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66 As an

term explained. Thus, in the sentence, “It is good for us to be here,” the phrase to be here is in apposition with the subject it; the meaning being, “It, to be here, is good for us." Hence, the phrase is, like it, the subject of the verb is.

2. The explanatory word is sometimes placed first, especially among the poets; as,

From brightning fields of ether fair disclos'd

Child of the sun, refulgent Summer comes.”Thomson. 3. The pronouns of the first and second persons are often prefixed to nouns, merely to distinguish their person ; as,'

..66 I John saw these “ This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders.Bible. “ His praise, ye brooks, attune.”-Thomson.

4. When two or more nouns of the possessive case are put in apposition, the possessive termination added to one denotes the case of both or all; as, “ His brother Philip's wife.”_" John the Baptist's head."“At my friend Johnson's, the bookseller.By a repetition of the possessive sign, a distinct governing noun is implied, and the apposition is destroyed.

5. In like manner, a noun without the possessive sign is sometimes put in apposition with a pronoun of the possessive case; as, author, his ' Adventurer' is his capital work.”Murray.

66 Thus shall mankind his guardian care engage,

The promised father of the future age.”—Pope. 6. When a noun or a pronoun is repeated for the sake of emphasis, the word which is repeated may properly be said to be in apposition with that which is first introduced; as, “They have forsaken me, the Fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water.”Jer. ii., 13.

7. A noun is sometimes put in apposition with a sentence; as, “He permitted me to consult his library-a kindness which I shall not forget." - W. Allen.

8. A distributive term in the singular number, is frequently construed in apposition with a comprehensive plural; as, They reap vanity, every one with his neighbor.”Bible. Go ye every man unto his city."

- Ibid. And sometimes a plural word is emphatically put after a series of particulars comprehended under it; as, “ Ambition, interest, honor, all concurred.”-Murray. “Royalists, republicans, churchmen, sectaries, courtiers, patriots, all parties, concurred in the illusion.”Hume.

9. To express a reciprocal action or relation, the pronominal adjectives each other and one an other are employed; as, “ They love each other." L" They love one an other." The words, separately considered, are


singular ; but, taken together, they imply plurality; and they can be properly construed only after plurals, or singulars taken conjointly. Each other is usually applied to two objects; and one an other, to more than two. The terms, though reciprocal, and closely united, are never in the same construction. If such expressions be analyzed, each and one will generally appear to be in the nominative case, and other in the objective; as, They love each other ; i.e., each loves the other. Each is properly in apposition with they, and other is governed by the verb. The terms, however, admit of other constructions ; as, “Be ye helpers one of an other."--Bible. Here one is in apposition with ye, and other is governed by of. “Ye are one an other's joy.”16. Here one is in apposition with ye, and other's is in the possessive case, being governed by joy. “Love will make you one an other's joy.” Here one is in the objective case, being in apposition with you, and other's is governed as before. The Latin terms alius alium, alii alios, etc., sufficiently confirm this doctrine.

10. The common and the proper name of an object are often associated, and put in apposition ; as, The river Thames, -The ship Albion,-The poet Cowper,--Lake Erie,-Cape May,-Mount Atlas. But the proper name of a place, when accompanied by the common name, is generally put in the objective case, and preceded by of; as, The city of New York, —The land of Canaan.

11. The several proper names which distinguish an individual, are always in apposition, and should be taken together in parsing; as, Wiliam Pitt. Marcus Tullius Cicero.

False Syntax. EXAMPLE.—I have received a letter from my cousin, she that was here last week.


FORMULE.--Not proper, because the nominative pronoun she is used to explain the objective noun cousin. But, according to Rule VII., " A noun or a personal pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronouin, is put, by apposition, in the same case." Therefore, she should be her ; thus, I have received a letter from my cousin, her that was here last week.

The book is a present from my brother Richard, he that keeps

the bookstore. I am going to see my friends in the country, they that we met

at the ferry This dress was made by Catharine, the milliner, she that we

saw at work.

Dennis, the gardener, him that gave me the tulips, has promised me a peony.

Resolve me, why the cottager and king,
Him whom sea-sever'd realms obey, and him
Who steals his whole dominion from the waste,
Repelling winter blasts with mud and straw,
Disquieted alike, draw sigh for sigh.

Parsing. Parse all the nouns and pronouns in apposition in the above sentences.

Rule VIII.–Verb and Subject. A finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number: as, “The bird flies; “The birds fly."

Observations. 1. Verbs in the imperative mood commonly agree with the pronoun thou, ye, or you, understood ; as, Do (thou] as thou list."--Shak. Trust God and be doing, and leave the rest with him.”

2. When a verb not finite, that is, in the infinitive mood, has a subject, the latter must be in the objective case; but the infinitive having no inflections, there is no agreement. (See Obs. 2, under Rule VI.)

Notes, or Subordinate Rules. I.—The adjuncts of the nominative do not control its agreement with the verb ; as, “ Six months' interest was due.” “The propriety of these rules is evident.”

II. --The infinitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, is sometimes the subject to a verb: a subject of this kind, however composed, if it is taken as one whole, requires a verb in the third person singular ; as, To lie is base.”—To see the sun is pleasant.”—“That you have violated the law, is evident.”

III.—When, by transposition, the subject is placed after a neuter or a passive verb, care should be taken to make the verb agree with the subject, and not with the attribute ; “His pavilion were dark waters and thick clouds.—“The wages of sin is death."--" Who art thou ?

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IV.-That form of the verb should be used which is best suited to the style employed; as, “The clock has stricken.” Not hath stricken, except in the poetical or solemn style.

V.-In selecting the proper tense, the order and fitness of time should be carefully observed. Thus: instead of, “I have seen him last week,” say, “I saw him last week ; " instead of, "I saw him this week," say, I have seen him this week ;and instead of, “I hoped you would have come,” say, “I hoped you would come."

VI.-Propositions that are at all times equally true or false, should be expressed in the present tense; as, “He seemed hardly to know that two and two make four,"—not made.

VII.--Every finite verb not in the imperative mood, should have a separate nominative expressed ; as, “I came, I saw, I conquered ;except when the verb is repeated for the sake of emphasis, or connected to another in the same construction ; as, "They bud, blow, wither, fall, and die."- Watts.

False Syntax. EXAMPLE.—You was kindly received.

FORMULE.-Not proper, because the passive verb was received is of the fingular num. ber, and does not agree with its nominative you, which is of the second person, plural. But, according to Rule VIII., “A finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number." Therefore, was received should be were received ; thus, You were kindly received.

We was disappointed.
She dare not oppose it.
His pulse are too quick.
Circumstances alters cases.
He need not trouble himself.
Twenty-four pence is two shillings.
On one side was beautiful meadows.
He may pursue what studies he please.
What have become of our cousins ?
There was more impostors than one.

his friends on this subject ?
Thou knows the urgency of the case.

What avails good sentiments with a bad life?
Has those books been sent to the school ?
There is many occasions for the exercise of patience.
What sounds have each of the vowels ?
There were a great number of spectators.
There are an abundance of treatises on this easy science.
In this affair perseverance with dexterity were requisite.


The derivation of these words are uncertain.
Four years' interest were demanded.
One added to nineteen make twenty.
The increase of orphans render the addition necessary.
The road to virtue and happiness, are open to all.
The ship, with all her crew, were lost.
A round of vain and foolish pursuits, delight some folks.

II. To obtain the praise of men were their only object. To steal and then deny it are a double sin. To copy and claim the writings of others, are plagiarism. To live soberly, righteously, and piously, are required of all


That it is our duty to promote peace and harmony among

men, admit of no dispute.


The reproofs of instruction is the way of life.
A diphthong are two vowels joined in one syllable.
So great an affliction to him was his wicked sons.
What is the latitude and longitude of that island ?
He churlishly said to me, “Who is you?”

That boy writeth very elegantly.
Doth not your cousin intend to visit you ?
The Lord has prepared his throne in the heavens.
Dost thou think it will rain to-day?

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