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III.-RELATION.
What is the rule in regard to the relation of Articles ?
What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?-the subordinate rules ?
What is the rule in regard to the relation of Adjectives?
What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?--the subordinate rules ?
What is the rule in regard to the relation of Adverbs ?
What are the exceptions ?—the observations ?-the subordir ate rules ?
What is the rule in regard to the relation of Participles ?
What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?-the subordinate rules ?
What is the rule in regard to the relation of Prepositions ?
What are the exceptions ?—the observations ?—the subordinate rules ?

IV.-AGREEMENT.

What is the rule for the Nominative Case ?
What are the observations ?—the subordinate rules ?
What is the rule for Apposition ?
What are the observations ?
What is the rule in regard to the agreement of a verb and subject ?
What are the observations ?-subordinate rules ?
What is the rule for the verb, when the nominative is a collective noun ?
What is the observation on this rule ?
What is the rule for the verb when it has two or more nominatives connected

by and ? What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?-the subordinate rules ? What is the rule for the verb, when it has two or more singular nominatives

connected by or or nor ? What are the observations ?—the subordinate rules ? What is the rule for the agreement of verbs, when they are connected by a

conjunction ? What exception is there ?-observation ?-what are the subordinate rules ? What is the rule for the agreement of subject and attribute ? What are the observations ?-the subordinate rules ? What is the rule in regard to the agreement of a pronoun and its antecedent? What are the exceptions ?-the observations ?-the subordinate rales ? What is the rule for the collective antecedent? What is the rule for antecedents connected by and ? What are the observations ?

V.-GOVERNMENT.
To what has Government respect ?
What parts of speech may be governing words?
What is the rule for the government of the possessive case ?
What are the observations ?-the subordinate rules ?
What is the rule for the object of a verb ?
What are the observations ?-the subordinate rules ?
What is the rule for the object of a preposition ?
What are the observations ?

What is the rule for the government of the infinitive ?
What are the observations ?

VI.-MISCELLANEOUS RULES.
What is the rule for the omission of to before the infinitive ?
What are the observations ?
What is the rule for the use of the Subjunctive Mood ?
What three points are involved in this rule ?
When only is the subjunctive mood required ?
How is this illustrated ?
What is the rule for the Independent Case ?
Under what four circumstances is a noun or a pronoun independent? Illus.

trate each.
What other observations on this rule ?
What is the rule for Conjunctions ?
What exceptions are there ?—what observations ?-subordinate rules ?
What is the rule for Interjections ?- what observations ?

VII.-ARRANGEMENT.

Why is Arrangement particularly important in English ?
What is the place of the subject noun or pronoun ?-the object or attribute ?
What principle or law controls the inversion of this order ?
What illustrations are given ?
What are the applications of this law to the adjective ?
What rule is given in regard to the relative?
What is the rule for adverbs and adverbial expressions ?
How does it apply to other adjuncts ?
What General Rule is given for construction ?

PART IV.

PROSODY. Prosody treats of punctuation, utterance, figures, and versification.

1.-PUNCTUATION. Punctuation is the art of dividing composition, by points, or stops, for the purpose of showing more clearly the sense and relation of the words, and of noting the different pauses and inflections required in reading.

The following are the principal points, or marks: the Comma (,), the Semicolon [;], the Colon [:], the Period [-], the Dash [-], the Eroteme, or Note of Interrogation [?], the Ecphoneme, or Note of Exclamation [!], the Brackets [ ], and Curves, or Marks of Parenthesis ().

OBS.— The pauses that are made in the natural flow of speech, have, in reality, no definite and invariable proportions. Children are often told to pause at a comma while they might count one; at a semicolon, one, two; at a colon, one, two, three; at a period, one, two, three, four. This may be of some use, as teaching them to observe their stops that they may catch the sense ; but the standard itself is variable, and so are the times which good sense gives to the points. As a final stop, the period is immeasurable. The following general direction is as good as any that can be given :

The comma denotes the shortest pause; the semicolon, a pause double that of the comma; the colon, a pause double that of the semicolon; and the period,

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or full stop, a pause double that of the colon. The pauses required by the other marks vary according to the structure of the sentence, and their place in it. They may be equal to any of the foregoing.

The Comma. The comma is used to separate those parts of a sentence, which are so nearly connected in sense, as to be only one degree removed from that close connection which admits no point.

RULE I.-SIMPLE SENTENCES. A simple sentence does not, in general, admit the comma; as, “The weakest reasoners are the most positive.”

Exception.—When the nominative in a long simple sentence is accompanied by inseparable adjuncts, a comma should be placed before the verb; as, “The assemblage of these vast bodies, is divided into different systems."

RULE II.-SIMPLE MEMBERS. The simple members of a compound sentence, whether successive or involved, elliptical or complete, are generally divided by the comma ; as,

1. “He speaks eloquently, and he acts wisely.”
2. “The man, when he saw this, departed.”
3. “It may, and it often does happen.”
4. “That life is long, which answers life's great end.”

5. “As thy days, so shall thy strength be." Exception 1.-When a relative immediately follows its antecedent, and is taken in a restrictive sense, the comma should not be introduced before it; as,

“The things which are seen, are temporal ; but the things which are not seen, are eternal.”—2 Cor. iv., 18.

Exception 2.—When the simple members are short, and closely connected by a conjunction or a conjunctive adverb, the comma is generally omitted ; as, “ Infamy is worse than death."-"Let him tell me whether the number of the stars be even or odd.”

RULE III.- MORE THAN Two WORDS..

When more than two words or terms are connected in the same construction, by conjunctions expressed or understood, the comma should be inserted after every one of them but the last ; and if they are nominatives before a verb, the comma should follow the last also; as, 1. “Who, to the enraptur'd heart, and ear, and eye,

Teach beauty, virtue, truth, and love, and melody." 2. “Ah! what avails

All that art, fortune, enterprise, can bring,

If envy, scorn, remorse, or pride, the bosom wring?" 3. “Women are soft, mild, pitiful, and flexible ;

Thou, stern, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless.” 4. “She plans, provides, expatiates, triumphs there.”

OBS.—Two or more words are in the same construction, when they have a common dependence on some other term.

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RULE IV.-ONLY Two WORDS.

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When only two words or terms are connected by a conjunction, they should not be separated by the comma ; as, “ Despair and anguish fled the struggling soul.”Goldsmith.

Exception 1.—When the two words connected have several adjuncts, or when one of them has an adjunct that relates not to both, the comma is inserted ; as,

Honesty in his dealings, and attention to his business, procured him both esteem and wealth.”—“Who is applied to persons, or things personified."

Exception 2.-When the two words connected are emphatically distinguished, the comma is inserted ; as,

"Liberal, not lavish, is kind Nature's hand.”- Beattie.

" Tis certain he could write, and cipher too.”Goldsmith. Exception 3.-When there is merely an alternative of words, the comma is inserted ; as, “We saw a large opening, or inlet.”

Exception 4.—When the conjunction is understood, the comma is inserted ; as,

" She thought the isle that gave her birth,

The sweetest, wildest land on earth."--Hogg.

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