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OBS. —Adverbs of time may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of time present; as, Now, yet, to-day, presently, instantly, immediately.

2. Of time past; as, Already, yesterday, lately, recently, anciently, heretofore, hitherto, since, ago, erewhile.

3. Of time to come; as, To-morrow, hereafter, henceforth, by-and-by, 800n, erelong.

4. Of time relative; as, When, then, before, after, while or whilst, till, until, seasonably, betimes, early, late.

5. Of time absolute; as, Always, ever, never, aye, eternally, pero petually, continually.

6. Of time repeated; as, Often, oft, again, occasionally, frequently, sometimes, seldom, rarely, now-and-then, duily, weekly, monthly, yearly, once, twice, thrice, or three times, etc.

7. Of the order of time; as, First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, etc.

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Adverbs of place are those which answer to the question, Where? Whither? Whence ? or Whereabout? including these which ask.

OBS.-Adverbs of place may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of place in which ; as, Where, here, there, yonder, above, below, about, around, somewhere, anywhere, elsewhere, everywhere, nowhere, wherever, within, without, whereabout, hereabout, thereabout.

2. Of place to which; as, Whither, hither, thither, in, up, down, back, forth, inwards, upwards, downwards, backwards, forwards.

3. Of place from which ; as, Whence, hence, thence, away, out. 4. Of the order of place; as, First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, etc.

Adverbs of degree are those which answer to the question, How much? How little ? or, to the idea of more or less.

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OBS.—Adverbs of degree may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of excess in abundance: as, Much, too, very, greatly, far, besides ; chiefly, principally, mainly, generally; entirely, full, fully, completely perfectly, wholly, totally, altogether, all, quite, clear, stark; exceedingly, excessively, extravagantly, intolerably; immeasurably, inconccivably, infinitely.

2. Of equality or sufficiency; as, Enough, sufficiently, equally, so, as,

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3. Of deficiency or abatement; as, Little, scarcely, hardly, merely, barely, only, but, partly, partialiy, nearly, almost.

4. Of quantity in the abstract; as, How, (meaning, in what degree,) hndever, howsoever, everso, something, nothing, anything, and other nouns of quantity used adverbially.

Adverbs of manner are those which answer to the question, How? or, by affirming, denying, or doubting, show how a subject is regarded.

OBS. --Adverbs of manner may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of manner from quality; as, Well, ill, wisely, foolishly, justly, quickly, and many others formed by adding ly to adjectives of quality.

2. Of affirmation or assent; as, Verily, truly, indeed, surely, certainly, doubtless, undoubtedly, certes, forsooth.

3. Of negation; as, No, nay, not, nowise.

4. Of doubt; as, Perhaps, haply, possibly, perchance, peradventure, may-be.

5. Of mode or way; as, Thus, 80, how, somehow, however, howsoever, like, else, otherwise, across, together, apart, asunder, namely, particularly, necessarily.

6. Of cause ; as, Why, wherefore, therefore.

Conjunctive Adverbs. Adverbs sometimes perform the office of conjunctions, and serve to connect the clauses of a sentence, as well as to express some circumstance of time, place, degree, or manner: adverbs that are so used, are called conjunctive adverbs.

OBS. 1. -A conjunctive adverb introducing a dependent clause relates to the pr cate verb in that clause, while the clause itself relates to the predicate verb of the principal clause. The words most frequently used in this way are the following: after', as, before, since, till, until, when, where, while or whilst. Because, answering to the question why, wherefore, for what renson (each of which is adverbial), may be also regarded as a conjunctive adverb. There are other words, as also, besides, hence, however, therefore, etc., that imply a logical connection of sentences or prepositions, but they are not, grammatically, connective words.

OBS. 2.--The word even, generally considered an adverb, as very frequently used, seems to perform the office of no part of speech, but to be employed merely to give emphasis to the particular word or phrase which it precedes ; as, Even the great are not free from vice.”_"I, even I only, am left.


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OBS. 3.-—The words yes and yea, expressing a single affirmation, and no and nay, expressing a simple negation, are always independent. They generally answer a question, and are equivalent to a whole sentence. They cannot, therefore, be properly considered as adverbs, but rather as affirmative or negative particles. The word amen, meaning 80 let it be, is of a similar character and usage.


Adverbs have no modifications, except that a few are compared after the manner of adjectives: as, Soon, sooner, soonest ;-often, oftener, oftenest ;-long, longer, longest.

The following are irregularly compared : well, better, best ; badly or ill, worse, worst ; little, less, least ; much, more, most ; far, farther, farthest ; forth, further, furthest.

OBS.—Most adverbs of quality will admit the comparative adverbs more and most, less and least, before them: as, wisely, more wisely, most wisely; culpably, less culpably, least culpably.

Exercises in Construction.
1. Write five sentences, each containing an adverb of manner.
2. Write five sentences, each containing an adverb of place.
3. Write five sentences, each containing an adverb of time.
4. Write five sentences, each containing an adverb of degree,
5. Write sentences each containing one of the following adverbs :-

Always, whether, seldom, often, truly, chiefly, seldom, patiently, earnestly, very, move, how, indeed, first, secondly, perhaps, doubtless, however, whence, hither, yesterday, by-and-by, hitherto, heretofore, somewhere, anywhere.

6. Write complex sentences, each consisting of a principal and depende ent clause connected by one of the following conjunctive adverbs :

When, while, where, till, since, before, after, as, because.


XII.-CONJUNCTIONS. A conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences in construction, and to show the dependence of the terms so connected.

Classes. Conjunctions are divided into two general classes, copulative and disjunctive; and some of each of these sorts are corresponsive.

A copulative conjunction is a conjunction that denotes an addition, a cause, or a supposition: as, “ He and I shall not dispute; for, if he has any choice, I shall readily grant it.”

A disjunctive conjunction is a conjunction that denotes opposition of meaning; as, “Be not overcome [by] evil, but overcome evil with good.” Rom. xii., 21.

The corresponsive conjunctions are those which are used in pairs, so that one refers or answers to another; as, “John came neither eating nor drinking.”-Matthew xi., 18.

The following are the principal conjunctions :

Copulative ; And, as, both, because, for, if, that, then, since, seeing, so.

Disjunctive; Or, nor, either, neither, than, though, although, yet, but, except, whether, lest, unless, save, notwithstanding.

Corresponsive ; Both - and; as-as; as - 80; if -then; either-or; neither--nor; whether-or; though, or although-yet.

XIII.-PREPOSITIONS, A preposition is a word used to express some relation of different things or thoughts to each other, and is generally placed before a noun or a pronoun.

OBS. 1.-Prepositions are neither principal parts of a sentence, nor are they adjuncts. They are simply words used to express relation.

OBS. 2.-—Prepositions introduce phrases that are generally used as adjuncts; as, “A man of reputation ; ” equivalent to, A reputable man.

-In this place they settled ; ” equivalent to, Here they settled. –“Fit for use,” in which the rase for use limits the adjective fit. Such phrases are usually called prepositional phrases.

OBS. 3.—The noun or pronoun before which a preposition is placed is called its object, and the preposition always expresses the relation between its object and the word to which the prepositional phrase is an adjunct. Thus in the examples given above, of expresses the relation between man and reputation ; in, between settled and place; and for, between fit and use.

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List of the Prepositions. The following are the principal prepositions, arranged alphabetically: Aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along, amid or amidst, among or amongst, around, at, athwart ;-Bating, before, behind, below, beneath, beside or besides, between or betwixt, beyond, by ;-Concerning ;-Down, during;-Ere, except, excepting ;-For, from ;-In, into ;Mid or midst ; Notwithstanding ;-Of, off, on, over, overthwart ;--Past, pending ; - Regarding, respecting, round ; - Since ; Through, throughout, till, to, touching, toward or towards ;-Under, un

derneath, until, unto, up, upon ;-With, within, without.

Obs. 1.-The words in the preceding list are generally prepositions. But when any of them are employed without a subsequent term of relation, they are either adjectives or adverbs. For, when it signifies because, is a conjunction ; without, when used for unless, and notwithstanding, when placed before a nominative, are usually referred to the class of conjunctions also.

OBS. 2.-Several words besides those contained in the foregoing list are (or have been) occasionally employed in English as prepositions ; as, A chiefly used before participles), abaft, adorn, afore, aloft, aloof, alongside, anear, anent, aslant, aslope, astride, atween, atrixt, by-west, cross, dehors, despite, inside, left-hand, mauger, minus, onto, opposite, outside, per, plus, sans, spite, thorough, traverse, versus, via, withal, withinside.

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