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Truth is a common noun, and abstract, because it is the name of a quality. It is of the third person, singular number, neuter gender; and in the objective case, because it is the object of the preposition by.

Illumined is a perfect participle from the regular passive verb be illumined. It performs the office of a verb, by expressing passion; and of an adjective, by modifying the noun mind.

And is a conjunction, because it connects the two phrases, by truth illumined, by laste refined; it is copulative, because it expresses an addition.

(Parse the other words as in the preceding praxes.]

Having sold his patrimony he engaged in merchandise.

The bounty displayed on the earth equals the grandeur manifested in the heavens.

In the varieties of life, we are inured to habits both of the active and the suffering virtues.

By disappointments and trials, the violence of our passions is tamed.

He, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.

Cheerfulness keeps up a kind of day-light in the mind, and fills it with a steady and perpetual serenity.

Sitting is the best posture for deliberation ; standing for persuasion; a judge, therefore, should speak sitting; a pleader, standing.

The pleasures of sense resemble a foaming torrent; which, after a disorderly course, speedily runs out, and leaves an empty and offensive channel.

Most of the troubles which we meet with in the world, arise from an irritable temper, or from improper conduct.

The meeting was so respectable, that the propriety of its decision can hardly be questioned.

They who are moderate in their expectations, meet with few disappointments.

The soul becomes great by the habitual contemplation of great objects.

Exercises in Construction. 1. Write sentences, each containing a phrase of one of the following forms.

A simple adjective phrase. A simple adverbial phrase. A complex adjective phrase. A complex adverbial phrase. A compound phrase. An explanatory phrase. A participial phrase. A complex prepositional phrase. An infinitive phrase. A vocative phrase. An absolute phrase. An idiomatic phrase. A phrase used as the subject. A phrase used as an object. A phrase used as an adjective attribute. A phrase used as a substantive attribute.

2. In the following sentences, substitute a phrase for one of the clauses.

Examples. 1. When the ship arrives, I shall 1. On the arrival of the ship, I see my friend.

shall see my friend. 2. After the pupils had recited 2. The pupils having recited their lessons, the teacher dismissed their lessons, the teacher dismissed them.

them. 3. They erected a crucifix, and 3. Having erected a crucifix, they prostrated themselves before it. prostrated themselves before it.

4. A quadruped is an animal that 4. A quadruped is an animal havhas four legs.

ing four legs.

When spring comes, the fields resume their verdure.
After the enemy had been defeated, they fled.
I will meet you, when the train arrives.
As he was stooping down, he saw the man's hiding-place.
Because he was inexperienced, they deceived him.
I fixed my eyes on the object, and soon perceived that it was a bird.
The farm was carefully cultivated, and it yielded abundant crops.
The rain fell in torrents, and we took refuge in an inn.
As I did not receive your letter, I did not know of your misfortune.
He who had been so idle and dissolute came to beggary.

He sacrificed his health and happiness that he might indulge in sensual pleasure. [Use the infinitive phrase.]

She neglected the improvement of her mind, that she might study hier appearance in the glass.

3. Construct a sentence from each of the following phrases.

At all times. In the hour of temptation. In the morning of life. To be useful to others. To be diligent in study. The moon having risen. The battle having been lost. By doing good. Preserving a good reputation. Trembling with excitement. Discouraged by misfortune. From day to day. By and by. As a general thing. He being young and without experience. Overcome with emotion. Suppressing her tears.

Questions for Review,


What is the subject of a sentence ?-The predicate ?
What is a proposition ?-What do propositions form?
What is a sentence ?
What must every sentence contain ?
What are adjuncts ?-What is a simple sentence ?

How are sentences divided ?

What is a declarative sentence ?--An interrogative sentence ?-An imperative sentence ?-An exclamatory sentence ?


Of what does Etymology treat ?
How many and what are the parts of speech ?
What is an article ?-What are the examples ?
What is a noun ?-What examples are given ?
What is an adjective ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a pronoun ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a verb ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a participle ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is an adverb ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a conjunction ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a preposition ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is an interjection ?-What examples are given ?

What is a definition ?-A rule of grammar ?-A praxis ?-An example ? An exercise ?

What is parsing ?

What is an ARTICLE?
Are an and a different articles, or the same ?
When is an used, and what are the examples ?
When is a used, and what are the examples ?
What form of the article do the sounds of w and y require ?
Repeat the alphabet, with an or a before the name of each letter.
Name the parts speech, with an or a before each name.
How are the two articles distinguished in grammar?
Which is the definite article, and what does it denote?
Which is the indefinite article, and what does it denote ?
What modifications have the articles ?

What is a Noun ?-Can you give some examples ?
Into what general classes are nouns divided ?
What is a proper noun ?-a common noun ?
What particular classes are included among common nouns !

What is a collective noun ?-an abstract noun ?-a verbal or participial noun

What is a thing sui generis ?
What modifications have nouns ?
What are Persons in grammar ?
How many persons are there, and what are they called ?
What is the first person ?—the second person ?-the third person 8
What are Numbers in grainmar ?

How many numbers are there, and what are they called ?
What is the singular number ?—the plural number?
How is the plural number of nouns regularly formed ?
What are the rules for adding s and form the plural ?

What are Genders in grammar ?
How many genders are there, and what are they called ?

What is the masculine gender ?-the feminine gender ?-the neuter gender? What nouns may be said to be in the common gender?

What are Cases in grammar ?
How many cases are there, and what are they called ?
What is the nominative case ?
What is the subject of a verb ?
What is the possessive case ?
How is the possessive case of nouns formed ?
What is the objective case ?
What is the object of a verb, participle, or preposition ?
What is the declension of a noun ?
How do you decline the nouns friend, man, fox, and fly?

What is ANALYSIS ?
What is a simple sentence ?-a phrase ?
Of what does the subject of a sentence consist ?
How are adjuncts divided ?

What is an adjective adjunct ?-an adverbial adjunct ?-an explanatory adjunct?

By what adjuncts may nouns be modified ?-Verbs ?
What is an attribute?
In analyzing a sentence, what should be pointed out ?
What is construction ?-Composition ?
When do sentences form a composition ?

VII.-ADJECTIVES. What is an ADJECTIVE ?-How is this exemplified ? Into what classes may adjectives be divided ? What is a common adjective ?--a proper adjective ?-a numeral adjective ? -a pronominal adjective ?-a participial adjective -a compound adjective? What modifications have adjectives? What is Comparison in grammar ? How many,

and what are the degrees of comparison ? What is the positive degree ?-the comparative degree ?—the superlative degree?

What adjectives cannot be compared ?
What adjectives are compared by means of adverbs ?
How are adjectives regularly compared ?-Compare great, wide, and hot.

To what adjectives are er and est applicable ?
Is there any other mode of expressing the degrees ?
How are the degrees of diminution expressed ?
How do you compare good, bad or ill, little, much, and many?
How do you compare far, near, fore, hind, in, out, up, low, and late ?

What is a PRONOUN ?-Give the example.
How are pronouns divided ?
What is a personal pronoun ?-Tell the personal pronouns.
What is a relative pronoun ?-Tell the relative pronouns.
What pecaliarity has the relative what?
What is an interrogative pronoun ?-Tell the interrogatives.
What modifications have pronouns?
What is the declension of a pronoun ?
How do you decline the pronouns I, thou, he, she, and it?
What is said of the compound personal pronouns ?
How do you decline who, which, what, and that ?
How do you decline the compound relative pronouns ?

What is a clause ?-What are members ?
What is a dependent clause ?-a principal clause ?
What is a complex sentence ?-a compound sentence?
How may clauses be connected ?
What is a relative clause ?
Is the relative clause dependent or independent ?
Is it always a modifying clause ?—Illustrate.
What is a compound subject or predicate ?

What is a VERB ?-What are the examples ?
How are verbs divided with respect to their form?

What is a regular verb?-an irregular verb ?-& redundant verb?-a defective verb ?

How are verbs divided with respect to their signification ?

What is an active-transitive verb?-an active-intransitive verb?--a passive verb?-neuter verb?

What modifications have verbs ?
What are Moods in grammar ?
How many moods are there, and what are they called ?

What is the infinitive mood ?-the indicative mood ?-the potential mood ? the subjunctive mood ?-the imperative mood ?

What are Tenses in grammar ?
How many tenses are there, and what are they called ?

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