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Of the Adverb; as, “He spoke [wisely] and acted wisely."_"Exceedingly great and [exceedingly] powerful.'
Of the Conjunction; as, “ The fruit of the Spirit is love, [and] joy, [and] peace, [and] long-suffering, [and] gentleness, [and] goodness, [and] faith, [and] meekness, [and] temperance.”—Gal. v., 22. The repetition of the conjunction is called Polysyndeton ; and the omission of it, Asyndeton.
Of the Preposition; as, “[On] this day."-"[In] next month." “He departed [from] this life.”—“He gave [to] me a book.”_"To walk (through] a mile."
Of the Interjection ; as, “Oh! the frailty, [Oh !] the wickedness of
Of a Phrase or a Clause; as, “ The active commonly do more than they are bound to do; the indolent, [commonly do] less” [than they are bound to do].
Pleonasm is the introduction of superfluous words. This figure is allowable only, when, in animated discourse, it abruptly introduces an emphatic word, or repeats an idea to impress it more strongly :
“ He that hath ears to hear, let him hear!”—“All ye inhabitants of the world, and dwellers on the earth! "_" There shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.”—“I know thee who thou art.”—Bible.
A pleonasm is sometimes impressive and elegant, but an unemphatic repetition of the same idea is one of the worst faults of bad writing.
Syllepsis is agreement formed according to the figurative sense of a word, or the mental conception of the thing spoken of, and not according to the literal or common use of the term; it is therefore, in general, connected with some figure of rhetoric:
"The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld his glory.”—John i., 14. “Then Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto them.”—Acts viii., 5. 6. While Evening draws her crimson curtains round."
Enallage is the use of one part of speech, or of one modification for another. This figure borders closely upon solecism ;* and, for the stability of the language, it should be sparingly indulged. There are, however, several forms of it which can appeal to good authority; as,
“ You know that you are Brutus that speak this."-Shak.
Destruction's gates at once unlock.”—Ilogg.
“He wanders earth around.”_ - Coroper. “Rings the world with the vain stir."-Id. “Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare 1 unto you.”—Acts. This figure is much employed in poetry. A judicious use
A of it confers harmony, variety, strength, and vivacity upon composition. But care should be taken lest it produce ambiguity or obscurity.
Figures of Rhetoric. A figure of rhetoric is an intentional deviation from the ordinary application of words. Some figures of this kind are commonly called Tropes, i. e., turns.
Numerous departures from perfect simplicity of diction occur in almost every kind of composition. They are mostly founded on some similitude or relation of things, which, by the power of imagination, is rendered conducive to ornament or illustration.
The principal figures of rhetoric are fourteen ; namely, Sim'-j-le, Met'-a-phor, Al'-le-gor-y, Me-ton'y-my, Syn-ec'-do-che, Hy-per-bo-le, Vis'-ion, A-pos'-tro-phe, Per-son'-i-fi-ca'-tion, Er-ote'-sis, Ec-pho-ne'-sis, An-tith'-e-sis, Cli'max, and I'-ro-ny.
* Deviations of this kind are, in general, to be considered solecisms; otherwise the rules of grammar would be of no use or authority. There are, however, some changes of this kind, which the grammarian is not competent to condemn, though they do not accord with the ordinary principles of construction,
A simile is a simple and express comparison, and is generally introduced by like, as, or so:
“At first, like thunder's distant tone,
The rattling din came rolling on.”-Hogg. “Man, like the generous vine, supported lives;
The strength he gains, is from th’ embrace he gives.”—Pope. A metaphor is a figure that expresses the resemblance of two objects by applying either the name, or some attribute adjunct, or action of the one, directly to the other:
“His eye was morning's brightest ray.”—Hogg.
Angler in the tides of fame.” — Id.
Gambol'd unbridled and unbound.”—Hogg.
“Speechless, and fix'd in all the death of wo.”- Thom. An allegory is a continued narration of fictitious events, designed to represent and illustrate important realities. Thus the Psalmist represents the Jewish nation under the symbol of a vine :
“ Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen and planted it. Thou preparedst room before it, and didst cause it to take deep root; and it filled the land.
The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars.”—Ps. lxxx., 8.
OBS.-—The allegory, agreeably to thë foregoing definition of it, includes most of those similitudes which in the Scriptures are called parables ; it includes also the better sort of fables. The term allegory is sometimes applied to a true history in which something else is intended than is contained in the words literally taken. [See Gul. iv., 24.] In the Scriptures the term fable denotes an idle and groundless story. [See 1 Tim. iv., 1; and 2 Pet. i., 16.]
A metonymy is a change of names. It is founded on some such relation as that of cause and effect, of subject and adjunct, of place and inhabitant, of container and thing contained, or of sign and thing signified:
“God is our salvation ;” i.e., Saviour.—“He was the sigh of her secret soul ; " i.e., the youth she loved.—“They smote the city ; " i.e., citizens."
:-“My son, give me thy heart ; " i.e., affection.—“The scepter shall not depart from Judah ; " i.e., kingly power.
Synedoche is the naming of the whole for a part, or of a part for the whole ; as, “This roof [i.e., house) protects
] you."-"Now the year (i.e., summer] is beautiful.”
Hyperbole is an extravagant exaggeration, in which the imagination is indulged beyond the sobriety of truth :
“The sky shrunk upward with unusual dread,
And trembling Tiber div'd beneath his bed.”—Dryden. Vision, or Imagery, is a figure by which the speaker represents the objects of his imagination as actually before his eyes, and present to his senses :
“I see the dagger-crest of Mar!
!! Apostrophe is a turning from the regular course of the subject, into an animated address; as, Death is swallowed up in victory. O Death! where is thy sting? O Grave ! where is thy victory?"-1 Cor. xv.
Personification is a figure by which, in imagination, we ascribe intelligence and personality to unintelligent beings or abstract qualities :
“ The Worm, aware of his intent,
Harangued him thus, right eloquent.” — Cowper.
“ Hark! Truth proclaims, thy triumphs cease.”—Id. Erotesis is a figure in which the speaker adopts the form of interrogation, not to express a doubt, but, in general, confidently to assert the reverse of what is asked :
“Hast thou an arm like God ? or canst thou thunder with a voice like him?"-Job xl. “He that planted the ear, shall he not hear ? he that formed the eye, shall he not see ?”—Ps. xciv.
Ecphonesis is a pathetic exclamation, denoting some violent emotion of the mind :
“O liberty 1-0 sound once delightful to every Roman ear 1-0 sacred privilege of Roman citizenship!-once sacred-now trampled upon !”Cicero. “O that I had wings like a dove! for then would I fly away and be at rest!"-Ps. lv., 6.
Antithesis is a placing of things in opposition to heighten their effect by contrast :
" Contrasted faults through all his manners reign;
Though poor, luxurious ; though submissive, vain ;
And e'en in penance, planning sins anew.”—Goldsmith. Climax is a figure in which the sense is made to advance by successive steps, to rise gradually to what is more and more important and interesting, or to descend to what is more and more minute and particular:
“And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith, virtue ; and to virtue, knowledge ; and to knowledge, temperance; and to temperance, patience; and to patience, godliness; and to godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness, charity.”—2 Peter 1.
Irony is a figure in which the speaker sneeringly utters the direct reverse of what he intends shall be understood :
“We have, to be sure, great reason to believe the modest man would not ask him for a debt, when he pursues his life.”—Cicero.
Praxis VI.-Prosodical. In the Sixth Praxis, it is required of the pupil to point out and explain
the several Figures of Orthography, of Etymology, of Syntax, and of Rhetoric; to define each ; and to change the passage into the ordinary style or expression. The pupil may also be exercised on these selections, in the rules of Punctuation, and in the principles of Utter ance and Versification.
1.-Figures of Orthography. “ Fery goot : I will make a prief of it in my note-book ; and we will afterwards ’ork upon the cause with as great discreetly as we can.”-Shak.
“Vat is you sing ? I do not like dese toys. Pray you, go and vetch me in my closet un boitier verd ; a box, a green-a box. Do intend vat I speak ? a green-a box.”—Id.
“I ax'd you what you had to sell. I am fitting out a wessel for Wenice, loading her with warious keinds of provisions, and wittualling her for a long woyage ; and I want several undred weight of weal, wenison, etc., with plenty of inyons and winegar, for the preserwation of ealth.”