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to one of the Latin-derived tongues is as the confounding of one's little loopas great as from English. It will hardly hole view of the sayings or doings of one be disputed that, of all the German or more foreigners with the manners writings, Goethe's Faust is among the and customs of their whole nation. most difficult of transfer. Poor Gerard Against falling into this cunningest, de Nerval brought the first part of the most temptingly baited of Satan's sins, poem into French, when he was eighteen I constantly pray.
When he goes years old. Of the remarkable excel about like a roaring lion, he is not nearly lence of this translation, Goethe wrote so dangerous. I have known divers in terms of high approval. It will hardly wrestlers with him in this form, in the be discussed whether Goethe knew bis arena of controversy-veritable theoFrench as well as the general reader or logical Van Amburghs; and at the very most Quarterly Reviews. It will hardly moment of victory, when the applause be suspected that he would have written of the ring was loudest, and they were or said as much in praise of any one of bowing their thanks, plump went both the half-dozen or more English transla- feet into one of his presumption traps. tions of his immortal drama. Do the So I never step out on the balcony, best of them—Hayward's conscientious, or wheel round my chair to face the drudging prose, or Anster's ingenious, window, that I do not ejaculate, “Get varied verse-give you more of Faust thee behind me !" But with all this than Laroche does of Hamlet, or Wail- painstaking, as I have not the vanity to ley of Tom o' Shanter? I trow not, 0, forget that I belong to that order of general reader.
beings of whom the courteously timid But I cannot keep my eyes off that curé, preaching before Louis XIV., said, Horatian poster. It is disfigured; worn “the most are mortal,” and remembering and torn by a whole winter's exposure to that the adversary is the devil himself, wind and weather, and to the hooks and I never wheel my chair back to my fingers of rapacious chiffoniers. It is table, to sketch down a pen and ink encroached upon on all sides, by Gallic view, that I am not afraid, not only of advertisements of dry goods, furniture being unwittingly caught myself at the sales, concerts, and patent perfumery. very moment of writing, but of drawing I make it out rather by the help of the my readers (if I have any) into the first clean copy, long ago transferred to snare after me. This is a great matter. my memory's retina, than from what of It is not a jest, or it ought not to be, its original fair proportions now remains to think or speak falsely of our neighbor. visible to the bodily eye. To me it is You know how a misapprehension of still impressive in its ruins, like some what you catch at a glance, in passing mutilated antique statue amid the gross- by Jenkins's window, if put into words, nesses and prettinesses of a modern may harm Jenkins for life.
You gallery. On the classical side, however, thought he was kissing the maid, not I have nothing more to say. It has discovering in that cursory glance that one feature of another kind, not brought the osculated person was Mrs. J. in the into my last view, which is worth look- morning gingham. ing at, if I am right in fancying that it Now let Jenkins, instead of being a indicates a marked trait of French neighbor over the way, in our nativo character.
village, be the individual of a nation, Of all the sins of commission, by and you a shrewd observer from abroad, which poor human nature is beset, we taking notes; you print and multiply are more persistently tempted by none your injustice by twenty-four, sixteen, than by the sins of presumption. They thirty-six, sixty, or any other number are the devil's favorites; of this kind of millions, accordingly. Your book or was Lucifer's own. And of all sins of letter treats of the manners and customs presumption, I know of none into which of the Americans, the English, French, we more readily, unconsciously fall-I Gerinans, vel ceteri. had better said, slip-than that of con I remember once guiding a fellow founding our views of things with the passenger from the steamboat that had nature and essence of things themselves; brought us to Havre up to Wheeler's but of this class of sins of presumption, Hotel. On the way an unsavory little there is none which wears such an air accident befell his foot, whereat he of innocence, and which, by conse directly broke out into comparison bequence, is more difficult of avoidance, tween the cleanliness of Americans and
the Europeans, most inodorous to the or French, by A. B. C., or D. E. F., or latter. He did not except a soul of any other American or Englishman. them from the sweeping comparison, Not but what each of them has here and although what might be called the fun there drawn a truthful line. And with damental base on which the comparison this for a general caveat to stand at the rested, was laid down by one individual head of all views that have been, or may of the 264,209,000 souls that populate hereafter may be published, I return to Europe. When my friend had relieved
the Horatian poster. himself of his tirade, and was grown You can still decipher, at the bottom calmer, I, being in a philosophical mood, of it, these ciphers, 12, 20, 30 francs. for no ill had befallen myself, sought to These are the prices, varying according draw some sweet use from the adver to the elegance of the copies of Didot's sity. If we were superstitious, my Elzevirian edition of Horace--a little dear Green, said I, it was a newly gem, not only of typography, but of traveling brother of Green's, who was photography – to say nothing of the here last year,) might we not consider scholarship. When you consider that this as a warning, that as one European, the French are an eminently economical by an improper act, has given a bad odor, and, in many matters, an eminently in your senses, to all Europeans, so calculating folk, this price of 30 francs, should we take nice heed to our ways demanded and paid for a little 32mo. among strangers, least a chance bad volume, the literary contents of which word or act, let slip from us, be taken by may be had in other and becoming them as a sample from which they are forms for a few francs, seems to me a to judge all Americans ?
striking sign of their appreciation For our own judgment, let it re of art — of material beauty, of form mind us of the complaint of the wise and color. And that appreciation is
" Hardly do we guess aright one of the most marked general characat the things upon the earth, and teristics of this people. No doubt that with labor do we find the things among the purchasers of this volume, that are before us." I owed the in its most expensive form, are men who quotation to Sterne, whom I brought deliberate long before dining at a fortywith me on my last voyage, not to ori sous restaurant. ginal biblical reading, and increased my A dinner at a forty-sous restaurant indebtedness by this other loan, that has, by the way, its attractive qualities, seemed pat enough to the emergency. quite apart from those contained in the “I think it wrong, merely because a body of the work—the mere victual and man's hat has been blown off his head drink consumed. For, when a Parisian by chance, the first night he comes to dines at forty sous, he being not more senAvignon, that he should, therefore, say, sual in degree, but being sensual-or, let Avignon is more subject to high winds us say, sensuary, as a delicate word-in than any other town in France."
more kinds than an Anglo-Saxon, he To get back to the neighborhood of wants a feast spread for his eyes, for my starting-point, I beg to say, once his sense of beauty, as well as for his for all, that, while I cannot help giving palate. my views in definite lines, I should be We may count ten of his forty sous sorry to have any one suppose that laid out for mirrors and gilding, etc., I insisted on their absolute correctness for appearances, in fine. These yield to in detail or in spirit. It is quite possi- his completer nature just as real, solid ble they are not daguerreotypes; it is pleasure, and are as just as well worth quite certain they have not the merit of his ten sous as the most practical, hardartistic pictures; it is quite important est boiled eggs are worth the ten cents to bear in mind, if you can once get it of an American, whose uncultured eyes into your mind, that the daguerreotype are but inspectors of provisions, watchor painting of an entire nation, by any ful waiters on the mouth, not its boon foreign artist or artisan, is a work of companions. such difficulty, that it has never yet Going into a two-franc restaurant one been truthfully done. If, as we have evening, with my friend Green, receivrather boisterously affirmed, it has not ing a graceful bow from the tastefullybeen done by Trollope, or Hall or Dick- draped dame du comptoir, noting the ens, or d'Alembert, and the rest, why brilliant lights, the snowy napkins, the imagine that it is done for the English pretty style of ornamentation on walls
and ceilings, the forks so finely silvered, parent happiness. There was a deal the names of the dishes, so grandly of laughing and talking, so that the hum compounded—if one could feed with of it never ceased. But there was no one's eyes, said Green, the meal would laughing and talking so loud as to prebe a banquet. The French do. And I vent a waiter's ear from catching the hold that what is taken in by that “s'st," or the call of “garçon," uttered organ, is not the worst part of their re by any one present. past.
Yes, it is all entertaining enough, if Look at that party—a family party, it you will, answered Green, as we walked would seem-at the next table but one, off to a café, but there is a sad side to the father and mother, the children and it, too. It is another proof that these uncle, and a cousin. What an event French have no idea of home-none of they are making of it. It has been ar our domestic family enjoyment. ranged through the week-a reward There has been so much nonsense to the pretty children and a treat to the said and written, and, which is worse, clders—this Sunday repast. A cheerful believed, about the French want in that celebration of the holiday, as accept- regard, by people who were never in a able, let us trust, as the grave obsery French private house in their lives, that ance of our less social habit. They are it is not worth the while for us to add not here barely to gobble and go. True, to it by discussing the point. But let they observe and make the most of all me say, that in the only four families the forms of a fine dinner, permitted by where I am sufficiently intimate to the carte-the potage, and the three speak with knowledge, I find much the courses, and the dessert—not one of same household virtues and joys as them lacking a fine name, with an à la rest in my best memories of American something in it. And here is victual homes. And let me further say, that for a third sense, the ear—a pabulum, many foreign travelers, French and by the way, that we Americans have a others, think they observe a peculiar relish for otherwheres than at meals- disregard for family ties among, us witness Judge Jenkins, editor of the Americans. They observe that a boy Alabama Herald of Freedom, or Colonel' of sixteen, a girl of fifteen, seems quite Jenkins, of Boston, compounder of anti. independent of the parents; that two phlogistic pills, vender of cholagogue; generations rarely live under the same witness our national declaration of inde- family roof; that Connecticut children pendence, and our practice of freedom, leave their parents and go to Ohio; that North or South. They count upon Ohio children leave theirs and go to filling an hour or two with the gratifica- Wisconsin; that the number of application of various senses and sentiments. tions for divorce, and the facility with They are come for the brightness, and which divorces are granted, are phegayety, and movement, of a hall, larger, nomena unknown in Europe. handsomer than their salle-à-manger. But that the French are somewhat The women are come to admire or criti more gregarious than we, I will not cise the robes and hats of the women; deny. At least, it is a side of their the men to admire their faces (quite natures turned out to the observation of like our churches); they are come to strangers like ourselves. And this café, draw their dividend of sympathetic hap- which is one of the popular order, is a piness from the happiness of others— favorable stand for our observations. to the common stock of which they are It is called the Café Parisien. The in turn willing contributors.
average consumption of coffee here, on By the time we were through with a Sunday, is, the proprietor tells me, our dinner, of which, between the
mouth- 3,400 cups (demi tasses); of brandy fuls, Green spoke in justly disparaging and other liquors, 5,000 glasses (petits comparison with the fare of the great verres); of beer, from 500 to 1,000 New York hotels, where he had been a mugs (cannettes); withal, there are, as constant diner for several years, all the you may count, twelve billiard tables small tables were taken up, either by in the salle. family or friendly parties, or by guests Now observe, that if that player who came singly, and fraternized pre- should hit you in the eyes with the butt sently after sitting down. There was of his cue, instead of turning round and something grateful, even to a non-con damning you for making him miss his tributor, in the spectacle of so much ap- stroke, he will turn round and apologize,
with a courtesy and sincerity of manner if the French make less account than that will take away half your pain and we of home pleasures, they understand all your anger. Nor would he do so less better than we, or rather feel better readily or less handsomely, if you wore than we—for I apprehend that it is in his use, and he, by chance, wore this case the instinct rathe than the your broadcloth. Joggle the elbow, or science of living wherein they excel us step on the toe of the man at the next -how to live and let live, when assemtable, and the chances are that he will bled in large companies. By virtue of beg your pardon before you do his. this social science, or social instinct, Observe that, although we have been this little group of friends or family regazing at him for the last minute and a lations can at once enjoy, undisturbed, half, alınost impertinently, I fear, he an intimate, house-like causerie, as you does not feel it necessary to say a rude or I may make an agreeable passing word to us, or even to scowl at us. acquaintance with some chance table This is not from any want of spirit on neighbor, entering lonely like ourselves, his part. I happen to know, though he and yet take share in the humaniz. does not know me, that he has served ing influence of the common enjoyhis seven years, and shown the courage ment. of a French soldier in more than one Mark again, in this cheap café, how fight with the Kabyles.
much is done for the eye, and how well Observe, in general, that, during the it is done. The architect has accomhour we have been here, you have not modated his plans to the awkward shape seen a quarrel nor heard a word that of the ground so ingeniously, and gildthreatened a quarrel, among the three ers, and carvers, and painters, bave so or four hundred persons present; even
come to his aid, that I am not sure but the tipsy man yonder cannot provoke the general aspect of the room is finer
Our experience this evening is than that of Taylor's splayndid rectnot extraordinary. It may pass well angular saloon in Broadway, The enough for an example of the general very iconographic commercial adverrule. To that rule a wider experience tisements, that decorate rather than diswill, indeed, furnish exceptions. Not figure the lower part of the side walls, all Frenchmen are polite; nor are all have some touches of art in them. polite Frenchmen always polite. There And so, while these Parisians, artists, are cases, whole classes of cases, where, or artisans, are sipping their coffee, I believe, we are their superiors in that they are receiving, constantly, through true politeness which has been defined, their eyes, an unconscious culture of " kindness kindly expressed.” But I that taste for which they are distinventure the “ general observation" that, guished throughout the world.
EPITAPH ON A CHILD.
THIS little seed of life and love,
Passed, like a dream, away.
The foison that was ours,
To spirits, as to flowers.
Although its angel passed;
We learn to love, at last.
Yet still great comfort gives :
We know our darling lives.
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AS A FAMILY MAN.*
[Third and last Article.
traced the relations of Napoleon ples, who, like everybody else, had been Bonaparte to his family-particularly disgusted by his brother-in-law's insoas developed in his recently published lent and overbearing demeanor, anxious correspondence with his brother Joseph also to make sure of his own throne, -down to the period when Joseph entered, before long, into a secret negoclosed bis royal career. Having barely tiation with Austria—a proceeding full escaped_being killed or taken prisoner of danger to the viceroy Eugene, comby the English, in the disastrous rout pelled by the Austrians to retire behind consequent on the battle of Vittoria, in the Adige, and whom Murat might atAugust, 1813, he retired to his country tack in the rear. seat of Mortefontaine, near Paris, where, Thus driven back into France, and for the next five months, and more, he abandoned by all his allies except the resumed the character of a private indi- king of Denmark—whose forces Bernavidual.
dotte kept in check at the same time While Joseph thus lost the crown of that he laid siege to Hamburg, which Spain, which never had set very firmly city was held by a strong French garon his head, Napoleon himself was in rison— Napoleon returned to Paris, on no little danger of losing that of the the 9th of November, 1813, to collect Empire. His retreat from Moscow, what resources he could against the and the enormous losses with which it next campaign, the operations of which was attended, had led to a new alliance now threatened to be carried on within against him on the part of England, the limits of France itself. Even on Russia, Prussia, and Sweden, which al the side of Spain, there was danger of liance, on the recommencement of hos- invasion. Soult, whom Napoleon had tilities, after an armistice which lasted appointed to succeed Joseph as comfrom June to August, was joined by mander-in-chief in that quarter, had Austria, notwithstanding Napoleon's been pushed by Wellington across the family connection with its emperor. frontier, though Suchet still continued
Napoleon, who had greatly contri to hold Catalonia with a considerable buted to the loss of Spain, from the necessity he was under of withdrawing Of any intercourse between the brotroops to strengthen himself in Germa thers, for the first seven weeks after ny, still held as far as the Elbe, and all Napoleon's return to Paris, we have no the smaller German princes remained information. The Memoires du Roi his allies, and furnished contingents to Joseph are silent on that point. Napohis army. But the terrible battle of leon, indeed, had no time for explanaLeipsic, fought in the middle of Octo- tions as to the past.
The present ber, and the retreat across the Elbe, occupied all his thoughts, and the scarcely less disastrous thau that from question was, how to meet it-a doubly Moscow, compelled the French to seek difficult question, since, in addition to refuge behind the Rhine. In conse the great deficit in men, money, and quence of this retreat, Napoleon's ally, munitions, caused by two such disasthe king of Saxony, to whose aggran- trous routs as the retreats from Moscow dizement he had greatly contributed, be- and that from Germany, he now encouncame a fugitive from his kingdom. It tered what he had scarcely met with also swept away Jerome's kingdom of before since his assumption of the imWestphalia. Holland rose in insurrec- perial dignity-not merely evidences of tion against the French army of occu public discontent, but symptoms, also, pation, and Bavaria, Wirtemberg, Ba of opposition to his imperial will and den, and all the other German states pleasure, on the part of some of his hastened to join the new alliance against high dignitaries.
* The Confidential Correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte with his Brother Joseph, some time King of Spain. Selected and transluted, with explanatory notes, from the “ Memvires du Roi Joseph."