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90;

bours, 78; his book of “ Tithes," 79, 80; his declaration in regard thereto, 80; three tracte by, 80 ; his sycophaney towards James I., 81; after elevation of his nature-his share in the Protest of the Commons-his arrest and release, 82; works on constitutional law-enters Parliament-his career there, 83-89; his speeches in the House, 84; more publications, 85; committed to the Tower released-returns to literature, 89; the “ Mare Clausum,” 89,

resumes Parliamentary career, 90, 94; subscribes to the Solemn League and Covenant, 93; retires from Parliamentactivity of his pen, 94 ; closing years of his life, 95 ; summary of his life-work, 96, 97; his views on Church and State, 97;

his “ Table-Talk," 98-103.
Self-denial, Selden on, 102.
Sermons, Selden on, 99.
Seven Bishops, Trial of the, 122.
Shrewsbury, Earl of, 114.
Slavery, Brougham's attacks on,

347.
Smollett, quoted, 105; on Mans.

field, 212. Somers, John, Earl, 104; critical

opinions on-Mackintosh, 104; Earl Russell, Smollett, Swift, 105; Addison, 107; Barnet, 109 ; Walpole-Macaulay, 110; his benevolent character, 111 ; his birth and parentage, 112, 113; education, 114; studies for the law, 113 ; attracts at.

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INTRODUCTION.

T is a curious and interesting fact that most of

our great lawyers have owed nothing of their

success in life to adventitious aids—such as high birth, rank, or wealth. They have sprung, with few exceptions, from the middle classes, and even from the lower section of the middle classes, and made their way to eminence by their resolution, perseverance, and (U

patience. I have often wondered that writers for the young, when seeking examples by which to stimulate their ardour and sustain their hopes, have not sought them more frequently and freely in the honourable profession of the law; for in no other are they so numerous or so brilliant. The lives of men like Tenterden and Eldon show us in the most striking manner what may be achieved by a brave heart and a clear brain; and convey a lesson which it is impossible to misunderstand-a lesson of high encouragement well calculated to awaken the energies and nourish the wholesome ambition of youth.

But they convey another and even more valuable lesson by illustrating the advantages of culture; the pleasure and profit derivable from the pursuit of knowledge. They teach us, moreover, the value of selfreliance; that quality which distinguishes the wise man

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from the fool. A Roman politician when captured by traitors was tauntingly asked : “Where is thy stronghold now?" Placing his hand upon his heart, he answered, “Here!” And this must be the stronghold of every seeker after knowledge. No good work will be done by young men who accustom themselves to lean upon others, who are always finding new leaders, and professing themselves disciples of new Gamaliels. They must learn to think their own thoughts, to form their own opinions ; valuing authority justly, but not submitting to it slavishly. “Every one," writes Thierry, the historian, “can make his own destiny, every one employ his life nobly, or at least usefully."

A century ago there lived at Canterbury a respectable barber and hairdresser named Abbott, who endeavoured to do his humble work in life to the best of his ability. He had a son named Charles, a decent, grave, and primitive-looking youth, who in his childhood, when not learning to read at a dame's school, was employed in carrying home the wigs on which his father had exercised his skill. The boy was next admitted on the foundation of the King's School, where his master's quick eye detected his latent capacity, and he was cordially encouraged in the prosecution of his studies.

He soon came to be distinguished for his industry and intelligence, and his skill in Latin verse and prose composition--an acquirement more valued then as a test of scholarship than it is now. It is said that to every man once in his life comes his opportunity; assuredly to every man comes once in his life the risk of failure by diverting his energies into the wrong channel. Charles Abbott was fourteen when this risk befell him, A chorister's place was vacant at the cathedral, and his father put him forward as a candidate, satisfied that his long connection with the cathedral authorities as their perruquier would secure the prize for his son ; but, happily, the Dean and Chapter decided that his voice was too husky; and he was left to succeed as a great lawyer instead of failing as a mediocre singer. Long years afterwards, the Lord Chief-Justice of England, while “going circuit” with another judge, visited St. Augustine's ancient minster, and pointing to a singing-man in the choir, “Behold, brother Richardson," he exclaimed, "the only human being I ever envied.

When at school in this town, we were candidates together for a chorister's place; he obtained it, and if I had gained my wish, he might have been accompanying you as Chief-Justice, and pointing me out as his old schoolfellow, the singing-man.” This is more than doubtful. There is no reason for supposing that the singing-man had a tithe of Tenterden's ability, or resolution, or force of character.

For three years more Charles Abbott continued at school, and fought his way energetically to the captainship. Then it seemed good to his father that since he could not be a singing-man he should become a barber, and shave the chins and clip the hair of Canterbury citizens after the paternal example. The head-master of the King's School interfered. His promising pupil was worthy of something better; and with the aid of some leading townsmen, and a grant from the school's trustees, he raised a small sum to enable him to go to college. Entering Corpus Christi College at Oxford, he won a classical scholarship, which contributed materially to the expense

of his maintenance. Writing to a young

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