, the Mar 3,000 feet higher. onites were accustomed to celebrate in Besides the natural grace and beauty the sacred grove the festival of the of the cedar of Lebanon, which still Transfiguration, when the patriarch appear in the trees of middle age, himself officiated, and said mass before though not in the more ancient patria rude altar of stones. This ban and archs, there is associated with this these ceremonies are to a certain ex grove a feeling of veneration, as the tent continued at the present day; and representative of those forests of Lebathe influence of them has unquestiona non celebrated in the Hebrew bly been great upon the popular mind. Scriptures. To the sacred writers the The rude altars of stone have in our cedar was the noblest of trees, the



monarch of the vegetable kingdom. probably also in Tyre and other PheniSolomon “spake of trees, from the cian cities, were ceiled and ornamented cedar that is in Lebanon, even unto the with the cedar of Lebanon. hyssop that groweth out of the wall.” All these circumstances sufficiently To the prophets it was the favorite em account for the fact, that in our day the blem for greatness, splendor and ma goodly mountain" appears almost dejesty ; hence kings and nobles, the nuded of those graceful forests which, pillars of society, are everywhere ce of old, were its chief glory. The imdars of Lebanon. Especially is this pression, however, has far outstripped the case in the splendid description, by the reality, and the present grove has Ezekiel, of the Assyrian power and come to be regarded as the only repreglory. Hence, too, in connection sentative of the ancient cedars. This with its durability and fragance, it was impression has doubtless arisen from regarded as the most precious of all the circumstance, that this grove only wood, and was employed in costly is adjacent to any of the great roads by buildings, for ornament and luxury. In which travelers have crossed over LebaSolomon's temple the beams of the Other cedar groves there may roof, as also the boards and the orna be in the northern and more inaccessible mental work, were of the cedar of Leba- parts of the mountain

which have remainnon; and it was likewise used in the ed unvisited, and therefore unknown. later temple of Zerubbabel. David's Such, indeed, is truly the case, accordpalace was built with cedar; and so ing to the testimony of Ehrenberg and lavishly was this costly wood employed others. This eminent naturalist spent a in one of Solomon's palaces, that it is considerable time on Lebanon, and called “the house of the forest of found, as he informed me, the cedar Lebanon." As a matter of luxury, growing abundantly on those parts of also, the cedar was sometimes used for the mountain lying north of the road idols, and for the masts of ships. In between Baalbek and Tripoly. The like manner, the cedar was highly trees are of all sizes, old and young, but prized among heathen nations. It was none so ancient and venerable as those employed in the construction of their usually visited. Seetzen, likewise, in temples, as at Tyre and Ephesus, and 1805, speaks of having discovered two also in their palaces, as at Persepolis. Other groves of greater extent, without In the two latter instances, however, specifying their location. It appears, Ephesus and Persepolis, it does not however, that one of these was near follow that the cedar came from Leba el-Hadith, southwest of Ehden, and the non; though that of Syria was among other in the district of ed-Dunniyeh, the most celebrated. It is also very south of Akkâr ; but neither of them possible that the name, cedar, was some was personally visited by Seetzen. He times loosely applied to trees of another afterwards, however, was at Etnûb, species.

north of Ehden, where the region is The frequent mention in Scripture of wooded, and there he found cedars to the cedar of Lebanon, and the uses to the number of several thousands. The which it was applied, make it apparent Sherbín of the Arabs, which 0. Celsius that in ancient times large tracts of the and Freytag hold to be the cedar, is, acmountain were covered with forests of cording to Seetzen, the cypress, many this tree. Diodorus Siculus also re of which, he says, grow on the mountain, lates, that Lebanon was full of cedars, east of Ehden. So, too, the Arabic and and firs, and cypresses of wonderful Syriac versions often put Sherbín for size and beauty. But the destruction Sept. cypress. In respect to the grove of them for architectural uses, was far near el-Hadith, which the natives and more rapid than their growth, so that others speak of as Arz (cedar), I was when Justinian, in the sixth century, informed by Dr. Paulding, of Damaserected the Church of the Virgin (now cus, that although the trees bear a geneSt. Aksa) at Jerusalem, there was great ral resemblance to the cedar, yet their difficulty in obtaining timber for the leaves are altogether different, and roof; though, after much search, a spot mark them as a different kind of true. was found full of cedar trees of great This, however, does not conflict with height. The destruction still went on, the testimony of Ehrenberg, since eland it would appear as late as the mid- Hadith is south of the chasm of the dle ages, private houses in Sidon, and Kadisha.




Said the drunken Bee,
As he crept from a cell in the flowery sea;

From a flower's cell,
While a fairy's bell,
With a ceaseless swell,

Rang a soft, low knell,
To the song of the bees' wild revelry.

"0! happy, happy, happy we,
This wine hath set us winter-free!
While the pensive evening wept,
Shyly, slyly, here we crept,
While the elfin-warder slept

In his swinging shrine;
And we bound him, wreathing 'round him

Tendrils of the clinging vine,
Till we broke the chalice scopen
By a fairy's fingers, open,
And the dahlia gave us wine,
Rosy, golden, sparkling wine!
Hark! how sweet the night-bells ring,
Soft the elfin choirs sing
In the pale moon shimmering.
Break the cup again!

Drain the bowl!

From the soul
Chase all weight of pain-

In the golden wine!
Here to dream the dreamy day
From our laden wings away,

Lost in song divine;
All the air is keeping time
To a world of pleasant rhyme;
All the air is ringing out,
To our merry, merry shout,

And a song sublime.
Happy day, happy night-
Days and nights of soft delight,
May ours be long and bright,

While we drain the wine !

Ever and anon,
As the bees' wild song
Breaks faintly and long,
The hollows among,

The fairies run,
With a shudder and shun,
To the grace of the face

Of the reigning one.
0, Queen! Queen! Queen!
In thy glorious sheen,
Purple, violet, golden green,

We ring thee, we sing thee,
Lost in the gaze of thy countenance serene ;

Lift thine amber eyes,

Filled with the love we prize, And see where the honey-god hath been !"

Thus sang the Bee,

To his revellers three-
(O, what a goodly companie !)

“Come! come ! come!
Listen unto me:
0, in my soul I feel the power,

And am so mighty grown,
I almost wish to lift the queen

From off her waxen throne.
Pluck from the clown the kingly crown,

Place it on this brow of mine-
Then the rosy, sparkling wine
Shalt be thine, and thine, and thine,
And in the field-cups ever shine !"

All this time a fairy bell
With a ceaseless warning fell,
With a silvery clamor rung;

A cricket raised his head, and he

Thought it distant melody :
But it struck a terror-blow

To the soul of this mad Beo
For the very thought he sung
Died in passion's overflow,
While a sweet tongue whispered low-

6 Woe! Woe! Woe!
Woe to the bee that saps the bud,
That breaks the tender chalice trim,
And gaily on its flushing rim
Hangs in wine-won ecstacy-

Woe to the spoiler, woe !"


In quiet nooks, where the lily holds
The weeping night in waxen folds,
And tremblingly the zephyr goes,
Gossamer-winged, to kiss the rose-
Where meek anemones stare,
And hoods the hermit-flowers wear
Over their tender eyes with care,
Ten thousand, thousand silky wings
Expand and fold, as a traitor sings;
Out of his yellow-tented lair.
Big with rebellion grew the air,
For this wine-bibbing Bee had brought
From ferns, and dikes, and fields well-fought,
All bees of high and low degree,
Together for his great design.
Not bees that Hybla flocked, but they
That in the flowery lowlands pine,
Battling the sun-browned laborer;
That haunt the night, and flee tho day,
That rob the weak, revile the strong,

wage fierce wars in motley throng;
Brawlers that make the flowers blush
With rude song, or on th’ nodding rush
Sit all alone, whipping the sun
With eager wing; masons that glue
Their hovels frail


the new

Young chrysalis, or they that run
The intricate thread, finely spun,
Thro' all their nicely-laid domain,
Setting the slope toward the rain :
Such now this vain, acclaimed king
Surround. In secret did he sing
To these the glory he would bring,
When scattered was the colony.
In secret? nay, upon the height,

Firm-set within its hoary bed,
Holding its face before the light,

A flower hung its list’ning head,
And in the matins of the morn,
To some lone fairy wandering lorn,
Told of the havoc yet to be,
Throughout the peaceful colony.

Lo! on a couch of purest white,
With leaves of roses blue and red,
And intermingled lotus-buds-
The Fairy Queen, in yellow light
That streamed around in molten floods,
Reclines at ease her splendid head.
How sweet the tangled tresses fell
Over her bosom, as she lay,
Dreaming the long, luxurious day.

A tree with blossoms white and sweet,
Stood at her head, and to her feet
Its slender, twining branches drew-
A nettle-poinard from them hung;
A tiny, silvery cascade fell,
Forever fell, forever sung
Among the leaves—a crimson shell
Received its music, letting through
The sparkling crystal in a dew;
Light-footed fairies feared to stir,
Lest, moving noiseless, as they were,
Her tender sense should catch the sound
Of footsteps going to and fro,

And rouse her from her sleep-
A sense in silence seemed to beat.
And palpitate to tuneful feet

Forever passing in the hall. She stirs ! O glorious Queen, of all Imagined fair ones, fairest thou ! Move not uncertain eyelids now, To strike a death divine on these ; Nay, lie in all thy bliss of ease, And leave them light, and life, and peace.

She wakes! she wakes !

A music breaks
Harmonious from a thousand shells,
Bright pages strike accordant bells:

The air is but a song,

Vibrating low and long,
And she, the gem, the diadem

Of universal harmony;
O, eyes of Fairy, fair to see !
O, Fairy-voice, divine to hear!
She looks—a fairy from the tree

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