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VI.-EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS, PARSING, AND CON

STRUCTION.

Praxis V.Syntactical. In the Fifth Praxis, it is required of the pupilto analyze the sentence

according to the method indicated under each example ; to distinguish the parts of speech and their classes ; to mention their modifications in order; to point out their relation, agreement, or government ; and to apply the rule of Syntax. He should then be required to con. struct five additional sentences of the same character.

EXAMPLE ANALYZED AND PARSED. To be continually subject to the breath of slander will tarnish the purest reputation." ANALYSIS.—This is a simple declarative sentence. The subject is the complex infinitive phrase, to be continually subject to the breath of Phrases.

slander ; the predicate verb is joill tarnish; the object is reputation. Thc principal part of the phrase is to be, and its adjuncts are continually, and the in

definite attribute, subject, which is modified by the complex adverbial phrase, to the breath of slander ; the principal part of this phrase is breath, which is modified

by the, and the simple adjective phrase, of slander. The verb has no adjuncts ; the adjuncts of the object are the and purest. PARSING.–To be is an irregular neuter verb, from be, was, being, been ; found in the

infinitive mood and present tense, and is, with the phrase of which it is the principal part, the subject of the verb will. tarnish ; according to Note II., under Rule VIII., which

says, The infinitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, is sometimes the subject to a verb." Continually is an adverb of time, and relates to the verb to be; according to the rulo

which says, Adverbs relate, etc. Subject is a common adjective, of the positive degree, compared only by means of the

adverbs, more and most, less and least ; it is taken abstractly with the infinitive to be ; according to Exception 2d, under Rule II., which says, “With the infinitive or a participle denoting being or action in the abstract, an adjective is sometimes

also taken abstractly." To is a preposition, and shows the relation between subject and breath ; according to

the rule, which says, Prepositions show the relation of things. The is the definite article, and relates to breath ; according to the rule, which says, etc. Breath is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and

objective case, and is governed by to ; according to the rule, which says, etc. Will tarnish is a regular active-transitive verb, from tarnish, tarnished, tarnishing,

tarnished ; found in the indicative mood, first-future tense, third person, and singular number; and agrees with its subject, the infinitive phrase, to be, etc.; according to Note II., under Rule VIII., which says, “ The infnitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, is sometimes the subject of a verb; a subject of this kind, however

composed, if it is taken as one whole, requires a verb in the third person singular.” Purest is a common adjective of the superlative degree, compared, pure, purer, purest;

it relates to reputation ; according to the rule, which says, etc. Reputation is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender,

and objective case; and is governed by will tarnish ; according to the rule, which says, etc

1.-Subject Phrases. To train citizens is not the work of a day. To be happy without the approval of conscience is impossible. To have remained calm under such provocation, was a proof of remark

able self-control. To be at once a rake and glory in the character, discovers a bad disposi

tion and a bad heart. To meet danger boldly is better than to wait for it. To be satisfied with the acquittal of one's own conscience, is the mark of

a great mind. To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect of character. To spring up from bed at the first moment of waking, is easy enough for people habituated to it.

To laugh were want of goodness and of grace,
And to be grave exceeds all power of face.

II.-Object Phrases.

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

“Can a youth who refuses to yield obedience to his parents, expect to become a good or a wise man ? " ANALYSIS.—This is a complex interrogative sentence. The principal clause is, Can a youth expect to become a good or wise man | The de

pendent clause is, who refuses to yield obedience to his parents. The connective is

who. The subject noun of the principal clause is youth ; the predicate verb is expect ; the

object is the infinitive phrase, to become a good or a wise man. The adjuncts of the subject noun are a and the dependent clause ; the verb has no ad

; juncts; the principal part of the phrase is to become ; and its adjunct is the attribute man, which refers to the subject youth, and is modified by the adjuncts a

good, and a wise, connected by or. The subject of the dependent clause is who; the predicate verb is refuses ; the object

is the complex infinitive phrase, to yield obedience to his parents. The principal part of the phrase is to yield, its adjuncts are the object, obedience, and the simple adverbial phrase, to his parents ; the principal part of this phrase is parents, and

its adjunct is his. If you desire to be free from sin, avoid temptation. By the faults of others, wise men learn how to correct their own. In reasoning, avoid blending arguments confusedly together that are of

a separate nature. He who refuses learn how to avoid evil, may properly be deemed

guilty of it.

He did not oppose his son's going to sea, because he desired to remove

him from the evil influence of bad company. Never expect to be able to govern others, unless you have learned how to

govern yourself. He who loves to survey the works of nature, can anticipate, wherever he

may be, finding sources of the purest enjoyment. He who attempts to please every body, will soon become an object of

general indifference or contempt. None but the virtuous dare hope in bad circumstances. If ever any author deserved to be called an original, it was Shaks

peare.

III.-Attribute Phrases.

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

“The predominant passion of Franklin seems to have been the love of the useful.”

ANALYSIS. - This is a simple declarative sentence.
The subject is passion ; the predicate verb is seems; the attribute is the infinitive

phrase, to have been the love of the useful. The adjuncts of the subject are the, predominant, and the simple adjective phrase of

Franklin ; the predicate has no adjuncts; the principal part of the attributo phrase is to have been, and its adjunct is the attribute love, which refers to the subject passion, and is modified by the, and the simple adjective phrase, of the

useful. [To have been is used as an adjective, and relates to passion.)

The fire of our minds is immortal, and not to be quenched.
Universal benevolence and patriotic zeal appear to have been the

motives of all his actions. Children should be permitted to be children, and not deprived of

amusements proper for their age. Was he not to live the best part of his life over again, and once more

be all that he ever had been ? Criminals are observed to grow more anxious as their trial approaches. Knowledge is not to be received inertly like the influences of the at

mosphere, by a mere residence at the place of instruction. The great purpose of poetry is to carry the mind above and beyond the

beaten, dusty, weary walks of ordinary life; to lift it into a purer element; and to breathe into it more profound and generous emo

tions. He seems to have made an injudicious choice, though he is esteemed a

sensible man Integrity is of the greatest importance in every situation o. liie.

To be useful in some degree is within the means of every one.
To discover the true nature of comets, has hitherto proved beyond the

power of science.
His conduct was, under the circumstances, in very bad taste.
The merchant was to have sailed for Europe last week.

IV.-Adjective Phrases.

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

“Leaning my head upon my hand, I began to figure to myself the miseries of confinement."

ANALYSI8.-This is a simple declarative sentence.
The subject is I; the predicate verb is began ; the object is the complex infinitive

phrase, lo figure to myself the miseries of confinement. The principal part of the
pbrase is to flyure, the adjuncts of which are the simple adverbial phrase, to my-
self, and the object miseries, which is modified by the and the simple adjective

phrase, of confinement. The adjunct of the subject is the complex adjective phrase leaning my head upon my

hand, the principal part of which is leaning, and its adjuncts, the object head, modified by my, and the simple adverbial phrase, upon my hand, the principal part of which is hand, and its adjunct, my.

Life bears us on like the stream of a mighty river.
Augustus had no lawful authority to make a change in the Roman con-

stitution. A habit of sincerity in acknowledging faults, is a guard against commit

ting them. The atrocious crime of being a young man, I shall attempt neither to

palliate nor deny. Envy, surrounded on all sides by the brightness of another's prosperity,

like the scorpion, confined within the circle of fire, stings itself to

death. The requisites for a first-rate actor demand a combination of talents and

accomplishments not easily to be found. The conflicts of the world were not to take place altogether

tented field; but ideas, leaping from the world's awakened intellect,
and burning all over with indestructible life, were to be marshaled
against principalities and powers.

The ship, unable to pursue her way,
Tossing about, at her own guidance lay.

on the

* Altogether is here an adverb relating to the adverbial phrase, on the tented: field (Sea Obs, 4, under Rule III.)

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V.-Adverbial Phrases.

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

“We live in the past by a knowledge of its history, and in the future by hope and anticipation.”

ANALYSIS.—This is a compound declarative sentence, abbreviated in form, and consist

ing of the two coördinate clauses, We live in the past by a knowledge of its history,

and (we iive) in the future by hope and anticipation, connected by and. The subject of each clause is we, and the predicate verb is live. The adjuncts of the

verb in the first clause are the simple adverbial phrase, in the past, and the complex adverbial phrase, by a knowledge of its history; the principal part is knowledge, and its adjuncts are a and the simple adjective phrase, of its history. (The adjuncts of the verb in the second clause are of the same character, and may be analyzed in a similar manner.]

At that hour, O how vain was all sublunary happiness !
Abstain from injuring others, if you wish to be in safety.
The public are often deceived by false appearances and extravagant

pretensions. Day and night yield us contrary blessings; and, at the same time, assist

each other, by giving fresh lustre to the delights of both. Man's happiness or misery is, in a great measure, put into his own

hands. Has not sloth, or pride, or ill temper, or sinful passion, misled you

from the path of sound and wise conduct ? Man was created to search for truth, to love the beautiful, to desire the

good, and to do the best. Representation and taxation should always go hand in hand. The statement which he made at first, he reiterated, again and again,

without the least variation. Jacob loved all his sons, but he loved Joseph the best. There is very often more happiness in the cottage of the peasant than in

the palace of the king.

VI.-Explanatory Phrases.

EXAMPLE ANALYZED.

“It is useless to expatiate upon the beauties of nature to one who is blind."

ANALYSIS.—This is a complex declarative sentence.
The principal clause is, It is useless to expatiate upon the beauties of nature to one,

and the dependent clause is, who is blind. The connective is roho. The subject of tho principal clause is it; the predicate verb is is ; and the attribute is

useless,

i

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