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oning) FROM the least to the greatest.”--Heb. viii. [I say] "In a word, it would entirely defeat the purpose.”Blair. 2. The latter—“Opinions and ceremonies (which) they would die FOR.” Locke. " IN (those] who obtain defence, or who defend.”l'ope.

4. Prepositions are not to be supposed to have no antecedent term, merely because they stand at the head of a sentence which is made the subject of a verb; for the sentence itself often contains that term, as in the following example: In what way mind acts upon matter, is unknown." Here in shows the relation between acts and way; the sentence being equivalent to, “ The way in which mind acts upon matter is unknown.”

5. In the familiar style, a preposition governing a relative or an interrogative pronoun, is often separated from its object, and connected with the other term of relation ; as, “Whom did he speak to ?” But it is more dignified, and in general more graceful, to place the preposition before the pronoun; as, To whom did he speak ?

6. Two prepositions sometimes come together; as, “ Lambeth is over against Westminster Abbey."

And from before the lustre of her face.”- Thomson.

“Blows mildew from between his shrivel'd lips.”-- Couper. 7. Two separate prepositions have sometimes a joint reference to the same noun; as, “He boasted of, and contended for, the privilege.” This construction is formal, and scarcely allowable, except in the law style. It is better to say, “He boasted of the privilege, and contended for it."

8. The preposition into expresses a relation produced by motion or change ; and in, the same relation, without reference to on : hence " to walk into the garden,” and, " to walk in the garden,” are very different.

9. Between or betwixt is used in reference to two things or parties ; among or amidst, in reference to a greater number, or to something by which another may be surrounded; as,

• Thou pendulum betwixt a smile and tear."-Byron.
6. The host between the mountain and the shore."--Id.

To meditate amongst decay, and stand

A ruin amidst ruins.”-Id.

Notes, or Subordinate Rules. 1.—Prepositions must be chosen and employed agreeably to the usage and idiom of the language, so as rightly to express the relations intended.

II. -An ellipsis or omission of prepositions is inelegant, except in those phrases in which long and general use has sanctioned it. In the following sentence, of is needed.

I will not flatter you,
That all I see in you is worthy love.-Shak.

False Syntax. EXAMPLE.—Her sobriety is no derogation to her understanding

FORMULE.—Not proper, because the relation between derogation and understanding is not correctly expressed by the preposition to. But, according to Note 1. under Rule V., "Prepositions must be chosen and employed agreeably to the usage and idiom of the language, so as rightly to express the relations intended." This relation would be better expressed by from; thus, Her sobriety is no derogation from her understanding.


She finds a difficulty of fixing her mind.
This affair did not fall into his cognizance.
He was accused for betraying his trust.
There was no water, and he died for thirst.
I have no occasion of his services.
You may safely confide on him.
I entertain no prejudice to him.
You may rely in what I tell you.
Virtue and vice differ widely with each other.
This remark is founded in truth.
After many toils, we arrived to our journey's end.
I will tell you a story very different to that.
Their conduct is agreeable with their profession.
Excessive pleasures pass from satiety in disgust.
I turned into disgust from the spectacle.
They are gone in the meadow.
Let this be divided between the three. (Obs. 9.)
The shells were broken in pieces.
The deception has passed among every one.
They never quarrel among each other.
Amidst every difficulty, he persevered.
Let us go above stairs.

I was at London when this happened.
We were detained to home, and disappointed in our walk.
This originated from mistake.
I am disappointed of the work; it is very inferior from what I

Be worthy me, as I am worthy you.Dryden.
They cannot but be unworthy the care of others.
Thou shalt have no portion on this side the river.
Sestos and Abydos were exactly opposite each other.
Ovid was banished Rome by his patron Augustus.

He divided his property between his four sons. (Obs. 9.)
Whom was this


meant for? (Obs. 5.)
He plunged into, and swam across, the river. (Obs. 7.)
That remark is not worthy your notice.
He put a basket of apples in his wagon. (Obs. 8.)
The pupil was admonished for his

many faults. The Indian differs with the Caucasian in color. He is unacquainted with, and hence cannot speak upon, the


Parse all the girepositions in the following sentences.
EXAMPLE “Be on thy guard against flattery."

On is a preposition, and shows the relation between be and guard, according to the rule, -Prepositions show the relations of things.

Against is a preposition, and shows the relation between guard and futtery, accurding to the rule, etc.

War is the law of violence; peace, the law of love. At the bottom of the garden, ran a little rivulet. Overwhelmed with anguish, he hastened to the palace of his sovereign. For an old man to be reduced to poverty, is a great affliction. My friend was absent a whole year. Come out from among those impious men. They could not give him any consolation in his distress. It was, in truth, a dreadful calamity.

low like a fawning hypocrite he looks!


Rule VI.-Nominatives. A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case; as,

“I know thou sayst it: says thy life the same ?”—Young.


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Observations. 1. The subject, or nominative, is generally placed before the verb; as, "Peace dawned upon his mind.”—“What is written in the law ?” But in the following nine cases, the subject is usually placed after the verb, or after the first auxiliary :

1. When a question is asked without an interrogative pronoun in the nominative case ; as, Shall mortals be implacable ?”_"What urt thou doing?"

2. When the verb is in the imperative mood; as, Go thou.
3. When an earnest wish or other strong feeling is expressed ; as,
May she be happy!”—“How were we struck ! - Young.

4. When a supposition is made without a conjunction; as,
it true, it would not injure us."

5. When neither or nor, signifying and not, precedes the verb; as, “This was his fear; nor was his apprehension groundless.”

6. When, for the sake of emphasis, some word or words are placed before the verb, which more naturally come after it; as, “Here am I.”—“Narrow is the way.—“Silver and gold have 1 none, but such as I have, gire I thee."

7. When the verb has no regimen, and is itself emphatic; as, Echo the mountains round.”- Thomson.

8. When the verbs say, think, reply, and the like, introduce the parts of a dialogue; as, ""Son of affliction,' said Omar, who art thou ?' 'My name,' replied the stranger, 'is Hassan.'".

"-Johnson. 9. When the adverb there precedes the verb; as,

". There lired a man.—“In all worldly joys, there is a secret wound.2. A noun or pronoun used, in a dependent clause, as the subject of a verb in the infinitive mood, must be in the objective case; as, “She desired him to leave the room.” Here, him to leave the room is equivalent to, that he would leave the room ;-an object clause connected to the principal clause by the conjunction that. 3. The subject of the infinitive is sometimes governed by a preposi

For a prince to be reduced by villainy to my distressful cir cumstances is calamity enough."


tion; as,

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False Sy tax. EXAMPLE.-Him that is studious will improve.

FORMULE.— Not proper, because the obje tive pronoun him is made the subject of the verb will improve. But, according to Rui VI., "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Therefore, him should be he; thus, He that is studious will improve.

Them that seek wisdom, will be wise.
She and me are of the same age.
You are two or three years older than us.
Are not John and thee cousins ?
Thee must have been idle.
I can write as handsomely as thee.
There are but few better pupils than him.
Whom do you think was there?
Who broke this slate? Me.
Them that honor me, I will honor; and them that despise

me, shall be lightly esteemed.
He whom in that instance was deceived, is a man of sound

judgment. You know as well as me what was done.

Parsing. After correcting the above, parse every noun and pronoun in each of the sentences, in the manner indicated in previous examples.

Rule VII.-Apposition.
A noun or a personal pronoun used to explain a preced-
ing noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same
case; as,

“But he, our gracious Master, kind as just,
Knowing our frame, remembers we are dust."- Barbauld.

Observations. 1. Apposition is the use of additional words or appellations to explain a preceding noun or pronoun. The explanatory term, or expression, must have the same relation to the other words of the sentence as the

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