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oning) FROM the least to the greatest.”--Heb. viii. [I say] "In a word, it would entirely defeat the purpose.”— Blair. 2. The latter—“Opinions and ceremonies (which) they would die FOR.” – Locke. " IN (those] who obtain defence, or who defend.”—l'ope.
4. Prepositions are not to be supposed to have no antecedent term, merely because they stand at the head of a sentence which is made the subject of a verb; for the sentence itself often contains that term, as in the following example: “In what way mind acts upon matter, is unknown." Here in shows the relation between acts and way; the sentence being equivalent to, “ The way in which mind acts upon matter is unknown.”
5. In the familiar style, a preposition governing a relative or an interrogative pronoun, is often separated from its object, and connected with the other term of relation ; as, “Whom did he speak to ?” But it is more dignified, and in general more graceful, to place the preposition before the pronoun; as, “To whom did he speak ?
6. Two prepositions sometimes come together; as, “ Lambeth is over against Westminster Abbey."
“And from before the lustre of her face.”- Thomson.
“Blows mildew from between his shrivel'd lips.”-- Couper. 7. Two separate prepositions have sometimes a joint reference to the same noun; as, “He boasted of, and contended for, the privilege.” This construction is formal, and scarcely allowable, except in the law style. It is better to say, “He boasted of the privilege, and contended for it."
8. The preposition into expresses a relation produced by motion or change ; and in, the same relation, without reference to on : hence " to walk into the garden,” and, " to walk in the garden,” are very different.
9. Between or betwixt is used in reference to two things or parties ; among or amidst, in reference to a greater number, or to something by which another may be surrounded; as,
• Thou pendulum betwixt a smile and tear."-Byron.
“ To meditate amongst decay, and stand
A ruin amidst ruins.”-Id.
Notes, or Subordinate Rules. 1.—Prepositions must be chosen and employed agreeably to the usage and idiom of the language, so as rightly to express the relations intended.
II. -An ellipsis or omission of prepositions is inelegant, except in those phrases in which long and general use has sanctioned it. In the following sentence, of is needed.
I will not flatter you,
False Syntax. EXAMPLE.—Her sobriety is no derogation to her understanding
FORMULE.—Not proper, because the relation between derogation and understanding is not correctly expressed by the preposition to. But, according to Note 1. under Rule V., "Prepositions must be chosen and employed agreeably to the usage and idiom of the language, so as rightly to express the relations intended." This relation would be better expressed by from; thus, Her sobriety is no derogation from her understanding.
I was at London when this happened.
meant for? (Obs. 5.)
many faults. The Indian differs with the Caucasian in color. He is unacquainted with, and hence cannot speak upon, the
On is a preposition, and shows the relation between be and guard, according to the rule, -Prepositions show the relations of things.
Against is a preposition, and shows the relation between guard and futtery, accurding to the rule, etc.
War is the law of violence; peace, the law of love. At the bottom of the garden, ran a little rivulet. Overwhelmed with anguish, he hastened to the palace of his sovereign. For an old man to be reduced to poverty, is a great affliction. My friend was absent a whole year. Come out from among those impious men. They could not give him any consolation in his distress. It was, in truth, a dreadful calamity.
low like a fawning hypocrite he looks!
Rule VI.-Nominatives. A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case; as,
“I know thou sayst it: says thy life the same ?”—Young.
Observations. 1. The subject, or nominative, is generally placed before the verb; as, "Peace dawned upon his mind.”—“What is written in the law ?” But in the following nine cases, the subject is usually placed after the verb, or after the first auxiliary :
1. When a question is asked without an interrogative pronoun in the nominative case ; as, “Shall mortals be implacable ?”_"What urt thou doing?"
2. When the verb is in the imperative mood; as, “Go thou.”
4. When a supposition is made without a conjunction; as,
5. When neither or nor, signifying and not, precedes the verb; as, “This was his fear; nor was his apprehension groundless.”
6. When, for the sake of emphasis, some word or words are placed before the verb, which more naturally come after it; as, “Here am I.”—“Narrow is the way.”—“Silver and gold have 1 none, but such as I have, gire I thee."
7. When the verb has no regimen, and is itself emphatic; as, “ Echo the mountains round.”- Thomson.
8. When the verbs say, think, reply, and the like, introduce the parts of a dialogue; as, ""Son of affliction,' said Omar, who art thou ?' 'My name,' replied the stranger, 'is Hassan.'".
"-Johnson. 9. When the adverb there precedes the verb; as,
". There lired a man.”—“In all worldly joys, there is a secret wound.” 2. A noun or pronoun used, in a dependent clause, as the subject of a verb in the infinitive mood, must be in the objective case; as, “She desired him to leave the room.” Here, him to leave the room is equivalent to, that he would leave the room ;-an object clause connected to the principal clause by the conjunction that. 3. The subject of the infinitive is sometimes governed by a preposi
“ For a prince to be reduced by villainy to my distressful cir cumstances is calamity enough."
False Sy tax. EXAMPLE.-Him that is studious will improve.
FORMULE.— Not proper, because the obje tive pronoun him is made the subject of the verb will improve. But, according to Rui VI., "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case." Therefore, him should be he; thus, He that is studious will improve.
Them that seek wisdom, will be wise.
me, shall be lightly esteemed.
judgment. You know as well as me what was done.
Parsing. After correcting the above, parse every noun and pronoun in each of the sentences, in the manner indicated in previous examples.
“But he, our gracious Master, kind as just,
Observations. 1. Apposition is the use of additional words or appellations to explain a preceding noun or pronoun. The explanatory term, or expression, must have the same relation to the other words of the sentence as the