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to marginal notes. The section [8] and the paragraph [1], are also often used for marks of reference, the former being usually applied to the fourth, and the latter to the sixth, note on a page; for, by the usage of printers, these signs are now commonly introduced in the following order: 1*, 2 t, 37, 4$, 51, 67, 7 **, 8 tt, etc. When many references are to be made, the small letters of the alphabet, or the numerical figures, in their order, may be conveniently used for the same purpose.

18. [***] The asterism, or three stars, a sign not very often used, is placed before a long or general note, to mark it as a note, without giving it a particular reference.

19. [¢] The cedilla is a mark borrowed from the French, by whom it is placed under the letter c, to give it the sound of 8 before a or 0; as, in the words, "façade,Alençon." It is also attached to other letters, to denote their soft sounds: as, çh as sh; $ as 2 ; x as gz.

For oral exercises in punctuation, the teacher may select any well-pointed book, to which the foregoing rules and explanations may be applied by the pupil. An application of the principles of punctuation, either to points rightly inserted, or in the correction of errors, is as easy a process as ordinary syntactical parsing or correcting ; and, in proportion to the utility of these principles, as useful. The exercise, in relation to correct pointing, consists in reading some passage, in successive parts, according to its points ; naming the latter as they occur; and repeating the rules or doctrines of punctuation, as the reasons for the marks employed. Written excercises are given below.

Exercises in Punctuation.

1.- The Comma. Copy the following sentences, and insert the comma where it 23 required.

RULE I.
The dogmatist's assurance is paramount to argument.
The whole course of his argumentation comes to nothing.
The fieldmouse builds her garner under ground.

Exceptions. One of the arts that contribute most to the cultivation of the human

mind is the art of language. To remain insensible to such provocation is apathy. He who strives to injure others cannot be happy.

RULE II.
I was eyes to the blind and feet was I to the lame.
They are gone but the remembrance of them is sweet.

He has passed it is likely through varieties of fortune.
The mind though free has a governor within itself.
They I doubt not oppose the bill on public principles.
Be silent be grateful and adore.
He is an adept in language who always speaks the truth.
The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong.

Exceptions. 1. He that has far to go should not hurry.

Hobbes believed the eternal truths which he opposed.

Feeble are all pleasures in which the heart has no share. 2. A good name is better than precious ointment.

Thinkst thou that duty shall have dread to speak ?
The spleen is seldom felt where Flora reigns.

RULE III.

The city army court espouse my cause.
Wars pestilences and diseases are terrible instructors.
Walk daily in a pleasant airy and umbrageous garden.
Wit spirits faculties but make it worse.
Meu wives and children stare cry out and run.

RULE IV.
Hope and fear are essentials in religion.
Praise and adoration are perfective of our souls.
We know bodies and their properties most perfectly.
Satisfy yourselves with what is rational and attainable.

Exceptions. 1. God will rather look to the inward motions of the mind than to the

outward form of the body. Gentleness is unassuming in opinion and temperate in zeal. 2. He has experienced prosperity and also adversity.

All sin essentially is and must be mortal. 3. One person is chosen chairman or moderator.

Duration or time is measured by motion.

The governor or viceroy is chosen annually. 4. Reflection reason still the ties improve. His neat plain parlor wants our modern style.

RULE V. I inquired and rejected consulted and deliberated. Seed-time and harvest cold and heat summer and winter day and night shall not cease.

RULE VI.
The night being dark they did not proceed.
There being no other coach we had no alternative.
Remember my son that human life is the journey of a day.
All circumstances considered it seems right.
He that overcometh to him will I give power.
Your land strangers devour it in your presence.
Ah sinful nation a people laden with iniquity!

With heads declin'd ye cedars homage pay;
Be smooth ye rocks ye rapid floods give way!

RULE VII.
Now Philomel sweet songstress charms the night.
'Tis chanticleer the shepherd's clock announcing day
The evening star love's harbinger appears.
The queen of night fair Dian smiles serene.
There is yet one man Micaiah the son of Imlah.
Our whole compar" man by man ventured down.
As a work of wit the Dunciad has few equals.

In the same temple the resounding wood
All vocal beings hymned their equal God

Exceptions. 1. The last king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus.

Bossuet highly eulogizes Maria Theresa of Austria. 2. For he went and dwelt by the brook Cherith.

Remember the example of the patriarch Joseph. 3. I wisdom dwell with prudence.

Ye fools be ye of an understanding heart.

I tell you that which you yourselves do know. 4. I crown thee king of intimate delights.

I count the world a stranger for thy sake.
And this makes friends such miracles below.
God has pronounced it death to taste that tree.
Grace makes the slave a freeman.

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RULE VIII.
Deaf with the noise I took my hasty flight.
Him piteous of his youth soft disengage.
I played a while obedient to the fair.
Love free as air spreads his light wings and flies.

Then active still and unconfined his mind
Explores the vast extent of ages past.

But there is yet a liberty unsung
By poets and by senators unpraised.

Exceptions.
I will marry a wife beautiful as the Houries.
He was a man able to speak upon doubtful questions.
These are the persons anxious for the change.
Are they men worthy of confidence and support ?

RULE IX.
Poverty wants some things; avarice all things.
Honesty has one face; flattery two.
One king is too soft and easy; an other too fiery.
Mankind's esteem they court; and he his own:
Theirs the wild chase of false felicities;
His the compos'd possession of the true.

RULE X.

My desire is to live in peace.
The great difficulty was to compel them to pay their debts.
To strengthen our virtue God bids us trust in him.
I made no bargain with you to live always drudging.
To sum up all her tongue confessed the shrew.
To proceed my own adventure was still more laughable.

We come not with design of wasteful prey
To drive the country force the swains away.

RULE XI. Having given this answer he departed. Some sunk to beasts find pleasure end in pain. Eased of her load subjection grows more light. Death still draws nearer never seeming near. He lies full low gored with wounds and weltering in his blood. Kind is fell Lucifer compared to thee. Man considered in himself is helpless and wretched. Like scattered down by howling Eurus blown. He with wide nostrils snorting skims the wave. Youth is properly speaking introductory to manhood.

Exceptions.
He kept his eye fixed on the country before him.
They have their part assigned them to act.
Years will repair not the injuries done by him.

RULE XII.
Yes we both were philosophers.
However providence saw fit to cross our design.
Besides I know that the eye of the public is upon me.
The fact is certainly much otherwise.
For nothing surely can be more inconsistent.

RULE XIII.
For in such retirement the soul is strengthend.
It engages our desires; and in some degree satisfies them.
But of every Christian virtue piety is an essential part.
The English verb is variable ; as love lovest loves.

RULE XIV.
In a word charity is the soul of social life.
By the bowstring I can repress violence and fraud.
Some by being too artful forfeit the reputation of probity.
With regard to morality I was not indifferent.

RULE XV.
Lo earth receives him from the bending skies !
Behold I am against thee O inhabitant of the valley !

RULE XVI.
I would never consent never never never.
His teeth did chatter chatter chatter still.
Come come come come-to bed to bed to bed.

RULE XVII. He cried “Cause every man to go out from me.” " Almet” said he " remember what thou hast seen." I answered “Mock not thy servant who is but a worm before thee."

II.-The Semicolon. Copy the following sentences, and insert the comma and the semicolon where they are required.

RULE I. “ Man is weak” answered his companion “knowledge is more than

equivalent to force." To judge rightly of the present we must oppose it to the past for all

judgment is comparative and of the future nothing can be known. “Content is natural wealth” says Socrates to which I shall add "luxury

is artificial poverty.”

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