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2. With an infinitive denoting being or action in the abstract, a participle is sometimes also taken abstractly (that is, without reference to any particular noun, pronoun, or other subject); as, “To seem compelled is disagreeable.”—“To keep always praying aloud is plainly impossible."

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Observations. 1. The use of the participle in ing as the subject or object of a verb, though sanctioned to some extent by writers of reputation, seems to be an anomaly which should be avoided when possible. Thus, instead of, “He abhorred being in debt,” say, “He abhorred to be in debt.”

2. The word to which the participle relates is sometimes understood; as, Granting this to be true, what is to be inferred from it.” That is, I, granting this to be true, ask what is to be inferred from it!”. 5. The very chin was, [1 say,) modestly speaking, as long as my whole face.”-Addison.

3. An im erfec or preperfect participle, preceded by an article, an adjective, or a noun or pronoun of the possessive case, becomes a verbal noun ; and, as such, it cannot govern an object after it. A word which may be the object of the participle in its proper construction, requires the preposition of, to connect it with the verbal noun ; as, shiping of idols-Such worshiping of idols--or, Their worshiping of idols, was sinful.” A participial phrase is, however, sometimes used, by good writers, to govern a noun or pronoun in the possessive case.

4. We sometimes find a participle and its adjuncts, forming a participial phrase, used as the subject or the object of a verb; as, Exciting such disturbances is unlawful.” Usually, the infinitive is to be preferred ; as, “I intend to do it ;” which is better than “I intend doing it.”

5. When the use of the preposition produces ambiguity or harshness, the expression may be varied. Thus, the sentence, “He mentions Newton's writing of a commentary,” is both ambiguous and awkward. If the preposition be omitted, the word writing will have a double construction, which is inadmissible. Some would say, “He mentions Neroton writing a commentary.” This is still worse ; because it makes the leading word in sense the adjunct in construction. The meaning may be correctly expressed thus: “He mentions that Newton wrote a commentary." “By his studying the Scriptures, he became wise.” Here his serves only to render the sentence incorrect.

6. We sometimes find a participle that takes the same case after as before it, converted into a verbal noun, and the latter word retained unchanged in connection with it; as, “I have some recollection of his father's being a judge.“To prevent its being a dry detail of terms." In this case, the attribute is indefinite.

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7. When the verbal noun is accompanied by adjuncts of the verb or participle, it makes an awkward construction, which it would be better to avoid ; as, “The hypocrite's hope is like the giving up of the ghost.” _“For the more easily reading large numbers.” Say, “For reading large numbers the more easily.”

8. After verbs signifying to persevere or to desist, the participle in ing, relating to the nominative, may be used in stead of the infinitive connected to the verb; as, “So when they continued asking him.”John viji.

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Notes, or Subordinate Rules. I.-Active participles have the same government as the verbs from which they are derived; the preposition of, therefore, should never be used after the participle, when the verb does not require it. Thus, in phrases like the following, of is improper: “Keeping of one day in seven,”—“By preaching of repentance,”—“They left beating of Paul.”

II.-When a transitive participle is converted into a noun, of must be inserted to govern the object following.

III.- A participle should not be used where the infinitive mood, a verbal noun, a common substantive, or a phrase equivalent, will better express the meaning.

IV.-In the use of participles and of verbal nouns, the leading word in sense, should always be made the leading or governing word in the construction.

V.-Participles, in general, however construed, should have a clear reference to the proper subject of the being, action, or passion. The following sentence is therefore faulty: “By giving way to sin, trouble is encountered.” This suggests that trouble gives way to sin. It should be, “By giving way to sin, we encounter trouble.

VI.—The preterit of irregular verbs should not be used for the perfect participle; as, “A certificate wrote on parchment ” --for, "A certificate written on parchment."

VII.--Perfect participles being variously formed, care should be taken to express them agreeably to the best usage : thus, earnt, snatcht, checkt, snapt, mixt, tost, are erroneously written for earned, snatched, checked, snapped, mixed, tossed ; and such forms as holden, proven, etc., are now superseded by held, proved, etc.

False Syntax. EXAMPLE.—In forming of his sentences he was very exact.

FORMULE.-Not proper, because the preposition of is used after the participle forming, whose verb does not require it. But, according to Note I., under Rule IV., “ Participles have the same government as the verbs from which they are derived ; the preposition of, therefore, should not be used after the participle, when the verb does nut require it." Therefore, of should be omitted ; thus, In forming his sentences, he was very exact.

I.

By observing of truth, you will command respect.
I could not, for my heart, forbear pitying of him.
I heard them discussing of this subject.
By consulting of the best authors, he became learned.
Here are rules, by observing of which, you may avoid error.

II.

Their consent was necessary for the raising any supplies.
Thus the saving a great nation devolved on a husban.lman.
It is an overvaluing ourselves, to decide upon everything.
The teacher does not allow any calling ill names.
That burning the capitol was a wanton outrage.
May nothing hinder our receiving so great a good.
My admitting the fact will not affect the argument.
Cain's killing his brother originated in envy.

III.

Cæsar carried off the treasures which his opponent had neg

lected taking with him.-Goldsmith. It is dangerous playing with edge tools. I intend returning in a few days. Suffering needlessly is never a duty. Nor is it wise complaining.—Cowper. I well remember telling you so. Doing good is a Christian's vocation.-H. More. Piety is constantly endeavoring to live to God. It is earnestly

desiring to do his will, and not our own.- Id.

IV.

There is no harm in women knowing about these things.
They did not give notice of the pupil leaving.
The sun's darting his beams through my window awoke me.
The maturity of the sago tree is known by the leaves being
covered with a delicate white powder.

V.
Sailing up the river, the whole town may be seen.
Being conscious of guilt, death becomes terrible.
By yielding to temptation, our peace is sacrificed.
In loving our enemies, no man's blood is shed.
By teaching the young, they are prepared for usefulness.

VI.
A nail well drove will support a great weight.
See here a hundred sentences stole from my work.
I found the water entirely froze, and the pitcher broke.
Being forsook by my friends, I had no other resource.

VII.
Till by barbarian deluges o'erflown.
Like the luster of diamonds sat in gold.
A beam ethereal, sullied and absorpt.
With powerless wings around them wrapt.
Error learnt from preaching, is held as sacred truth.

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Promiscuous.
He could not have wrote such a letter.
By studying faithfully, knowledge is acquired.
We saw the lady while crossing the street.
The learning anything requires application.
I do not remember speaking of the affair.
By the exercising our faculties they are improved.
The garment was without seam, being wove in one piece.
What is the cause of that pupil being so deficient ?
Striving to excel is always commendable.
Breaking windows is the sport of mischievous boys.
He disliked being under an obligation.
His being considered a scholar did not make him one.

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Parsing. Parse all the participles in the following sentences. EXAMPLE. “ Thus repulsed, he lost all hope of attaining his object.” Repulsed is & perfect passive participle, and relates to he, according to the rule, -Pur ticiples relate to nouns or pronouns, etc.

Attaining is an imperfect active participle, and is governed by the preposition of, an cording to the rule, etc.

Knowledge, combined with true culture, makes a person esteemed and admired. Admitting the truth of this, what does it prove? The pupils continued whispering, after being reproved. Walking rapidly is good exercise. To keep on arguing against prejudice is a loss of time. Washington, having been appointed commander-in-chief, proceeded to Cambridge. Shame being lost, all virtue is lost. The ship having been wrecked, the letter did not reach him. He was too fond of being flattered. Despised and shunned by all, he went sorrowing to his grave.

Rule V.-Prepositions. Prepositions show the relation of things; as, “ He came from Rome to Paris.”

Exceptions. 1. The preposition to, before an abstract infinitive, and at the head of a phrase which is made the subject of a verb, has no proper antecedent term of relation; as, To learn to die is the great business of life.”

2. The preposition for, when it introduces its object before an infinitive, and the whole phrase is made the subject of a verb, has properly no antecedent term of relation ; as, For us to learn to die is the great business of life."

Observations. 1. The preposition always introduces a phrase ; and the relation which it expresses is that existing between the object of the preposition and the word to which the phrase relates. The latter is the antecedent term; and the former, the subsequent term of relation. When the phrase is independent, there is no antecedent term, unless one be understood ; as, “To confess the truth, I was to blame.”

2. When a preposition begins or ends a sentence or clause, the terms of relation are transposed; as, “ To a studious man, action is a relief." “Science they do not pretend to."

3. Both the terms of relation are usually expressed, though either of them may be understood ; as, 1. The former—"All shall know me [recke

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