« AnteriorContinuar »
OBs. 3.-Two or more words are sometimes used as a compound preposition, being combined so as to express a single relation. The following are examples: as to, (8 for, according to, because of, out of, from out, from among, from between, over against.
Insert prepositions in place of the dashes in the following sentences :
Plead the dumb. Qualify thyself action study. Think often
time. Be not dismayed difficulties. Live
moderation. Jest not serious subjects. Take no part slander. Guilt starts
its own shadow. Grudge not giving. Go not
sleep malice. Depend not the assistance others, but rely yourself. Many fail grasping at things their reach. Go
the world your eyes open.
XIV.-INTERJECTIONS. An interjection is a word that is uttered inerely to indicate some strong or sudden emotion of the mind.
OBS. 1.-Interjections have no relation to any other words in a sentence. They are neither adjuncts nor principal parts, being entirely independent. Properly considered, therefore, the interjection is not a part of speech, or part of a sentence.
OBS. 2.-Of pure interjections but few are ordinarily admitted into books. As words or sounds of this kind serve rather to indicate feeling than to express thought, they seldom have any truly definable signification. Their use also is so variable, that there can be no very accurate classification of them. Some significant words properly belonging to other classes, are ranked with interjections, when uttered with emotion and in an unconnected manner.
List of the Interjections. The following are the principal interjections, arranged according to the emotions which they are generally intended to indicate: 1. Of joy; eigh! hey! io!--2. Of sorrow; oh! ah! hoo! alas ! alack ! lackaday! welladay! or welaway !--3. Of won
der ; heigh ! ha! strange! indeed !-4. Of wishing, earnestness, or vocative address ; (often with a noun or pronoun in the nominative absolute ;) 0 !-5. Of praise; well-done! good! bravo !—6. Of surprise with disapproval ; whew! hoity-toity! hoida! zounds ! what !-7. Of pain or fear; oh! ooh! ah! eh! O dear !–8. Of contempt; fudge! pugh! poh! pshaw! pish! tush! tut! humph 1—9. Of aversion ; foh! faugh! fie! fy! foy!—10. Of expulsion ; out! off ! shoo! whew! begone ! avaunt! aroynt !-11. Of calling aloud ; ho! soho! what-ho! hollo ! holla! hallo! halloo! hoy! ahoy !-12. Of exultation; ah ! aha! huzza ! hey! heyday! hurrah !—13. Of laughter; ha, ha, ha; he, he, he ; te-hee, te-hee.-14. Of salutation ; welcome! hail ! all hail !—15. Of calling to attention ; ho! lo! la! law ! look ! see! behold! hark !-16. Of calling to silence; hush! hist! whist ! 'st! aw! mum !-17. Of dread or horror; oh! ha! hah! what !-18. Of languor or weariness; heigh-ho! heigh-ho-hum !-19. Of stopping; hold ! soft! avast! whoa !--20. Of parting; farewell ! adieu! good-by! good-day!—21. Of knowing or detecting ; oho! aha! ay-ay!--22. Of interrogating; eh ? ha? hey?
018.-Besides these, there are several others, too often heard, which are unworthy to be considered as parts of a cultivated language. The frequent use of interjections savors more of thoughtlessness than of sensibility:
XV.--ANALYSIS, PARSING, AND CONSTRUCTION.
Phrases. A phrase is a combination of two or more words expressing some relation of ideas, but no entire proposition ; as, “Of a good disposition.”—“To be plain with you."-"Having loved his own."
A phrase may be used in three ways: 1, as one of the principal parts of a sentence; 2, as an adjunct ; 3, it may be independent.
An adjunct phrase is adjective, adverbial, or explanatory.
A substantive phrase is one used in the place of a noun; as, “ To do good is the duty of all."
An independent phrase is one that is not related to, or connected with, any word in the rest of the sentence; as, “ He failing, who shall meet success ? "_“ To be plain with you, I think you in fault.” ,
. The principal part of a phrase is that upon
which all the other parts depend; as, “ Under every misfortune." -“ Having exhausted every expedient.”
Phrases are either simple, complex, or compound.
A simple phrase is one unconnected with any other ; as, “Of an obliging disposition.”
A complex phrase is one that contains a phrase or a clause, as an adjunct of its principal part; as, “ By the bounty of heaven.”—“ To be plain with you.”
A compound phrase is one composed of two or more co-ordinate phrases; as, “Stooping down and looking in."
Phrases are also classified as to their form, depending upon the introducing word, or the principal part; thus,
1. A phrase, introduced by a preposition, is called a prepositional phrase ; as, “By doing good.”—“Of an engaging disposition."
2. A phrase the principal part of which is a verb in the infinitive mood, is called an infinitive phrase; as, “ To be good is to be happy."
3. A phrase the principal word of which is a participle, is called a participial phrase; as, “A measure founded on justice.”
OBS. 1. -A preposition that introduces a phrase, serves only to express the relation between the principal part, and the word of the sentence on which the phrase depends.
A phrase, used as the subject or the object of a verb, must be substantive in office, and, with a strict adherence to grammatical rules, can only be infinitive in form; as, “ To disobey parents is sinful.”—“William loves to study grammar.” Participial phrases are, however, sometimes used by good writer's in this way; as, “Hunting the buffalo, is one of the sports of the West.” “ John's father opposed his going to sea.”
A phrase, used as an attribute, may be substantive or adjective in office, and may have the following forms :
1. Infinitive ; as, “The object of punishment is to reform the guilty.”—“His conduct is greatly to be admired.” [In the latter example, the phrase is adjective, to be admired being equivalent to admirable.] 2. Prepositional ; as, “He is in good health."_“The train
. “ was behind time." [In each of these examples, the phrase is adjective.]
An adjective phrase may have the following forms :1. Prepositional ; as,
“ Carelessness in the use of money is a vice."
2. Infinitive ; as, “ The desire to do good is praiseworthy." 3. Participial ; as, “Seeing the danger, he avoided it.” An adverbial phrase may have the following forms: 1. Prepositional ; as, “ He was attentive to his business.” 2. Infinitive ; as, “ They were anxious to ascertain the truth.” 3. Idiomatic ; as,
“ In vain.”- * Day by day.”—“By and by."-"As a general thing."
An explanatory phrase is always substantive in office, and infinitive in form ; as, “It is pleasant to see the sun.”
The independent phrase is various in form and character. It may be distinguished as
1. Infinitive ; as, “ To be.candid, I was in fault.”
2. Participial ; as, “ Considering the circumstances, much credit is due.” 3. Vocative; as,
“Boast not, my dear friend, of to-morrow." 4. Pleonastic; as, “The blessing of the Lord, it maketh rich."
“ The sun having risen, the mists were dis
5. Absolute ; as, persed."
Obs. 1.--The last form of this phrase is often adverbial in signification; as in the example given, in which it is equivalent to the clause, when the sun had risen. It is, therefore, independent only in construction.
Obs. 2.-An adverbial phrase may be modified by an adverb; as, “It lasts but for a moment;" i.e., but equivalent to only, and modifying the adverbial phrase, for a moment.
OBs. 3.-A phrase or a clause is sometimes used as the object of & preposition, and thus forms a prepositional phrase of a complex or anomalous character; as, “Blows mildew from between-his-shriveledlips "-"That depends on who-can-run-the-fastest."
Exercises in Analysis and Parsing.
Praxis IV.-Etymological. In the Fourth Praxis, it is required of the pupil: to classify and analyze the sentence as in the preceding praxis ; to classify and analyze each, phrase ; and to parse the sentence, distinguishing the parts of speech, and all their classes and modifications. Thus:
EXAMPLE ANALYZED AND PARSED.
“Ah! who can tell the triumphs of the mind,
By truth illumined, and by taste refined ?" ANALYSIS.--A simple interrogative sentence.
The subject is who; the predicate verb, can tell; the object of which is triumphe, modified by the coniplex adjective phrase, of the mind illumined by truth, and refined by taste.
The principal part of the phrase is mind; its adjuncts are the and the compound adjective phrase, illumined by truth, and refined by taste, which consists of the two coördinate participial phrases connected by and.
The principal part of the former is illumined, and its adjunct, the simple adverbial phrase, by truth; the principal part of the latter is refined, and its adjunct, the simple adverbial phrase by taste.
Al is an independent word.
PARSING. —Ah! is an interjection, because it is a simple exclamation of wonder or admiration.
Who is an interrogative pronoun, of the third person, singular number, common in gender; and in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the verb can tell.
By is a preposition, because it shows the relation between truth and illumined, the phrase by truth being an adjunct of illumined.