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the period; as, “Every deviation from truth is criminal. Abhor a falsehood. Let your words be ingenuous. Sincerity possesses the most powerful charm."

RULE II.—ALLIED SENTENCES. The period is often employed between two sentences which have a general connection, expressed by a personal pronoun, a conjunction, or a conjunctive adverb; as, “The selfish man languishes in his narrow circle of pleasures. They are confined to what affects his own interests. He is obliged to repeat the same gratifications, till they become insipid. But the man of virtuous sensibility moves in a wider sphere of felicity."-Blair.

RULE III.-ABBREVIATIONS. The period is generally used after abbreviations, and very often to the exclusion of other points ; but, as in this case it is not a constant sign of pause, other points may properly follow it, if the words written in full would demand them; as, A.D. for Anno Domini.—Pro tem. for pro tempore.—Ult. for ultimo.-i. e. for id est.

“ Consult the statute ; quart.' I think, it is,

‘Edwardi sext.,' or 'prim. et quint. Eliz.'”Pope.

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The Dash.

The dash is mostly used to denote an unexpected or emphatic pause of variable length; but sometimes it is a sign of faltering; sometimes, of omission : if set after another sign or pause, it usually lengthens the interval.

RULE I.–ABRUPT PAUSES. A sudden interruption or transition should be marked with the dash; as, “I must inquire into the affair, and if'-'And if l' interrupted the farmer.”

“Here lies the great-false marble, where?

Nothing but sordid dust lies here."-Young.


EMPHATIC PAUSES. To mark a considerable pause, greater than the structure of the sentence or the points inserted would seem to require, the dash may be employed; as,

1. “And now they part-to meet no more.”
2. “Revere thyself ;-and yet thyself despise."
3. “Behold the picture !-Is it like ?-Like whom?"

RULE III.-FAULTY DASHES. Dashes needlessly inserted, or substitued for other stops more definite, are in general to be treated as errors in punctuation.

EXAMPLE: "-You shall go home directly, Le Fevre, said my uncle Toby, to my house,-and we 'll send for a doctor to see what's the matter,—and we 'll have an apothecary,—and the corporal shall be your nurse ;--and I 'll be your servant, Le Fevre."-Sterne.

Better thus: “.You shall go home directly, Le Fevre,' said my uncle Toby, “to my house ; and we'll send for a doctor to see what's the matter; and we'll have an apothecary; and the corporal shall be your nurse: and I'll be your servant, Le Fevre.'”

The Eroteme.


The eroteme, or note of interrogation, is used to designate a question.

RULE I.-QUESTIONS DIRECT. Questions expressed directly as such, if finished, should always be followed by the note of interrogation; as,

“In life, can love be bought with gold ?
Are friendship’s pleasures to be sold ?”Johnson.

RULE II.-QUESTIONS UNITED. When two or more questions are united in one compound sentence, the comma or semicolon is sometimes placed between them, and the note of interrogation, after the last only; as,

Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land ?

All fear, none aid you, and few understand.”—Pope.

RULE III. -QUESTIONS INDIRECT. When a question is mentioned, but not put directly as a question, it loses both the quality and the sign of interrogation; as, “The Cyprians asked me why I wept.Murray.

The Ecphoneme. The ecphoneme, or note of exclamation, is used to denote a pause with some strong or sudden emotion of the mind; and, as a sign of great wonder, it may be repeated. [!!!]

RULE I.-INTERJECTIONS, ETC. Interjections, and other expressions of great emotion, are generally followed by the note of exclamation; as,

“O! let me listen to the words of life!"--Thomson.


After an earnest address or solemn invocation, the note of exclamation is usually preferred to any other point; as, “Whereupon, O king Agrippa! I was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision." --Acts xxvi., 19.

RULE III.—EXCLAMATORY QUESTIONS. Words uttered with vehemence in the form of a question, but without reference to an answer, should be followed by the note of exclamation; as, "How madly have I talked!”Young.

The Curves. The curves, or marks of parenthesis, are used to distinguish a clause or hint that is hastily thrown in between the parts of a sentence to which it does not properly belong; as,

" To others do (the law is not severe)
What to thyself thou wishest to be done."- Beattie,

OBS.---The incidental clause should be uttered in a lower tone, and faster than the principal sentence. It always requires a pause as great as that of a comma, or greater.

RULE I.—THE PARENTHESIS. A clause that breaks the unity of a sentence too much to be incorporated with it, and only such, should be enclosed as a parenthesis ; as,

“Know then this truth, (enough for man to know,)

Virtue alone is happiness below."-Pope.

RULE II. --INCLUDED POINTS. The curves do not supersede other stops ; and, as the parenthesis terminates with a pause equal to that which precedes it, the same point should be included, except when the sentences differ in form ; as, 1. “Man's thirst of happiness declares it is :

(For nature never gravitates to nought :)

That thirst unquench'd, declares it is not here."-Young. 2. “Night visions may befriend : (as sung above :)

Our waking dreams are fatal. How I dreamt
Of things impossible! (could sleep do more?)
Of joys perpetual in perpetual change." - Young.

Other Marks.

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There are also several other marks, which are occasionally used for various purposes, as follow :

1. [?] The Apostrophe usually denotes either the possessive case of a noun, or the elision of one or more letters of a word ; as, girl's regard to her parents' advice.”gan, lov'd, c'en, thro'; for began, loved, even, through.

2. [-] The Hyphen connects the parts of many compound words especially such as have two accents; as, ever-living. It is also frequently inserted where a word is divided into syllables; as, con-tem-plate. Placed at the end of a line, it shows that one or more syllables of a word are carried forward to the next line.

3. ["] The Diæresis, or Dialysis, placed over either of two contiguous vowels, shows that they are not a diphthong; as, Danäe, aërial.

4. [!] The Acute Accent marks the syllable which requires the principal stress in pronunciation ; as, équal, equality. It is sometimes used in opposition to the grave accent, to distinguish a close or short vowel; as, Fáncy :" or to denote the rising inflection of the voice ; as,

" Is it ?" 5. [\] The Grave Accent is used in opposition to the acute, to distinguish an open or long vowel; as, Fàvor :" (Murray :) or to denote the falling inflection of the voice; as, " Yès it is ."

6. [^] The Circumflex generally denotes either the broad sound of a, or an unusual and long sound given to some other vowel; as in air, câre, ére, there, hêir, úrn, búrn.

7. [-] The Breve, or Stenotone, is used to denote either a close vowel or a syllable of short quantity; as, răven, to devour.

8. [-] The Macron, or Macrotone, is used to denote either an open vowel or a syllable of long quantity; as, rāven, a bird.

9. [-] or [****] The Ellipsis, denotes the omission of some letters or words; as, K-9, for king.

10. [1] The Caret, used only in writing, shows where to insert words or letters that have been accidentally omitted.

11. [-] The Brace serves to unite a triplet, or to connect several terms with something to which they are all related.

12. [8] The Section marks the smaller divisions of a book or chapter; and, with the help of numbers, serves to abridge references.

13. [1] The Paragraph (chiefly used in the Bible) denotes the commencement a new subject. The parts of discourse which are called paragraphs are, in general, sufficiently distinguished by beginning a new line, and carrying the first word a little forward or backward.

14. [""] The Guillemets, or Quotation Points, distinguish words that are taken from another author or speaker. A quotation within a quotation is marked with single points, which, when both are employed, are placed within the others,

15. [[ ]] The Crotchets, or Brackets, generally enclose some correction or explanation, or the subject to be explained ; as, “ He [ths speaker] was of a different opinion."

16. [126] The Index, or Hand, points out something remarkable, or what the reader should particularly observe.

17. [*] The asterisk, or star, [+] the obelisk, or dagger, [+] the diesis, or double dagger, and [[ ] the parallels, refer

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