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Truth is a common noun, and abstract, because it is the name of a quality. It is of the third person, singular number, neuter gender; and in the objective case, because it is the object of the preposition by.
Illumined is a perfect participle from the regular passive verb be illumined. It performs the office of a verb, by expressing passion; and of an adjective, by modifying the noun mind.
And is a conjunction, because it connects the two phrases, by truth illumined, by laste refined; it is copulative, because it expresses an addition.
(Parse the other words as in the preceding praxes.]
Having sold his patrimony he engaged in merchandise.
The bounty displayed on the earth equals the grandeur manifested in the heavens.
In the varieties of life, we are inured to habits both of the active and the suffering virtues.
By disappointments and trials, the violence of our passions is tamed.
He, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.
Cheerfulness keeps up a kind of day-light in the mind, and fills it with a steady and perpetual serenity.
Sitting is the best posture for deliberation ; standing for persuasion; a judge, therefore, should speak sitting; a pleader, standing.
The pleasures of sense resemble a foaming torrent; which, after a disorderly course, speedily runs out, and leaves an empty and offensive channel.
Most of the troubles which we meet with in the world, arise from an irritable temper, or from improper conduct.
The meeting was so respectable, that the propriety of its decision can hardly be questioned.
They who are moderate in their expectations, meet with few disappointments.
The soul becomes great by the habitual contemplation of great objects.
Exercises in Construction. 1. Write sentences, each containing a phrase of one of the following forms.
A simple adjective phrase. A simple adverbial phrase. A complex adjective phrase. A complex adverbial phrase. A compound phrase. An explanatory phrase. A participial phrase. A complex prepositional phrase. An infinitive phrase. A vocative phrase. An absolute phrase. An idiomatic phrase. A phrase used as the subject. A phrase used as an object. A phrase used as an adjective attribute. A phrase used as a substantive attribute.
2. In the following sentences, substitute a phrase for one of the clauses.
Examples. 1. When the ship arrives, I shall 1. On the arrival of the ship, I see my friend.
shall see my friend. 2. After the pupils had recited 2. The pupils having recited their lessons, the teacher dismissed their lessons, the teacher dismissed them.
them. 3. They erected a crucifix, and 3. Having erected a crucifix, they prostrated themselves before it. prostrated themselves before it.
4. A quadruped is an animal that 4. A quadruped is an animal havhas four legs.
ing four legs.
When spring comes, the fields resume their verdure.
He sacrificed his health and happiness that he might indulge in sensual pleasure. [Use the infinitive phrase.]
She neglected the improvement of her mind, that she might study hier appearance in the glass.
3. Construct a sentence from each of the following phrases.
At all times. In the hour of temptation. In the morning of life. To be useful to others. To be diligent in study. The moon having risen. The battle having been lost. By doing good. Preserving a good reputation. Trembling with excitement. Discouraged by misfortune. From day to day. By and by. As a general thing. He being young and without experience. Overcome with emotion. Suppressing her tears.
Questions for Review,
What is the subject of a sentence ?-The predicate ?
How are sentences divided ?
What is a declarative sentence ?--An interrogative sentence ?-An imperative sentence ?-An exclamatory sentence ?
II.-PARTS OF SPEECH.
Of what does Etymology treat ?
What is a definition ?-A rule of grammar ?-A praxis ?-An example ? An exercise ?
What is parsing ?
What is a collective noun ?-an abstract noun ?-a verbal or participial noun
What is a thing sui generis ?
How many numbers are there, and what are they called ?
What is the masculine gender ?-the feminine gender ?-the neuter gender? What nouns may be said to be in the common gender?
What are Cases in grammar ?
VI.-ANALYSIS, CONSTRUCTION, AND COMPOSITION.
What is an adjective adjunct ?-an adverbial adjunct ?-an explanatory adjunct?
By what adjuncts may nouns be modified ?-Verbs ?
VII.-ADJECTIVES. What is an ADJECTIVE ?-How is this exemplified ? Into what classes may adjectives be divided ? What is a common adjective ?--a proper adjective ?-a numeral adjective ? -a pronominal adjective ?-a participial adjective -a compound adjective? What modifications have adjectives? What is Comparison in grammar ? How many,
and what are the degrees of comparison ? What is the positive degree ?-the comparative degree ?—the superlative degree?
What adjectives cannot be compared ?
To what adjectives are er and est applicable ?
What is a regular verb?-an irregular verb ?-& redundant verb?-a defective verb ?
How are verbs divided with respect to their signification ?
What is an active-transitive verb?-an active-intransitive verb?--a passive verb?-neuter verb?
What modifications have verbs ?
What is the infinitive mood ?-the indicative mood ?-the potential mood ? the subjunctive mood ?-the imperative mood ?