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prehended in the sentence, by showing the particular office of every word. This cannot be done, at this stage of the pupil's progress, with a proper degree of intelligence and precision, by mechanically examining each word in succession; for the reason that to do Ro requires him to compare the distinctive office of each part of speech with the word examined; while in these preliminary exercises, he is only required to keep in mind the character of a single part of speech, and compare it with each word of the sentence in succession. B:sides, an eclectic process like that indicated, is better calculated to keep the interest and attention of the pupil awake, the constant desire of discovery continually stimulating mental activity.
Evil communications corrupt good manners.
Virtuous youth gradually brings forward accomplished and flourishing manhood.
In the spring the trees resume their verdure.
Industry is needful in every condition of life; the price of all improvement is labor.
An article is the word the, an, or a, which we put before nouns to limit their signification.
An and a are one and the same article. An is used whenever the following word begins with a vowel sound ; as, An art, an end, an heir, an inch, an ounce, an hour, an urn.
1.-A is used whenever the following word begins with a consonant sound; as, A man, a house, a won. der, at one, a yew, a use, a ewer. Thus the consonant sounds of w and y, even when expressed by other letters, require a and not an before them.
Classes. The articles are distinguished as the definite and the indefinite.
The definite article is the, which denotes some par. ticular thing or things; as, The boy, the oranges.
The indefinite article is an or a, which denotes one thing of a kind, but not any particular one; as, A boy, an orange.
Exercises for Writing. 1. Prefix the definite article to the following nouns :
Path, paths; loss, losses ; name, names ; page, pages; want, wants ; doubt, doubts; votary, votaries.
2. Prefix the indefinite article to the following nouns :
Age, error, idea, omen, urn, arch, bird, cage, dream, empire, farm, grain, horse, idol, jay, king, lady, man, novice, opinion, pony, quail, raven, sample, trade, uncle, vessel, window, youth, zone, whirlwind, union, onion, unit, eagle, house, honor, hour, herald, habitation, hospital, harper, harpoon, ewer, eye, humor.
3. Insert the definite article rightly in the following phrases :
George second-part first-reasons most obvious-good man-wide circle-man of honor-man of world-old books-common peoplesame person, smaller piece-rich and poor—first and last-all timegreat excess—nine muses-how rich reward-all ancient writers--in nature of things-much better course.
4. Insert the indefinite article rightly in each of the following phrases :
new name-very quick motion-other sheep-such power—what instance-great weight-such worthy cause—too great difference--high honor-humble station-universal law-what strange event-so deep interest — as firm hop :-so great wit-humorous story—such person-few dollars-little reflection.
IV.-NOUNS. A noun is the name of any person, place, or thing, that can be known or mentioned.
Obs. 1. --All words and signs taken technically (that is, independently of their meaning, and merely as things spoken of), are nouns ; or, rather, are things read and construed as nouns ; as, “U8 is a personal pronoun.” -Murray. “ Th has two sounds."-.
OBS. 2.-The learner must observe the sense and use of each word, and class it accordingly: many words commonly belonging to other parts of speech, are occasionally used as nouns ; as, 1. “The Ancient of days."--Bible. " Of the ancients.”-Swift. “For such impertinents." --Steele. “He is an ignorant in it.”--Id. "To the nines.”—Burns. 2. “Or any he, the proudest of thy sort."-Shak. “I am the happiest she in Kent."-Steele. “The shes of Italy."--Shak. " The hes in birds." — Bacon. 3. “ Avaunt all attitude, and stare, and start, theatric!”– Cowper. “A may-be of mercy is insufficient.”—Bridge. 4.“For the producing of real happiness.”- Crabb. “Reading, writing, and ciphering, are indispensable to civilized man.” 5. “A hereafter." Addison. “The dread of a hereafter."--Fuller. “The deep amen." -Scott. “The while."--Milton. 6. “With hark, and whoop, and wild halloo.”-Scott. “Will cuts him short with a What then?"-Addison.
Classes. Nouns are divided into two general classes : proper and common.
A proper noun is the name of some particular individual, or people, or group; as, Adam, Boston, the Hudson, the Romans, the Azores, the Alps.
A common noun is the name of a sort, kind, or class, of beings or things; as, Beast, bird, fish, insect, creatures, persons, children.
The particular classes, collective, abstract, and verbal or participial, are usually included among common nouns. The name of a thing sui generis is also called common.
A collective noun, or noun of multitude, is the name of many individuals together; as, Council, meeting, committee, flock.
An abstract noun is the name of some particular quality considered apart from its substance; as, Goodness, hardness, pride, frailty.
A verbal or participial noun is the name of some action or state of being, and is formed from a verb, like a participle, but employed as a noun; as, “The triumphing of the wicked is short."-Job xx., 5.
A thing sui generis (i.e., of its own peculiar kind), is something which is distinguished, not as an individual of a species, but as a sort by itself, without plurality in either the noun or the sort of thing; as, Galvanism, music, geometry.
OBS. 1.—The proper name of a person or place with an article prefixed, is generally used as a common noun ;; as, “He is the Cicero of his age,”—that is, the orator.-“Many a fiery Alp,”—that is, mountain : except when a common noun is understood; as, The (river) Hudson, - The [ship] Amity, -The treacherous [man] Judas.
OBS. 2.-A common noun with the definite article prefixed to it, sometimes becomes proper; as, The Park,—The Strand.
OBS. 3.—The common name of a thing or quality personified often becomes proper; as, “ “My power,' said Reason, 'is to advise, not to compel.'”—Johnson.
Modifications. Nouns have modifications of four kinds; namely, persons, numbers, genders, and cases.
Persons. Persons, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish the speaker, the hearer, and the person or thing merely spoken of.
There are three persons: the first, the second, and the third.
The first person is that which denotes the speaker or writer; as, "I Paul have written it."
The second person is that which denotes the hearer or the person addressed ; as, “ Robert, who did this?”
The third person is that which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of; as, “ James loves his book.”
OBS. 1.-In written language, the first persom denotes the writer or author; and the second, the reader or person addressed : except when the writer describes not himself, but some one else, as uttering to an other the words which he records.
OBs. 2.—The speaker seldom refers to himself by name as the speaker; consequently, nouns are rarely used in the first person; and when they are, a pronoun is usually prefixed to them. Hence some grammarians deny the first person to nouns altogether.
OBs. 3.–When a speaker or writer does not choose to declare himself in the first person, or to address his hearer or reader in the second, he speaks of both or either in the third. Thus Moses relates what Moses did, and Cæsar records the achievements of Cæsar. So Judah humbly beseeches Joseph: “Let thy serrant abide in stead of the lad a bondman to my lord.”—Gen. xliv., 33. And Abraham reverently intercedes with God: “Oh! let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak.”—Gen. xviii., 30.
OBs. 4.-When inanimate things are spoken to, they are personified ; and their names are put in the second person, because by the figure the objects are supposed to be capable of hearing.
Numbers. Numbers, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish unity and plurality.
There are two numbers; the singular and the plural.
The singular number is that which denotes but one; as, “The boy learns.”
The plural number is that which denotes more than one; as, “The boys learn.”'
The plural number of nouns is regularly formed by adding 8 or es to the singular; as, book, books ; box, boxes.
Rules for forming the Plural.
GENERAL. I.-When the singular ends in a sound which will unite with that of 8, the plural is generally formed by adding & only, and the number of syllables is not increased : as, pen, pens ; grape, grapes.
II. —But when the sound of 8 cannot be united with that of the primitive word, the plural adds 8 to final e, and es to other terminations, and forms a separate syllable: as, page, pages ; fox, foxes.