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3 When nouns of time or measure are connected with verbs or adjectives, the prepositions which govern them, are generally suppressed; as, “We rode sixty miles that day ; " that is, “ through sixty miles on that day.”—“The wall is ten feet high ; " that is, “high to ten feet.” The ellipsis must be supplied, or the expression considered as adverbial.

4. After the adjectives like, near, and nigh, the preposition to or unto is often understood; as, “ It is like [to or unto] silver.”Allen.

" How like the former!” Dryden. Near yonder copse.” Goldsmith.

Nigh this recess.”Garth. As similarity and proximity are relations, and not qualities, it might seem proper to call like, neur, and nigh, prepositions; and some grammarians have so classed the last two. We have not placed them with the prepositions for four reasons: (1.) Because they are sometimes compared ; (2.) Because they sometimes have adrerbs evidently relating to them ; (3.) Because the preposition to or unto is sometimes expressed after them; and, (4.) Because the words which Usually stand for them in the learned languages, are clearly adjectives. Like, when it expresses similarity of manner, and near and nigh, when they express proximity of degree, are adverbs.

5. The adjective worth, like the words near, nigh, etc., is followed by a noun or a participle expressing limitation, without a governing preposition; as,

To reign is worth ambition.”—Milton. " This is life indeed, life worth preserving.Addison. The relation in this case, according to idiom, never being indicated by a preposition, cannot be expressed except by a periphrase ; but, it must be borne in mind, that it is the relation that governs, whether expressed or not.

6. In the phrases, “woe worth the day, woe worth the man,” and the like, the word worth is the imperative of the Anglo-Saxon verb ndeordhan, to be, to become, to being understood ; hence the meaning is, Woe be to the day, etc.

7. After verbs of giving, procuring, and some others, there is usually an ellipsis of to or for before the objective of the person ; as, “Give [to] him water to drink.”—“Buy (for) me a knife.” So also in the exclamation, “Woe is me!” meaning, 6. Woe is to me!”

8. After the verb cost, there is also an ellipsis of the preposition ; as, A diamond gone, cost me two thousand ducats.”—Shakspeare.

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False Syntax.
EXAMPLE.—It rests with thou and me to decide.

FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun thou is in the nominative case, and is governed by the preposition with. But, according to Rule XX, “Prepositions govern the objective case." Therefore, thou should be thee ; thus, It rests with thee and me to decide.

Let that remain a secret between you and I.
I lent the book to some one, I know not who.
Who did he inquire for? Thou.
From he that is needy, turn not away.
We are all accountable, each for his own act's.
Does that boy know who he is speaking to ?
I bestow my favors on whosoever I will.
Except him and I, no one saw it.

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Parsing. Parse the prepositions and all words printed in Italics in the following sentences.

My sister is five years of age. The house is twenty feet high. Envy is like the scorpion that stings itself to death. I gave my brother a bag of marbles. The house is worth ten thousand dollars. What he offered me was not worth having. In vain did they beseech him for mercy. The book cost me five dollars. Will you buy me a knife at the store ? In words, like weeds, I'll wrap me o'er. Be near me when I fade away.

Rule XXI.-Infinitives.

The preposition to commonly governs the infinitive mood, and connects it to a finite verb, or some other part of speech; as, “I desire to learn."_“I went to see my friend."

“ He is anxious to succeed."

Observations. 1. The word to, generally used with the infinitive mood, serves to indicate the mood (in the absence of a special inflection), and, usually, to express the relation between the verb and the word which it limits or modifies. In such cases, the infinitive mood with to is equivalent to a prepositional phrase. In other constructions, however, the word to loses its prepositional office; as when the infinitive is used as the subject or the object of a verb. In the latter case, being the object of the verb, it cannot be the object of the preposition.

2. When the infinitive is the ob'ect of the preposition, it may be joined to various parts of speech :

1. To a noun ; as, “ He had leave to go."
2. To an ad ective; as, “We were anxious to see you."

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3. To an intransitive verb; as, “He's gone to do it.”—“I rejoice to

hear it."
4. To an adverb; as, "She is old enough to go to school.”

5. To a pronoun; as, “ It is ours to transmit."
3. The other usages of the infinitive mood are the following :-

1. As the subject of a verb; as, To steal is sinful."
2. As the object of a verb; as,

" He loves to ride."
3. As the attribute ; as, “ To enjoy is to obey.—“He seemed to be

guilty.”_" Kis conduct is to be admired.”_" They were to

Blame." 4. As a mere term of comparison; as, " He was so much affected as to weep."

"_" He knows better than to trust you." 5. As the object of another preposition; as, “I was about to

write.”—"He did nothing but [to] idle away his time.” 6. As independent; as, “O to forget her ! "-" To confess the

truth, I was to blame.”—To be or not to be ;—that is the

question." 7. As the predicate in a dependent clause ; as, “I suppose it to be

necessary." In this last case, the word to has, of course, no prepositional force, becoming merely the sign of the infinitive.

4. An adverb, or other modifying expression, should not be inserted between the verb and the word to which belongs to it; as, “It is wrong to stubbornly oppose the truth”; say, " stubbornly to oppose,” etc.

5. The infinitive is often used in the perfect tense for the present; as, “He intended to have done it," instead of, "to do it."

6. The use of and for to, though very common, is improper and inelegant; as, “Will you try and do it for me ?" It should be, “ to do it.”


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False Syntax. EXAMPLE.-Ought these things be tolerated ?

FORMULE.-Not proper, because the infinitive be tolerated, is not preceded by the preposition to. But, according to Rule XXI., “The preposition to commonly governs the infinitive mood, and connects it to a finite verb or some other part of specch." Therefore, to should be inserted; thus, Ought these things to be tolerated ?

Please excuse my son's absence.
Cause every man go out from me.
I would not have let him gone. (Obs. 5.)
Try and let me have the money,


you can. (Obs. 6.) To foolishly squander one's time is a sin. (Obs. 4.)

I expected to have been there in time.
He was to finish the work before I came.
It is requisite to carefully read a document before signing it.
It is better to suffer wrongfully than be guilty of wrong.
It is unjust to so decide the case.

Parse all the infinitives in the following sentences.
EXAMPLE 1.—The pupil had permission to go home.

go is an irregular, active-intransitive verb, from go, went, going, gone. It is in tho infinitive mood, and present tense, and is governed by the preposition to connecting it to the noun perniission, which the phrase to go home modifies; according to the rule,-Tho preposition to commonly governs the infinitive mood, and connects it to a finite verb, or some other part of speech.

EXAMPLE 2.--To have required him to leave would have been to insult him.

To have required is a regular, active-transitive verb, from require, required, requiring, required. It is in the infinitive mood and perfect tense, and, with its adjunct, is the subject of the verb would have been ; according to Obs. 3, under Rule XXI,

To leave is an irregular, active-transitive verb, from leave, left, leaving, left. It is in the infinitive mood and present tense, and is the predicate of the object clause him to leave-equivalent to that he should leave; according to Obs. 3, under Rule XXI.

To insult is a regular, active-transitive verb, frosi insult, insulted, insulting, insulted. It is in the infinitive mood, present tense, and with its adjunct him, is the attribute after rcould have been ; according to Obs. 3, Rule XXI.

To be temperate in all things is the characteristic of a wise man. His father had much to say to him. They asked if it was good to eat. To speak rashly is a great fault. He begged to be allowed to go home. The event is greatly to be deplored. The ship was to sail last week. They were prone to find fault, and very hard to please. Have you

had nothing to eat to-day? This is to be done without delay. They forced him to do it. He was obliged to remain. He was seen to commit the act. Nobody imagined him to be so cruel. We have a duty to perform. Generations yet to be born shall lament this event. He believed his son to have been punished unjustly. The army was commanded to march against the enemy. Be so good as to tell me of the affair. He knows better than to do such a thing. They said their only desire was to be let alone. He was about to depart when the officers came to arrest him. I!e said he would rather die than betray his friend.

" None knew thee but to love thee,

Nor named thee but to praise."


Rule XXII.-Infinitives. The active verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the infinitive after them, without the preposition to; as, “ If he bade thee depart, how darest thou stay ?

Observations. 1. The preposition is almost always employed after the passive form of these verbs, and in some instances after the active; as, “He was heard to say.”—“I cannot see to do it.”-“What would dare to molest him who might call, on every side, to thousands enriched by his bounty ?"--Dr. Johnson.

2. The auxiliary be of the passive infinitive is also suppressed, after feel, hear, make, and see ; as, “I heard the letter read,”—not, “be read."

3. A few other verbs, besides the eight which are mentioned in the foregoing rule, sometimes have the infinitive after them without to; such as, behold, find, have, help, mark, observe, and other equivalents of see. Example: “Certainly it is heaven upon earth, to have a man's mind move in charity, rest in Providence, and turn upon the poles of truth."-Bucon.

False Syntax. EXAMPLE.—They need not to call upon her.

FORMULE. — Not proper, because the preposition to is inserted before call, which fol. lows the active verb need. But, according to Rule XXII., " The active verbs did, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the infinitive after them, without the preposition to." Therefore, to should be omitted; thus, They need not call upon her

I felt a chilling sensation to creep over me.
I have heard him to mention the subject.
Bid the boys to come in immediately.
I dare to say he has not got home yet.
Let no rash promise to be made.
We sometimes see bad men to be honored.
A good reader will make himself to be distinctly heard.

not observe it to move ?

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