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RULE III.- DOUBLING. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after qu, double their final consonant before an additional syllable that begins with a vowel: as, rob, robber ; permit, permitting; acquit, acquittal, acquitting.
Exc.-X final, being equivalent to ks, is never doubled.
RULE IV.-No DOUBLING.
A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single vowel, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an additional syllable: as, toil, toiling ; visit, visited; general, generalize.
Exc.—But I and 8 final are sometimes doubled (though according to Webster, improperly), when the last syllable is not accented; as travel, traveller ; bias, bi issed.
Words ending with any double letter, preserve it double before any additional termination, not beginning with the same letter; as in the following derivatives : seeing, blissful, oddly, hilly, stiffness, illness, smallness, carelessness, agreement, agreeable.
Exc.—The irregular words, fled, sold, told, duelt, spelt, spilt, shalt, wilt, blest, past, and the derivatives from the word pontif, are exceptions to this rule.
RULE VI.-FINAL E.
The final e mute of a primitive word, is generally omitted before an additional termination beginning with a vowel : as, rate, ratable ; force, forcible ; rave, raving; eye, eying.
Exc. — Words ending in ce or ge, retain the e before able or ous, to preserve the soft sounds of c and g; as, peace, peaceable ; change, changeable ; outrage, outrageous.
RULE VII.-FINAL E. The final e of a primitive word, is generally retained before an additional termination beginning with a consonant; as, pale, paleness ; lodge, lodgement.
Exc.-When the e is preceded by a vowel, it is sometimes omitted : as, true, truly; awe, awful : and sometimes retained; as, rue, rueful; shoe, shoeless.
RULE VIII. -FINAL Y.
The final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is changed into i before an additional termination : as, merry, merrier, merriest, merrily, merriment; pity, pitied, pities, pitiest, pitiless, pitiful, pitiable.
Exc.--Before ing, y is retained to prevent the doubling of i; as, pity, pitying. Words ending in ie, dropping the e by Rule 6th, change i into y, for the same reason; as, die, dying.
OBS.—When a vowel precedes, y should not be changed; as, day, days ; valley, valleys ; money, moneys; monkey, monkeys.
Compounds generally retain the orthography of the simple words which compose them; as, hereof, wherein, horseman, recall, uphill, shellfish.
Exc.-In permanent compounds, the words full and all drop one l; as, handful, careful, always, withal : in others, they retain both ; as, full-eyed, all-wise, save-all.
Questions for Review.
II. LETTERS. Of what does Orthography treat ? What is a Letter? What is an elementary sound of a word ? What name is given to the sound of a letter ?-What epithet, to a letter not
sounded ? How many letters are there in English ?-How many sounds do they repu
What are the names of the letters in English ?
III.-CLASSES OF LETTERS.
IV.-POWERS, OR SOUNDS.
V.-FORMS OF THE LETTERS. What is said of the employment of the several styles of letters in English ? What distinction of form do we make in each of the letters ? What is said of small letters, and why are capitals used ? How many rules for capitals are given, and what are their heads ? What says Rule 1st of titles of books ?--Rule 2d, of first words ?_Rule 3d, of
names of Deity ?--Rule 4th, of proper names ?—Rule 5th, of objects personified ?—Rule 6th, of words derived?--Rule 7th, of I and 0?—Rule 8th, of poetry ? - Rule 9th, of examples, etc.?—Rule 10th, of chief words ?
-of four or more ?
What is a proper triphthong ?-An improper triphthong ?
minations ?-Rule 4th, of prefixes ?—Rule 5th, of compounds ?--Rule 6th,
VII.-WORDS. What is a word ? How are words distinguished in regard to species and figure. What is a primitive word ? What is a derivative word ? What is a simple word ? What is a compound word ? How do permanent compounds differ from others ? How many are the rules for the figure of words, and what are their heads ? What says rule 1st, of compounds 2–Rule 2d, of simples ?—Rule 3d, of the
sense ?--Rule 4th, of ellipses ?_Rule 5th, of the hyphen ?-Rule 6th, of using na hyphen?
VIII. - SPELLING. What is spelling? How is this art to be acquired ? How many rules for spelling are there, and what are their heads ? What says Rule Ist of final f, l, or s?--Rule 2d, of other finals ;-Rule 3d, of
the doubling of consonants ?—Rule 4th, against the doubling of consonants ?-Rule 5th, of retaining ?-Rule 6th, of final e?-Rule 7th, of final e ?-Rule 8th, of final y ?--Rule 9th, of compounds ?
Exercises for Writing.
These exercises are classified according to rules on pages 24, 25. 1. The pedant quoted Johnson's dictionary of the english language, Gregory's dictionary of arts and sciences, Crabb's english synonymes, Walker's key to the pronunciation of proper names, Sheridan's rhetorical grammar, and the diversions of purley.
2. gratitude is a delightful emotion. the grateful heart at once performs its duty and endears itself to others.
3. What madness and folly, to deny the great first cause ! Shall mortal man presume against his maker ? shall he not fear the omnipotent? shall he not reverence the everlasting one ?—The fear of the lord is the beginning of wisdom.'
4. xerxes the great, emperor of persia, united the medes, persians, bactrians, lydians, assyrians, hyrcanians, and many other nations, in an expedition against greece.
D. I observed that, when the votaries of religion were led aside, she commonly recalled them by her emissary conscience, before habit had time to enchain them.
6. Hercules is said to have killed the nemean lion, the erymanthian boar, the lernean serpent, and the stymphalian birds. The christian religion has brought all mythologic stories and milesian fables into disrepute.
7. i live as i did, i think as i did, i love you as i did; but all these are to no purpose ; the world will not live, think, or love as i do.-0 wretched prince ! o cruel reverse of fortune! o father Micipsa ! 8. are these thy views ? proceed, illustrious youth,
and virtue guard thee to the throne of truth ! 9. Those who pretend to love peace, should remember this maxim : “ it is the second blow that makes the battle."
time and i will challenge any other two,' said philip.-'thus,' said diogenes, do I trample on the pride of plato.'—'true,' replied plato ; .but is it not with the greater pride of diogenes ? '
the father in a transport of joy, burst into the following words : excellent scipio! heaven has given thee more than human virtue! o glorious leader! o wondrous youth!'
epaminondas, the theban general, was remarkable for his love of truth. he never told a lie, even in jest.
and pharaoh said to Joseph, “say to thy brethren, do this—lade your beasts, and go to the land of canaan.
who is she that, with graceful steps and a lively air, trips over yonder plain ? her name is health : she is the daughter of exercise and temper
to the penitent sinner, a mediator and intercessor with the sovereign of the universe, appear comfortable names.
the murder of abel, the curse and rejection of cain, and the birth and adoption of seth, are almost the only events related of the immediate family of adam, after his fall.
on what foundation stands the warrior's pride,