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II. --Care should be taken to give every verb its appropriate form and signification. Thus say, “He lay by the fire,”— not, “He laid by the fire;”—“He had entered into the connection,”—not, “He was entered into the connection ;"_"I would rather stay,”—not, “I had rather stay.”
OBS.-Several verbs which resemble each other in form, are frequently confounded : as, to flee, to fly; to lay, to lie; to sit, to set; to fall, to fell; to r'end, to rent; to ride, to rid, etc. Some others are oîten misapplied; as, leurn for teach. There are also erroneous forms of some of the compound tenses; as, “We will be convinced,” for, “We shall be convinced.”_“If I had have seen him,” for, “If I had seen him.” All such errors are to be corrected by the foregoing note.
False Syntax. OBS. -Errors under this rule may generally be corrected in three ways: 1. By changing the first verb, to agree with the second; 2. By changing the second verb, to agree with the first ; 3. By inserting the nominative.
EXAMPLE.—They would neither go in themselves, nor suffered others to enter.
FORMULE.-Not proper, because the two verbs rcould go and suffered, which are connected by separate nominatives, do not agree in mood. But, according to Rulo XII., “When verbs are connected by a conjunction, they must either agree in mood, tense, and form, or have separate nominatives expressed.” The sentence is best corrected by changing suffered to would suffer (would nnderstood); thus, They would neither go in themselves, nor suffer others to enter.
He will fail, and therefore should not undertake it.
mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray ? Did he not tell thee his fault, and entreated thee to forgive
hiin? If he understands the business, and attend to it, wherein is he
deficient? The day is approaching, and hastens upon us, in which we
must give an account of our stewardship. If thou dost not turn unto the Lord, but forget him who re
membered thee in thy distress, great will be thy condemnation.
There are a few who have kept their integrity to the Lord,
and prefer his truth to all other enjoyments. This report was current yesterday, and agrees with what we
heard before. Virtue is generally praised, and would be generally practiced also, if men were wise.
II. He was entered into the conspiracy. The Southern planters grow cotton and rice. The report is predicated on truth. I entered the room and set down. Go and lay down, my son. With such books, it will always be difficult to learn children
Rule XIII.-Subject and Attribute. Active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, and their participles, take the same case after as before them, when both words refer to the same thing; as, “He returned a friend, who came a foe.”—Pope. “The child was named John."-" It could not be he.”
Observations, 1. This rule, as one of agreement, may be more simply stated :— The attribute agrees in case with the subject.
2. The neuter verb be, that connects the subject and the attribute, is called the copula, because it couples, or joins together, these two parts of the sentence. In the case of other verbs, the copula may be supplied by changing the form : as. “The child sleeps ; ” equivalent to, “The child is sleeping."
3. The verb to be, in most cases, only affirms, or indicates otherwise, the connection existing between the subject and the attribute. When the latter is a noun, it may express—1. Class ; as, "Cain was a mur. derer.” 2. Identity; as, “Cain was the murderer of Abel.” 3. Name; as, “The child was called John.” When mere existence is predicated, the verb be comprehends both the predicate and the attribute.
4. Class, identity, name, or quality may be attributed to the subject in
1. By affirming directly a connection between it and the subject, as
in the preceding examples. 2. By affirming it to belong to the subject, in connection with a
particular act or state of being; as, “She looked a goddess, and
she walked a queen.”—“The sun stood still.” 3. By affirming a connection, as the result of a change ; as, “He
has become a scholar.” 4. By affirming a connection, as the result of a process; as, “He
was elected President.”—“The twig has grown a tree.” 5. The attribute is often used indefinitely, that is, without reference to any particular subject; as, “ To be good is to be happy.”—“To be a poet requires genius.” In analyzing, this may be called the indefinite attribute.
6. An attribute is sometimes indirectly affirmed of, or otherwise connected with, the object of a verb; as, “ They elected him president.”— “Vice has left him without friends” (i. e., friendless). This is to be considered as a modification of the predicate, and may be properly called the indirect attribute.
7. The conjunction as is often employed to express the connection between the attribute and the subject or object to which it refers; as, “She was known as Curiosity.”—“They engaged her as a governess."
8. In interrogative sentences, the terms are usually transposed, or both are placed after the verb; as,
“Whence, and what art thou, execrable shape ?”—Milton.
“ Art thou that traitor angel? Art thou he ? "--Idem. And in a declarative sentence, there may be a rhetorical or poetical transposition of the terms; as, “I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame.”—Job, xxix.
“ Far other scene is Thrasymenè now."-- Byron. 9. In some peculiar constructions, both words naturally come before the verb; as, “ I know not who she is.”_" Inquire thou whose son the stripling is.”—1 Sam., xvii. "Man would not be the creature which he now is.”—Blair. “I could not guess who it should be."--Addison
And they are sometimes placed in this manner by hyperbalon, or transposition; as, “Yet He it is."- Young. “No contemptible orator he was."-Blair.
10. When the aitribute is used with infinitives or participles, care must be taken to refer it to its proper subject, so as to determine its case by agreement. Sometimes the attribute, in such constructions, is indirect or indefinite, and sometimes it agrees with a preceding objective, which is the subject of the infinitive. Examples: " Who then can bear the thought of being an outcast from his presence ? "- Addison. "I cannot help being so passionate an admirer as I am.
"- Steele. affect to be a lord in one's closet, would be a romantic madness.” Here lord is indefinite.
False Syntax. EXAMPLE. — We did not know that it was him.
FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun him, which belongs after the neuter verb was, is in the objective case, and does not agree with the pronoun it, which belongs be. fore it as the nominative; both words referring to the same thing. But, according to Rule XIII., “ Active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, and their participles, take the same case after as before them, when both words refer to the same thing." Therefore, him should be he; thus, We did not know that it was he.
We thought it was thee.
Parsing. Parse each of the attributcs in the abune sentenccs, and in the following. EXAMPLE 1.
:-“They said it was he.”
Tie is a personal pronoun, of thc third person, singular number, masculine gender, and in the nominative case, agreeing with the subject it ; according to the rule, -Letive-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, etc.
EXAMPLE 2.—“Whom do they think him to be ? "
whom is an interrogative pronoun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and in the objective case, agreeing with him ; according to the rule, etc.; the granmatical order, when transposed, being, They think him to be whom, equivalent to, They think that he is who; or, in the proper order, who do they think that he is ?
A region of repose it seems. The southwest wind blew fresh and fair. Make not thyself the judge of any man. He prized what others looked upon as trifles.
was fond of being the champion of innocence. To be an upright man is better than to be a millionaire. To affect to be a scholar is to prove yourself a pedant. For a man to be a true patriot, he must be willing to die for his country. It is not I that he is provoked at.
Rule XIV.-Pronoun and Antecedent. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender; as, “I, who am your friend, will aid you.”
Exceptions. 1. When a pronoun stands for some person or thing indefinite or uinknown to the speaker, this rule is not strictly applicable ; because the person, number, and gender, are rather assumed than regulated by an antecedent; as, “I do not care who knows it.”-Steele. 66 Who touched me ? Tell me who it was.”
2. The neuter pronoun it may be applied to a young child, or to other creatures masculine or feminine by nature, when they are not obviously distinguishable with regard to sex; as, “Which is the real friend to the child, the person who gives it the sweetmeats, or the person who, considering only its health, resists its importunities ?"-Opie. " He loads the animal, he is showing me, with so many trappings and collars, that I cannot distinctly view it.”-Murray. “ The nightingale sings most sweetly when it sings in the night."-Burke..