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my, which might expose Paris to attack, to consent to the “ ancient limits," as he wrote as follows:
proposed by the allies; but, before this “ In accordance with the verbal instructions
document reached him, the congress which I gave to you, and with the spirit of all had separated. my letters, you must not allow, happen what In the neighborhood of St. Dizier may, the empress and the king of Rome to
Napoleon spent five days, during which fall into the hands of the enemy. The manæu. vres which I am about to make may possibly
he made another ineffectual attempt to prevent your bearing from me for several get possession of Vitry, and had sevedays. If the enemy should march on Paris ral skirmishes with the division of with so strong a force as to render resistance Winzingerode, left to watch him; but, gent, my son, the great dignitaries, the minis- meanwhile, Schwartzenberg as well as ters, the senators, the president of the council Blucher were marching upon Paris, now of state, the chief officers of the crown, and open before them. On the 28th NapoBaron de la Bouillerie with the money which is in my treasury."
leon resumed his march, still to the
eastward; but, on reaching Bar-le-Duc, The late movements of Napoleon he became aware of the failure of his against Blucher had resulted in nothing. maneuvre to draw off the allied armies But, meanwhile, Schwartzenberg, having from Paris, and turning about, by a recovered from his recent panic, was forced march of fifty miles in one day, again in full march on Paris, taking the he reached Troyes on the 29th. Thence, route down the valley of the Seine, on the 30th, he started early in the and driving Macdonald and Oudinot morning with his guard, but soon left before him. Against him Napoleon now them, and in a light carriage, with Beragain turned, leaving Marmont and thier and Caulincourt at his side, travMortier on the Aisne, to hold Blucher eled in hot haste all night, and followin check.
ing a road south of that by which the On the 17th he marched from Reims, enemy had advanced, reached the postwhere he had been stationary for the house of La Cour de France, fourteen four days preceding, and arriving at miles from Paris, at four o'clock in the Epernay, detached Ney up the Marne morning of the 31st. to occupy Chalons. Continuing his From the 22d to the 31st, no letters march southward, on the 20th he ad were received at Paris from Napoleon, vanced on Arcis-sur-Aube, where he and he had received none from that encountered the main body of Schwart- capital. Marmont and Mortier, in atzenberg's army, which his approach tempting to march on Chalons, had en. had drawn back from Troyes. A bloody countered the advance of the allies, and battle ensued, in which Napoleon, with had been swept back toward Paris. The difficulty, and not without the most allies appearing in force in the vicinity daring personal exposure, repelled the of Paris, Joseph, on the 29th, in comattack made upon him. Having been pliance with the orders of Napoleon, a3 joined in the night by Macdonald and to what was to be done in such an emerOudinot, he turned back northeast, gency, sent away the empress and her and advanced on Vitry, expecting to son, with an escort of troops, towards draw Schwartzenberg after him. He the Loire. The following letter, from had sent orders, meanwhile, to Mar Marie Louise to Joseph, describes the mont and Mortier, to march upon Cha first stage of this journey : lons and thence on Vitry, thus concentrating his force, but at the same time “Rambouillet, March 29, 54 P. M. My. leaving the road to Paris open to Blu
dear Brother: I have this instant reached
Rambouillet, very sad and much harassed. It cher as well as to Schwartzenberg. would be very kind if you would let me know
Not able to enter Vitry, which was what is going on, and whether the enemy has held by a strong hostile detachment,
advanced. I wait for your answer before I
decide whether I ought to go further or to reNapoleon proceeded to St. Dizier,
main here. If I ought to move, I beg you to higher up the Marne. He reached
tell me what place you think would be best that place on the 23d, and was joined and safest for me. I earnestly wish that you there by Caulincourt, his late repre
would write to me to return to Paris ; it is the sentative at the congress of Chatillon,
thing of all others that would give me most
pleasure. A thousand remembrances to the which had broken up on the 15th. Na queen (Joseph's wife]. Pray believe in the poleon, pressed, as we have seen, by sincere friendship with which I am your most Joseph, had at last dispatched to Cau
affectionate sister." lincourt an ambiguous sort of authority, The next day the allies assaulted the
heights which cover Paris on the east, Paris, to see if any terms could be and which were defended by the corps made with the allies, Napoleon retired of Marmont and Mortier, and by the to Fontainebleau, whence, on the 2d of national guard of the city. On that April, he wrote to Joseph as follows: morning, at eight o'olock, Joseph wrote
“I desired the grand marshal to write to from the heights of Montmartre the fol you on the necessity of not crowding into lowing letter to his wife :
Blois. Let the king of Westphalia (Jerome) “My dear friend : There has been firing
go to Brittany or towards Bourges. I think for the last two hours ; as yet nothing is seri.
that Madame their mother) had better join her ous, but we are only beginning the day. I
daughters (Eloise and Pauline) at Nice, and think that, if your health will permit, you
Quoen Julie and your children proceed to Mar. should set off with the children, Miot, Presle,
seilles. The Princess of Neufchatel (Madame and any other people whom you may like to
Bessieres) and the marshals' wives should go take. If not, you must send on our children
and live on their estates. It is natural that with Miot and Madame Dameri. Your sister's
king Louis, who has always liked hot clihouse is your best refuge; but I hope that you
mates, should go to Montpelier. As few per. will be able to start."
sons as possible should be on the Loire, and
let every one settle himself quietly, without As the fate of the day became evi attracting attention. A large colony always dent, Joseph gave directions to the excites a sensation in a neighborhood. The ministers, senators, and high dignita- main so for one day. Among the other minis
Provence road is now open-it may not reries, to follow the empress-orders ters you do not mention the minister of police. which a portion of them did not see fit Has he reached you? I do not know whether to obey. He himself, about noon
the minister of 'war has his cipher. I have the exterior range of heights being not write to you on important subjects.
none with you, and as this is the case, I canthen in possession of the enemy-fol Adviso everybody to observe the strictest lowed the empress towards Chartres, economy.” after which Marmont and Moncey Joseph answered this letter the next sigued a capitulation, having been au- day. thorized by Joseph to do so, by which “Blois, April 3, 1814. Sire : I have received the French regular troops were to re your letter of the 2d. Mamma and Louis are tire unmolested, and the allies were to ready to fulfill your wishes. Mamma is in enter Paris on the morning of the 31st
want of money; six months of her pension is
due. Neither has Jerome any money. My -that same morning that Napoleon, as wife has no longer any friends at Marseilles. we have seen, reached the post-house What occasions our train to appear so large of La Cour. On arriving there, he en
is, the number of empty state carriages becountered the cavalry of Mortier's
longing to the court. I have received no letter corps
from the grand marshal on this subject, nor retiring on Fontainebleau, and thus be
on any other. The minister of police has recome aware of the actual state of affairs, turned hither from Tours. The council to-day he dispatched a note to Joseph (which was unanimous in its opinions and wishes. We is not given), enclosing one for the em
are waiting for your majesty's decision as to
the place of residence. May the fears which press. This note reached Joseph at have been excited by the Duke of Vicenza's Chartres, and he replied to it the same (Caulincourt's) report never be realized. afternoon, at 5 P. M., as follows : (Caulincourt had returned on the 2d from his
mission to Paris, with the report that the allies " Sire: I wrote to you this morning, by a had refused to treat with Napoleon or any of courier in disguise. I have your majesty's his family.) The minister of war has no ci. letter of this morning. I have sent on to the pher with your majesty, nor have I. The min. empress the one which was addressed to her, isters of the treasury and of finance know no I shall set off this evening to follow the em longer how to discharge their duties. M. de la press. She intended to proceed first to Tours. Bouillerie asks for orders to insure the safety In obedience to your majesty's wishes, she of his convoy: One of his wagons, containing will go to Blois, with all the members of the two millions, has reached Orleans-it was left government. The ministers who are here, in Paris when the empress went away. The agree in thinking this course the best; they treasure in the custody of M. de la Bouillerie will start this evening. The empress and the mysteriously disappeared. Tue Cossacks got king of Rome are well ; I saw them this morn. some of it. Nobody kuows what became of ing; they will reach Chateaudun this evening. the rest.) Might not Jerome be sent to comThe minister of war, of the administration of mand the army in Lyons ?" war, of finance, of the treasury, of the interior, and of marine affairs, are here. Your majesty had anticipated, from the occupation of
Already, the results which Joseph passed, from tho marshals' reports and from Paris, had fully displayed themselves. what I told M. Déjean, your majesty's aide-de
On the 1st of April, Napoleon's senate, camp. The enemy's force was very large: the corps of the Dukes of Treviso and Ragusa
so long the passive instrument of his (Mortier and Marmont) could not possibly will, had been got together, and had makc head against it."
appointed a provisional government, at Having dispatched Caulincourt to the head of which was Talleyrand, who
thus verified all the suspicions of Napo- minent danger, by getting rid of princes who leon. The next day they agreed to a
will revive old haireds and inflict a fresh injury
upon the country, by internal disturbances, decree, declaring that, by reason of his
brought on by the pride of the old nobility and tyranny and misgovernment, of which the vanity of the new, and the character of several instances were set out, Napoleon the people raised by the' revolution to a level had forfeited for himself and family the
at which we may lament that it was not left." imperial crown of France. On the 3d
The very day that this letter was of April, the legislative body, which, written, Napoleon, convinced that his previous to the campaign, Napoleon had case was hopeless, had consented to an broken up, because it had presumed to unconditional abdication.
The treaty give him unpalatable advice, was got of Fontainebleau, signed the next day, together, and confirmed the decree of granted to the Bonapartes such terms forfeiture. On the 4th, finding that as no other dethroned family ever obthe marshals were no longer disposed tained—to Napoleon, Elba, during his to obey him—indeed, with Ney at their life, with the title of emperor ; to his head, they demanded that he should ab wife and son, Parma, Placentia, and dicate-- Napoleon signed an abdication Guastilla, as an hereditary sovereignty, in favor of his son, with the empress as with the title of prince; to his mother, regent. The allies, however, refused brothers and sisters, nephews and to come into this arrangement, demand- nieces, the title of princes, and, in ading, instead, his unconditional abdica- dition to their large private properties, tion.
French stocks, producing a net annual Joseph, meanwhile, was urgent with sum of two and and a half millions of the empress, who, with the fugitive im- francs, to be distributed among them so perial court and ministry, was still at as to give to Madame Mère an income Blois, to retire further south, out of the from this source alone of 300,000 francs, way of the enemy. This she refused to and a like income to the Princesses do, and on the 9th, under the escort of Eloise and Pauline ; to Joseph and his a Russian officer, who came to Blois, no wife an income of 500,000 francs; the doubt by an understanding on her part, same to Jerome and his wife ; to Horshe set out with her infant son to join tense and her children an income of her father, the Emperor of Austria, at 400,000 francs; and one of 200,000 Dijon—for he had not gone with the francs to her husband Louis, who lived two other sovereigns to Paris. Joseph, separately from her. Eugene was to who followed the empress to Orleans, have a suitable establishment out of wrote from that city, on the 10th, as France. The annual income of Josefollows:
phine was reduced from five millions to “Sire: I wrote you yesterday that we should onę million francs, which must have be here to-day, and here we actually are. (The made her feel very poor, as, with the letter here referred to is not given. It would
former sum, she was always in debt. be highly curious, as it probably contained Joseph's account of the final breach between
She had fled from Paris at the same him and the empress.) General Schuwaloff, time with Marie Louise, and had taken aide-de-camp to the Emperor of Russia, ac. refuge in Navarre, where she had an companied the empress. "If what is reported should prove true, and
estate; but, on the invitation of the Emthe Bourbons should be called to the throne I peror Alexander, she returned to her am most anxious not to be obliged to ask any. seat at Malmaison, near Paris, where thing of them. I could not possibly live in she died before the end of the year. France, nor could I take my wite and children to the island of Elba. If sad necessity should
Her daughter Hortense was also perforce your majesty thither, I will go to visit mitted to live at Paris, where she at you, and to prove to you my attachinent; but once began to intrigue for Napoleon's it will not be till I have placed my wife and
return, children in safety on the continent. “M. Faypoult this was the agent sent to
Joseph retired to Switzerland; but Murat) has just returned from Italy; the army
hastened to join his brother at Paris, on there is in excellent order; the viceroy (Eu his return from Elba, as did also Lucien gene) is quietly at Mantua : the king of Na
and Jerome. Louis took no part in that ples prays for your success, if you desire universal pence, and the independence of
movement; nor did Eugene, who reItaly. A single effort might, perhaps, extri. mained quiet at the court of his fathercato France from the abyss into which she is in-law, the king of Bavaria. Murat, in falling. An immediate decision, with regard seeking to join it, lost his crown, in a both to military affairs and to politics, may, perhaps, repair all in favor of your son. Be wild attempt to regain which, he lost bold enough to try. Save the state from im his life. Lucien returned, under Na
poleon's second reign, to his old position honor of the Bonaparte family. His of a member of the new legislative bodymother (whose economy had made her and he made great efforts, after the very rich) ought to promise an outfit of battle of Waterloo, to retain the crown 300,000 francs to each of her grandof France in the family. Thiers ac children, who would establish themcuses him of caprice in his relations to selves at Rome. She could not employ his brother ; but the principle upon her fortune better, and Pauline (who which he acted is obvious.
had no children) and Cardinal Fesch willing to coöperate with Napoleon in ought to do the same with theirs. The exalting the family, though not willing, members of his family ought not to like Joseph, to play the part of a mere establish themselves except in a theo. tool. As to his youthful republicanism, cracy like Rome, or in a republic like that had subsided into a preference for Switzerland, having strength enough to limited monarchy, as the best form of maintain its neutrality. By connecting government.
themselves with the oligarchy of Berne, The second abdication of Napoleon for instance, or some other of the powerdrove Joseph to seek refuge in America, ful cantons, they might secure themwhere the sons of Murat soon followed selves independence. If Jerome, behim. Jerome was allowed by the Em cause his wife was a Protestant, did peror of Austria to reside at Trieste. not wish to go to Rome, he might estabThe rest of the family, through the lish himself in Switzerland. Ho might favor of the Pope, established them carry five or six millions with him, and selves at Rome. Even at St. Helena, nobody would know but that it was Napoleon still considered himself the forty. His money would make him head of the family, whom, even after welcome, and he would be independent. his death, they were all bound to obey. He ought to get himself inscribed On his death-bed, his mind was occu among the nobles, and connect bis chilpied with projects for their ulterior dren with the powerful families. Berne aggrandizement. He undertook to re was preferable, because it was the pringulate both their residence and their cipal canton. As Rome was too near marriages; and upon these subjects Naples to be safe for queen Caroline, gave some curious directions to General she also might establish herself in SwitBertrand, who, on reaching Europe, zerland, but in a different canton. Johastened to communicate them to Jo- seph, being in America, might prefer to seph, in a letter dated October, 1821. reinain there, and would naturally like This letter is published in the tenth to have his daughters near him. There volume of the Mémoires du Roi Joseph, was, however, nobody there but merand we cannot better conclude this chants, except, indeed, a few families, article than by giving the substance of as the Washingtons and Jeffersons. He the curious directions of Napoleon re might have a President of the United corded in it.
States in his family. It was a republic He desired that his nieces should well enough in its way; however, he marry into Roman families, especially prefered Rome for Joseph, and, for the such as had furnished popes. The re reasons already mentioned, he ought to cent marriage of one of Lucien's daugh- establish himself there with his daughters with a Swede, he very much dis ters; or, if there were objections to approved. His nieces might wash the Rome, then in Switzerland in preference feet of the Pope, but not of the queen to America. The Bonaparte family of Sweden, nor of any other temporal thus established in Switzerland and the prince. The members of his family Roman States, a score or two of marmight also intermarry among themselves. riages would make them masters of those They might speedily have a pope, car two countries. dinals, and legates among their num Such were the schemes with which ber, and might thus come to exercise a Napoleon-his ruling passion strong in great influence in Europe, and even in death-occupied his last moments. He France. Such intermarriages as he anticipated also some possible great desproposed would interest a number of tiny for his son ; but the rečstablishpowerful families in propagating the ment of the family on the imperial glory of his name, and would attach a throne of France he seems not to have powerful theocracy to the interests and dreamed of.
THE SMALL GERMAN UNIVERSITY TOWN.
ERE you ever there, Mr. Howitt? ing double mirrors to the windows of a
I have the greatest doubt about it. small German town, and I will sow rage You might have passed through Aesel and fury, worse than did the mytholoen, in the Schnellpost, but you never gical broad.cast of dragon teeth. spent a day, a week, a month there; or Aeselen was within a stone's throw of perhaps, for the first time in your life, ever so many countries. Did you walk your quiet, equable mind, ever prone to of a pleasant afternoon past some green find the good better, and the bad not fields, and a hill or so, you were in so bad,” would have been roused. As Prussia; retrace your footsteps a mile, Defoe, by his Robinson Crusoe, did as you were in the kingdom of Strongmuch in his century to induce travel as beer; and from the rookery on top of steam power has facilitated it in our the old town-house, I could enchant my times, so have you, friend William eyes with the sight of some dozen kingHowitt, by your book of German stu doms, empires, and Herzogthums. dent life, done much to tempt me to Aeselen had one grand street; here plunge into the hidden arcana of the lived the full professor, the upper salt German schools of lore.
inspector, the market inspector; into Aeselen! what a dear little place it this straggled some three or four other was? (I can say so now that I am away streets. Here dwelt the under profesfrom it; for had I, whilst an inhabitant, sors and lower dignitaries; and, lastly, given it this endearing diminutive, in filling up the interstices, were narrow ten minutes' time Aeselen would have alleys, devoted to the professors' assistrisen in arms and driven me out.) Little ants, the booksellers, pipe and tobacco place! forsooth! Was it not the venders, and the students' kneip, or beersecond town in the Grossherzogthum houses. The students lived everyafter the capital ! And the capital, where, according to their circumstances, had it not long, grass-grown streets, some in poor, miserable dens, others, and a column erected to a former Gross more fortunate as to worldly goods, in herzog, a wonder of the world a won the professors' houses; the professors' der, from the fact that nobody ever knew wives generally combining the accomwhat great act or deed the deceased plishment of knowing how to turn a Grossherzog ever did to have had such gulden or so to the best advantage. an ugly column built for him. But Three great buildings were there, in Aeselen boasted of a university, a club Aeselen : the towu-house, Professor house, and Herr Professor Von Stick Von Stickstoff's house, and the clubstoff, and some one hundred and fifty house. native students (every one of them wear The club-hoase! Second temple of ing great, massive silver spectacles) be- Janus, instigator of peace and war! side, some forty foreign scholars. How What a blessing it was for the town; snugly the town nestled in a hollow; how they required it as an excitant. how quiet and placid it looked; whó Three parties disputed supremacy there, could imagine the fire and lava that the Löffels, the Gabels, and the Messeethed and bubbled there, or the heaps sers ;* they were the Faubourgs St. of ashes the inhabitants were ever pil. Germain, St. Honoré, and St. Denis. ing on each other's devoted heads ?
The Löffels had seven“ vons," the I believe it to be a solemn truth, that head professors, their fat wives and the simple fact of every window, of daughters; the Gabels marshaled unevery house in the town being provided der their banners but one "von" (his with little looking-glasses (arranged on title town tattle disputed), the unthe best of optical principles), did more der professors; and lastly came the to disturb its peace than any other Messers, the burghers of the town. At scientific phenomena in the world's re an annual club-ball each one found bis cord. “Give me a lever, and a point rank; to have danced with a Löffel was d'appui,” said Archimedes, “and I will to be cut by the Gabels; to have gone move the world;" give me, I say, reflect back to the Gabels was to be cut by the
* The spoons, the forks, and the knives.