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as such is regular and complete. Quoth is used only in ludicrous language, and is not varied. It seems to be properly the third person singular of the present, for it ends in th; and quod was formerly used as the preterit.

OBs. 3.— Wis, preterit wist, to know, to think, to suppose, to imagine, appears to be now nearly or quite obsolete; but it seems proper to explain it, because it is found in the Bible ; as, “I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest.”—Acts. Wit, to know, and wot, knew, are also obsolete except in the phrase to wit ; which, being taken abstractly, is equivalent to the adverb namely, or to the phrase, that is to say.

OBS. 4.--Some verbs, from the nature of the subject to which they refer, can be used only in the third person singular : as, It rains ; it snows ; it freezes ; it hails ; it lightens ; it thunders. These have been called impersonal verbs. The neuter pronoun it, which is always used before them, does not seem to represent any noun, but, in connection with the verb, merely to express a state of things.


1. State the classes and modifications of the verbs in the following sentences :

The house might have been built in time. The ship was wrecked. He should have finished his task. The young lady has been well educated. What has been done cannot be repaired. I will go out this afternoon, unless it rain. The horse must be shod, or he will become lame. They could not have known what they were doing. The merchant is said to have failed. The boy fell into the water, and he would have been drowned, if he had been unable to swim. He must have been mad to have committed the rash act. O, how happy we might have been. I will call upon him, if he desire it. I will go, and you shall not prevent me. I shall fail, for no one will aid me. I should like to accept the invitation. He would be willing to pay for the privilege. I would not do it, if I could. You shall do it, for I will compel you.

You will not commit so base an act! If it snow to-morrow, I cannot go. You ought to have tried to oblige your friend. Beware, lest your anger overcome you.


2. Write sentences, each containing an active verb, transitive or intransitive, as directed in the following

In the indicative mood, perfect tense; indicative pluperfect; subjunctive present; subjunctive imperfect; potential present; potential

perfect; infinitive present; infinitive perfect; indicative first future ; potential pluperfect; imperative ; indicative second future; potential imperfect; indicative imperfect.

3. Write sentenoes, each containing a passive verb with the same modifications as in the above.


A participle is a word derived from a verb, participating the properties of a verb, and of an adjective or a noun; and is generally formed by adding ing, d, or ed to the verb.

OBS. - Participles retain the essential meaning of their verbs; and, like verbs, are either active-transitive, active-intransitive, passive, or neuter, in their signification. For this reason many have classed them with the verbs; but their formal meaning is obviously different. They convey no affirmation, but usually relate to nouns or pronouns, like adjectives, except when they are joined with auxiliaries to form the compound tenses ; or when they have in part the nature of substantives, like the Latin gerunds.


English verbs have severally three participles : the imperfect, the perfect, and the preperfect.

OBS.—Various names have been given to the participles ; as their order is undisputed, they may be conveniently called the First, the Second, and the Third.

The imperfect participle is that which ends commonly in ing, and implies a continuance of the being, action, or passion; as, loving (active), being loved (passive).

The perfect participle is that which ends commonly in ed or en, and implies a completion of the being, action, or passion; as, loved (passive).

OBS.–The participle in ing represents the action or state as continuing and ever incomplete ; it is therefore rightly termed the imperfect par.

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ticiple: whereas the participle in ed always has reference to the action as done and complete; and is by proper contradistinction called the perfect participle.

OBS.—The perfect participle is essentially passive. Hence, in the case of intransitive and neuter verbs, this part of the verb cannot be used by itself.

The preperfect participle is that which takes the sign having, and implies a previous completion of the being, action, or passion; as, having loved (active), having been loved (passive).

OBS.-If this participle is to be named with reference to its meaning, there is perhaps no better term for it than the epithet preperfect, a word which explains itself, like prepaid or prerequisite. Of the many other names, the most correct one is pluperfect,-which is a term of very nearly the same meaning. Not because this compound is really of the pluperfect tense, but because it always denotes being, action, or passion, that is, or was, or will be, completed before the doing or being of something else; and, of course, when the latter thing is represented as past, the participle must correspond to the pluperfect tense of its verb; as, Having explained her views, it was necessary she should expatiate on the vanity and futility of the enjoyments promised by Pleasure.” Here having explained is equivalent to when she had explained.


The imperfect participle of an active verb is always formed by adding ing to the radical verb; as, look, looking.

The imperfect participle of a passive verb is formed by prefixing being to the perfect participle; as, being loved.

The perfect participle is regularly formed by adding d or ed to the radical verb.

Note. For the perfect participles of irregular verus, sec lists, pp. 98-101.

The preperfect participle of an active verb is formed by prefixing having to the perfect participle ; that of a passive verb, by prefixing having been ; as, having written, having been written.

Thus, the English verb, in the active form, bas, in fact, only two participles-the imperfect and the preperfect; and in the passive, three--the imperfect, the perfect, and the preperfect. Participles may be separated into two other classes: those which participate the properties of a verb and an adjective, and those which participate the properties of a verb and a

The latter are sometimes called gerundives. The following are examples of each :


First Class.-Verb and Adjective.
He came running very swiftly.
She, dying, gave it me.
The enemy having been defeated fled.
She stood wringing her hands.
Error wounded writhes in pain,
The Justice read amused, amazed.

Second Class.-Verb and Noun. (GERUNDIVES.)
She is fond of reading history.
After having paid the money he retired.
He was released on giving bail.
In keeping His commandments there is great reward.
Before leaving the city he paid his debts.

Obs. 1.-Participles often become adjectives, and are construed before nouns to denote quality. The terms so converted form the class of participial adjectives. Words of a participial form may be regarded as adjec. tives. 1. When they reject the idea of time, and denote something customary or habitual, rather than a transient act or state ; as, A lying rogue, i.e., one addicted to lying. 2. When they admit adverbs of comparison; as, A more learned man. 3. When they are compounded with something that does not belong to the verb; as, un feeling, unfelt. There is no verb to unfeel ; therefore, no participle unfeeling or unfelt. Adjectives are generally placed before their nouns; participles, after them.

OBS. 2.--To distinguish the participle from the participial noun, the learner should observe the following four things: 1. Nouns take articles and adjectives before them; participles, as such, do not. 2. Nouns may govern the possessive case, but not the objective; participles may govern the objective case, but not the possessive. 3. Nouns may be the subjects or objects of verbs; participles cannot. 4. Participial nouns express actions as things; participles refer actions to their agents or recipients.

Exercises. 1. Write the participles of the verbs given below in the following form:


Imperfect. Writing.
Preperfect. Having written.

Being written.
Having been written.

Make, give, seek, speak, hurt, feed, wear, smite, swim, know, think, tell, work, clothe, catch, teach, tread, dream, kneel, shoe, ride, put, lie, lay, say, sit, set, spend, steal.

2. Write sentences each containing a participle derived froin one or more of these verbs.

3. Write five sentences each containing a participle of the second class.


An adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or another adverb; and generally expresses time, place, degree, or manner.

OBS. 1.-Adverbs briefly express what would otherwise require several words; as, Now, for at this timeHere, for in this place— Very, for in a high degree-Diligently, for in an industrious manner.

OBS. 2.-There are several combinations of short words which are used adverbially, and which, as idiomatic phrases, it is scarcely necessary or possible to separate in analysis or parsing; as, Not at all, at length, in vain.

Classes, Adverbs may be reduced to four general classes ; namely, adverbs of time, of place, of degree, and of manner.

Adverbs of time are those which answer to the question, When? How long ? How soon? or How often : including these which ask.

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