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What is the rule for the Nominative Case ?
by and ? What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?-the subordinate rules ? What is the rule for the verb, when it has two or more singular nominatives
connected by or or nor ? What are the observations ?—the subordinate rules ? What is the rule for the agreement of verbs, when they are connected by a
conjunction ? What exception is there ?-observation ?-what are the subordinate rules ? What is the rule for the agreement of subject and attribute ? What are the observations ?-the subordinate rules ? What is the rule in regard to the agreement of a pronoun and its antecedent? What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?-the subordinate rales ? What is the rule for the collective antecedent? What is the rule for antecedents connected by and ? What are the observations ?
What is the rule for the government of the infinitive ?
Why is Arrangement particularly important in English ?
PROSODY. Prosody treats of punctuation, utterance, figures, and versification.
1.-PUNCTUATION. Punctuation is the art of dividing composition, by points, or stops, for the purpose of showing more clearly the sense and relation of the words, and of noting the different pauses and inflections required in reading.
The following are the principal points, or marks: the Comma (,), the Semicolon [;], the Colon [:], the Period [-], the Dash [-], the Eroteme, or Note of Interrogation [?], the Ecphoneme, or Note of Exclamation [!], the Brackets [ ], and Curves, or Marks of Parenthesis ().
OBS.— The pauses that are made in the natural flow of speech, have, in reality, no definite and invariable proportions. Children are often told to pause at a comma while they might count one; at a semicolon, one, two; at a colon, one, two, three; at a period, one, two, three, four. This may be of some use, as teaching them to observe their stops that they may catch the sense ; but the standard itself is variable, and so are the times which good sense gives to the points. As a final stop, the period is immeasurable. The following general direction is as good as any that can be given :
The comma denotes the shortest pause; the semicolon, a pause double that of the comma; the colon, a pause double that of the semicolon; and the period,
or full stop, a pause double that of the colon. The pauses required by the other marks vary according to the structure of the sentence, and their place in it. They may be equal to any of the foregoing.
The Comma. The comma is used to separate those parts of a sentence, which are so nearly connected in sense, as to be only one degree removed from that close connection which admits no point.
RULE I.-SIMPLE SENTENCES. A simple sentence does not, in general, admit the comma; as, “The weakest reasoners are the most positive.”
Exception.—When the nominative in a long simple sentence is accompanied by inseparable adjuncts, a comma should be placed before the verb; as, “The assemblage of these vast bodies, is divided into different systems."
RULE II.-SIMPLE MEMBERS. The simple members of a compound sentence, whether successive or involved, elliptical or complete, are generally divided by the comma ; as,
1. “He speaks eloquently, and he acts wisely.”
5. “As thy days, so shall thy strength be." Exception 1.-When a relative immediately follows its antecedent, and is taken in a restrictive sense, the comma should not be introduced before it; as,
“The things which are seen, are temporal ; but the things which are not seen, are eternal.”—2 Cor. iv., 18.
Exception 2.—When the simple members are short, and closely connected by a conjunction or a conjunctive adverb, the comma is generally omitted ; as, “ Infamy is worse than death."-"Let him tell me whether the number of the stars be even or odd.”
RULE III.- MORE THAN Two WORDS..
When more than two words or terms are connected in the same construction, by conjunctions expressed or understood, the comma should be inserted after every one of them but the last ; and if they are nominatives before a verb, the comma should follow the last also; as, 1. “Who, to the enraptur'd heart, and ear, and eye,
Teach beauty, virtue, truth, and love, and melody." 2. “Ah! what avails
All that art, fortune, enterprise, can bring,
If envy, scorn, remorse, or pride, the bosom wring?" 3. “Women are soft, mild, pitiful, and flexible ;
Thou, stern, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless.” 4. “She plans, provides, expatiates, triumphs there.”
OBS.—Two or more words are in the same construction, when they have a common dependence on some other term.
RULE IV.-ONLY Two WORDS.
When only two words or terms are connected by a conjunction, they should not be separated by the comma ; as, “ Despair and anguish fled the struggling soul.”—Goldsmith.
Exception 1.—When the two words connected have several adjuncts, or when one of them has an adjunct that relates not to both, the comma is inserted ; as,
“Honesty in his dealings, and attention to his business, procured him both esteem and wealth.”—“Who is applied to persons, or things personified."
Exception 2.-When the two words connected are emphatically distinguished, the comma is inserted ; as,
"Liberal, not lavish, is kind Nature's hand.”- Beattie.
" Tis certain he could write, and cipher too.”—Goldsmith. Exception 3.-When there is merely an alternative of words, the comma is inserted ; as, “We saw a large opening, or inlet.”
Exception 4.—When the conjunction is understood, the comma is inserted ; as,
" She thought the isle that gave her birth,
The sweetest, wildest land on earth."--Hogg.