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The “ Western Luminary” publishes a statement of the comparative subscriptions of Churchmen and Dissenters to the charitable institutions of Exeter, which stands thus :

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We copy the following from the Portsmouth Paper :-"A new line of road has been proposed to the projectors of the Southampton Railway, which, as far as can be judged by a lithographic section and estimate (which have been sent to us), appears to be worthy of attentive consideration. This proposed line would pass from London, by Epsom, Horsham, and Arundel, to Portsmouth, and thence to Southampton; whilst that at present intended would pass through Basingstoke and Winchester. The distance from London to Southampton through Sussex would be 85} miles; through Basingstoke it is only 77 miles; but on the Basingstoke line it has to rise 382 feet, and by the Sussex line less than 200 feet would be needful. The Basingstoke line will serve a population of 50,000 persons, while the Horsham, Chichester, and Portsmouth line would embrace 400,000 inhabitants. With regard to the summit levels of a rail-road, it is ascertained, upon just calculations, that upon a level road, the power of 9lbs. will propel a ton 30 miles an hour, at the expense of one farthing per mile; if it rises eight feet per mile, 14lbs. is required to move a ton 12 miles an hour, at the expense of one penny per mile; if it rises 20 feet per mile, the power required to move a ton 6 miles per hour is 26lbs. at the expense of 3d. a mile; and if it rises 24 feet per mile (as it will do in some parts of the Southampton Railway, to get to the summit of Popham Hill), 30lbs. per ton will only move it 51 miles an hour, at an expense of 4žd. per mile. It results, therefore, that to move a ton of goods from London to Southampton by the intended rail-rpad (the Bill for which is now before Parliament), it will require the power of 156lbs. for the 77

miles, at the cost of 7s. 2d., and occupy. ing five hours and seventeen minutes ; whilst, if the same ton of goods were conveyed from London by Horsham, Chichester, and Cosham, to Southamp. ton, it would require only the power of 65lbs. for the 85 miles, at a cost of only 3s. 0fd. and occupy only three hours and a half.


Southborough Cottage Allotments. The experiment of granting portions of land to the labouring poor, at a small rent, appears to have fully realised the expectation of those gentlemen who have acted as a committee of management. It has been in operation four years, and there are at present fifty tenants upon seventeen acres of land; a few of the occupiers cultivate half an acre, the majority a quarter of an acre. The land, with only two or three exceptions, has been well tilled; and the produce (considering the quality of the soil) has amply repaid the labour bestowed upon it. The whole of the land rented of James Alexander, Esq., is now under cultivation; and there is every reason to believe that the labourers are well satisfied, as they are desirous of retaining their allotments. Considering the experiment in a moral point of view, there is strong ground to hope that the labourer has not merely ameliorated his domestic comforts, but that, in many instances, his general conduct has been improved, and habits of industry and independence excited and encouraged. This, we conceive, has been effected by advantageously employing their leisure hours, which, in all probability, might have been spent at the beer-shop or wasted in idle sports. It must be very gratifying to those ladies and gentlemen who promoted the undertaking, to hear



of its success ; and we strongly recom- be gratified with a walk along the brow mend 'the adoption of similar measures of the hill, which cannot fail to delight in the neighbouring districts.

them, in which clumps of cedars, per

haps the finest in Europe, form a proSOMERSETSHIRE.

minent feature. This admirable imWages of the Somersetshire Silk La. bourers. In the supplementary Report

provement has been effected by the good

taste and perseverance of the Surveyor of the Factory Commissioners, recently of his Majesty's park. laid before Parliament, there are some statistical returns of the highest value

WALES. with relation to the condition of the More iron is manufactured at the manufacturing population. The returns

Dowlais Works, Merthyr, than in any from the factories in various parts of the

other establishment in Europe. Upwards kingdom as to the wages paid to the of 34,000 tons were made in 1833. The operatives engaged in them were re- proprietors pay 13,0001. per month for ferred to Dr. Jas. Mitchell, the actuary,

wages alone. to exhibit the results in a tabular form. The following is a portion of his report with relation weekly to the wages of the

New Harbour at Edinburgh.-Messrs. female silk manufacturers of Somerset :

Grainger and Miller, and Mr. Gibb, of Below 11 ars of age, 10d. ; between

Aberdeen, the eminent engineers, have 11 and 16, 2s.6d.; from 16 to 21,

drawn up a report for the formation of a 45. 104d.; from 21 to 26, 5s. 24d.; 26 to

harbour and dock in Trinity Bay, on the

southern shore of the Firth of Forth. 31, 58. 1d. ; 31 to 36, 5s. 11 d. ; 36 to

The works will consist of a wet dock 41, 6s. ; 41 to 46, 4s. 10d. ; 46 to 51, 5s. 10 d.; 56 to 61, 5s. 6d. ; 61 to 66,

containing 43 acres, affording inner 38. 6d. ; 66 to 71, 6s. ld.; 71 to 76, 5s.

wharfage to the extent of 12,000 feet. This dock will be entered by a lock 200

feet in length and 55 in width. The Poaching and Beer-Houses.-At the entrance will be protected by a break. Suffolk Lent Assizes, at the conclusion

water parallel to the channel of the Firth, of their labours, the Grand Jury 1,100 feet long, founded in 11 feet water made the following presentment, which

at low ebb of spring tide, and which, at ought to be generally known :-“We, the same time, with two check piers the Grand Jury (of Suffolk), cannot

built on arches, will secure an outer separate without expressing our serious barbour, 900 feet long by 300 feet wide, alarm at the number of prisoners on the

where there will be a low-water landing present calendar, for the body of this place for the accommodation of the county, against whom bills have been steam-vessel trade of the Firth. The found for pouching by night, amounting

harbour will afford a depth of water for to one-half! It has been proved in evi.

ships of every size, even the largest in dence before us, that poaching is syste

the King's service, and it will be accesmaticaliy carried on by night, and by

sible at all times of the tide and in all large bodies of men armed with guns

weathers. The estimated cost of this and dangerous weapons, to the intimi. great undertaking is the comparatively, dation and risk of many of his Majesty's trifling sum of 250,0001. subjects. And it further appears to us,

IRELAND. that the offence of poaching has greatly The new plan of National Education increased since the passing of the late Act

in Ireland has so far succeeded, that relating to game; and that crimes and

there are now 1000 schools and 140,000 misdemeanours have been much aug. scholars in connexion with the Board. mented by the licensing of beer-HOUSES, which tends to the general demoralization of the labouring classes."

Lord Melbourne has addressed a circular to the Lords-Lieutenants of coun

ties, informing them that “none of the New Terrace in Richmond Park. corps of yeomanry cavalry are intended The property of the late Lord Hunting- to be placed on permanent duty, or to be tower, at Petersham, has been recently inspected in the present year; but that purchased by the Crown, and is now in such corps as may wish to be trained progress of being added to Richmond and exercised according to the provisions Park. By the removal of an extensive of the 46th and ensuing sections of the plantation, a view as beautiful as the Volunteer Act, will be allowed to asone seen from Richmond-hill, will be semble for that purpose for a period not thrown into sight, and the public will exceeding eight days."






* *

Few writers have been rewarded with more praise and profit, few loaded with more censure and calumny, than the authoress of " Illustrations of Political Economy.” Perhaps both those who so much exalt her efforts, and those who would so deeply abase them, are equally wrong. Their strength, however, is proved by the sensation they have occasioned, which may be truly said to have been universal. While the Quarterly Reviewers have esteemed her publications sufficiently important, both morally and nationally, to call forth their bitterest opprobrium, not unmixed with much that is personal rather than critical, the “ Edinburgh” have extolled the genius that originated and produced these works. The “ Journal of Education” has temperately admitted their ability, and leniently demonstrated some of the errors, in an article which, but for a bias (obviously external) given to the writer, would have been severe. Some periodicals have lauded, and others have forgotten both their own self-respect, and a due regard to decency in their condemnation of Miss Martineau and her opinions. The newspapers, metropolitan and provincial, have bepraised or bespattered her; she has been deified in prose, and ridiculed in verse-nay, at more than one Radical meeting, her name has been invoked as the only oracle competent to decide the mighty questions there agitated. After all these demonstrations, there can be no doubt that much power must be inherent in works which could awaken so universal an interest, even though that interest should be short-lived ; and this is the fact which induces us to make the few observations that follow upon the first of a new series of tales just commenced by the same active and strong mind. The power

is granted—the effects indefinite and undetermined.

But the summary of Miss Martineau's qualifications may, perhaps, be thus drawn. A fearless courage; a patient industry in collecting information ; an intellect clear and capable in reducing the elements of the knowledge thus acquired to order, and perspicuity in setting it forth; keen observation of character and incident, and an extraordinary assimilation which teaches her to turn even the most trivial circumstances to present account; a large acquaintance with life in its middle and lower stages; enough of book-learning to

* “ Illustrations of Taxation. No. I. The Park and the Paddock. A Tale, by Harriet Martineau.”



enable her to inform herself with considerable accuracy upon the subjects she treats, and to illustrate by general views local scenery, national characteristics and individual mannerisms; strong, but not intense sensibility; a talent in combining all these attributes which bears the nearest approach and resemblance to invention and imagination, without actually reaching them; a most philosophical contempt for practice whenever it militates against theory, impeded and darkened, yet precipitated by vehement prejudices of education, society, and habits, and by a disclaim of the commonly-felt delicacies of sex and station; and last, not least, an energy of purpose and of action, fed, stimulated, and pampered by an ambition to serve the cause and enjoy the worship of that portion of the community she designates the people, perfectly indomitable and unwearying. Such we take to be the true portraiture of the mind, which, advantaged by the impulse of the time, has succeeded in moving the whole kingdom through a succession of stories, that, under any

other circumstances, would probably have obtained for the writer little more applause or distinction than was awarded, about forty years ago, to the excellent Lady Fenn, for her amiable project of “ teaching in sport." Miss Martineau's plan stands intrinsically in the same relation to political economy, that the scheme of this good matron bore to education; but Miss Martineau had the good fortune to find the tide of opinion and enthusiasm at the flood, whilst her wide-spreading family, political and Unitarian connexions, afforded an immense lever to raise her works into notice. We mean not in the least to derogate from their just estimation by this statement, for without great merit in themselves, no recommendation, no patronage could have given them such extensive circulation.

Had our authoress been content to make her tales the vehicle of her Illustrations of Political Economy only, we should have left them without disturbing the opinions formerly expressed in our miscellany concerning them. Enough, and more than enough, has been said by others upon her contempt of the wholesome restraints which, in decent society, are taken to forbid certain subjects to females. We allow Miss Martineau the fullest credit for not having trespassed beyond the intention to give force and effect to the moral rectitude of abstaining from marriage, till warranted by the possession of sufficient means to maintain the children that are supposed to be a necessary consequence of matrimony. The topic was unfortunate—the set phraseology of the topic more so. We steadfastly believe that, in recommending the abandonment of poverty to its own efforts, she has been misled by that earnestness of conviction, the controversial support of a theory which, being true, ought to be, though it is found not to be practicable, is liable to engender. Hence the apparent dogmatism of manner, which those who best know the lady assure us is the effect of an intellectual decision honestly made, and never to be moved when once made, but by absolute and abstract demonstration. Like the lawyer who insisted to the convict under sentence of death, that it was impossible he should be hanged, against the positive proofs of condemnation, warrant, and gallows, tenet ad extremum,-she holds to the last that it ought not to be, and cannot be; but if it be, it shall be the worse for those who cause it to be.

But Miss Martineau has of late converted her tales to other purposes; they have been employed in insidious attacks, not against Church

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and State in the contemptuous sense she probably would use the phrase, but against the fabric and the honest intention of the Constitution. Miss Martineau is a dissenter of Unitarian principles; nor ought there to be the slightest objection taken to her advocating her sentiments by any and every open and fair means. There can be as little doubt, without charging her with republicanism, that she would introduce as much of democracy into our commonwealth as our mixed forms (so long as they can be held together) will endure. In short, we must designate her as belonging in the most inveterate sense to the party of the movement, though we dislike a phrase so un-English and indefinite; but its adoption must be excused, because there is no other that will convey its no-meaning meaning. Well, be it so. If Church and State---if the Constitution be not able to stand by their own strength, let them fall.

The lady has a full right to her principles and the assertion of them. All we say is, let it be a fair and open assertion; let her not endeavour to introduce a band of destroyers into the citadel, under the semblance of a convoy of provisions. Now then, to the proofs of this mala fides.

Her illustrations are not of“ political economy " alone. The old adage, materiam superabat opus, is perhaps true of the tales which form the woof, while the political axioms are little more than the larger figures of the pattern. With these fictions, however, much instruction is interwoven, and much of the morbid action of society is demonstrated. It is a part of the attempt that great and sweeping generalizations are to be conveyed by individual instances-e.g. the practice and consequences of impressment in one of her former Numbers (“ A Tale of the Tyne ")-in another, the Polish injustice (“The Charmed Sea”);-indeed, in most of them, single examples are made to stand for generalities. It is, therefore, a matter of honesty that these examples be fairly selected and truly stated. In the tale which opens her series upon taxation, two, however, occur, which are neither the one nor the other; they constitute the rare exceps tion and not the rule, and we feel confidently will be thought to be but too palpably wilful as well as gross exaggerations when connected with former indications.

It is Miss Martineau's boast that she writes to the people and for the people-meaning always the inferior members of the middle classes, and more particularly the operatives. It therefore demands an especial prudence, and becomes doubly imperative upon one who addresses such an audience, not to aggravate or inflame their prejudices or passions against other and better provided orders. For while we are not about to pretend that the industrious classes are without injury or injustice from imperfect legislation, or from the negligences, omissions, and commissions of those above them, we assert that these are most commonly of accident, not design-they arise out of the ordinary constitution of the human mind, and the ordinary frame of society. Nothing, then, can be more erroneous or more dangerous than to pamper that disposition, not alone to envy, but to hate, superiors, which is but too often the attendant of inferiority, soured by comparative or positive privation. To exasperate the sufferers is the way neither to soothe nor to redress—the latter being, we potently believe, Miss Martineau's sole object and end.

To this tale (“ The Park and the Paddock”) no Summary of Principles is appended. Its apparent object is to illustrate the effects of the house and window taxes as direct taxation, and indeed of the assessed

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